Print Download PDF

8 Brakes

8-1 Service brake, parking brake and heavy vehicle emergency brake

See also Heavy vehicle brake testing: CoF and entry certification brake test protocol and procedure

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Service brake

1. A heavy vehicle does not have a service brake.

2. A heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 does not have a service brake that is designed to act on each wheel.

3. A vehicle of class NB or NC listed in Table 8-1-2 is not fitted with an anti-lock braking system (ABS).

Parking brake

4. A heavy vehicle does not have a parking brake.

5. A parking brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 acts on less than 40% of the wheels.

6. The parking brake of a heavy vehicle or combination of vehicles cannot be applied by the driver from the normal driving position using one control only.

7. (From 27 February 2020) If requested by a vehicle inspector, a 4085D Operator statement of compliance with maintenance requirements for parking brake assemblies form is:

a) not presented, or

b) not complete, or

c) not current.

(see also technical bulletin (CoF) 9 Park brake inspection and 4085D requirements for guidance)

Emergency brake

7. A heavy vehicle does not have an emergency brake.

8. The emergency brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 that is combined with the service brake or with a parking brake that acts on the transmission does not meet the requirements of Table 8-1-3.

Hoses and other flexible tubing

9. A hose or other flexible tubing forming part of a compressed air or vacuum line does not comply with at least one of the standards in Table 8-1-4 (Note 2).

Compressed air brake systems

10. A heavy vehicle that is fitted with an air brake or a brake that is operated with the assistance of compressed air is not equipped with an air pressure gauge that indicates the pressure in a brake reservoir (Note 3).

11. The service brake circuit of an air-braked class NB or NC vehicle are not fitted with a low-pressure warning device visible and /or audible from the driver’s normal driving position.

12. An air-braked vehicle of class NB or NC listed in Table 8-1-5 does not have towing vehicle protection (Note 4).

13. The air brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 March 2007 that has a towing connection to tow an air braked trailer (or a tow connection fitted on or after 1 March 2007) is not capable of being connected to the air brake of the trailer by means of a two-line system.

14. A vehicle that is certified to the New Zealand Heavy-vehicle Brake Specification (HVBNZ) does not have:

a) a drain valve fitted to the lowest point of each brake reservoir, specifically, the reservoirs of the service brake and park brake, and including the so-called ‘wet tank’, or

b) a drain valve fitted to an air-brake reservoir or to the reservoir of auxiliary equipment is not capable of being operated by a person standing beside the vehicle, without the need for a pit or hoist, or

c) an automatic drain valve does not have a means of manual operation.

Note Operation of drain valves must not require the use of tools.

Permitted equipment

15. An air-operated device is supplied air from a service brake reservoir (ie not from a separate reservoir) unless:

a) the operation of the device requires only a small amount of compressed air and it is supplied with compressed air by a hose or pipe with an external diameter not exceeding 8mm, or

b) the device is operated only when the vehicle is stationary, or

c) the vehicle manufacturer allows it.

16. An air-operated device is connected to the air brake system without protection (Note 5).

17. A temporary stop brake:

a) cannot be operated from the driver’s normal driving position, or

b) interferes with the safe operation of the service brake or the parking brake of the vehicle, or

c) when it can be deactivated only by the driver, does not have a label permanently attached displaying the words NOT FOR PARKING, or

d) when it can be deactivated by the control system of the vehicle (eg when the engine is switched off), does not have at least one of the following:

  • a label permanently attached displaying the words NOT FOR PARKING
  • an audible warning device that operates when the driver’s door is open while the device is activated and the parking brake is not fully applied.

18. A retarder or engine brake fitted on or after 1 March 2007 does not have a control that can be operated from the driver’s normal driving position.

19. A trailer - brake hand control does not:

a) apply the service brakes of the trailer(s), or

b) automatically return to its original position.

Prohibited equipment

20. A heavy vehicle has a device fitted that allows the driver to adjust the service brake force distribution between the axles or between the vehicles that are used in combination.

21. A service brake has more than one control (other than a separate trailer hand brake control or a vehicle converted to dual steering)

Condition

22. Refer to general vehicle pages.

23. A brake is not capable of being easily adjusted.

24. An adjustment indicator rod is:

a) missing, or

b) seized.

25. A brake component has excessive travel or stroke (eg as shown by an adjustment indicator rod or similar device).

26. A brake actuator (including a slack adjuster and associated components):

a) is insecure, or

b) is leaking air, or

c) is cracked, or

d) does not operate, or

e) is excessively worn or corroded, or

f) is not seated correctly.

27. A treadle valve, brake valve, reservoir, compressor or fluid pump:

a) is missing, or

b) is insecure, or

c) is cracked, or

d) is leaking air, or

e) does not operate or operates incorrectly, eg due to corrosion, damage,incorrect fitment or excessive travel, or

f) contains excessive amounts of foreign fluids (eg water or oil).

28. A compressor or pump drive belt is:

a) insecure, or

b) damaged, or

c) significantly deteriorated.

29. A brake lining or brake pad:

a) has obviously been replaced on or after 1 March 2007 without all the linings or pads on the axle being replaced at the same time, or

b) is obviously of a different make, type or grade from another on the same axle.

30. A required service brake reservoir air pressure gauge is not readily visible to the driver (day and night) from the driver’s normal driving position (Note 6).

31. An air brake coupling device fitted to a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 March 2007 or fitted to a vehicle on or after that date:

a) is not robust, durable, or suitable for automotive application, or

b) is unable to prevent the incorrect connection of the control and supply lines, or

c) adversely affects the performance of the brake of either the towing or towed vehicle(s), or

d) does not have an effective break-away function, or

e) the coupling is not fitted as close as practicable to:

i. the centre-line of the vehicle, or

ii. the rear of the towing vehicle, or

iii. the towing connection by which the towed and towing vehicles are connected.

32. A brake pipe (including connections) is:

a) leaking, or

b) insecure, or

c) deformed from its original shape, or

d) chafed, or

e) corrosion damaged, eg there are signs of pitting or a noticeable increase in the pipe’s diameter, or

f) damaged so the cross-sectional area is reduced, or

g) fouled by moving parts.

33. A hose or plastic brake pipe (including connections):

a) is leaking, or

b) is insecure, or

c) bulges under pressure, or

d) is twisted or stretched, or

e) is cracked or chafed, eg the reinforcement cords are exposed, or

f) has metal components that are excessively corroded, or

g) fouled by moving parts.

34. A coiled nylon brake hose (suzie coil) does not have:

a) a straight hose section at the connector that is at least 50mm long, or

b) a spring guard adjacent to the end fittings capable of supporting and protecting the brake hose.

  • While spring guards can vary in design and length they must remain in good condition, ie not have broken or looped coils.

35. An ABS plug or socket (see Figure 8-1-5)

a) is missing, or

b) has damaged, displaced or corroded pins, or

c) is otherwise broken or defective.

  • Dismantling of the plug or socket is not required, visual inspection only.
Performance
Service brake (Note 7)

36. The service brake cannot be applied in a controlled and progressive manner.

37. When the service brake is applied and without assistance from the engine or other retarders:

a) the vehicle does not stop within seven metres from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 50%) for a vehicle which has a service brake designed to act on at least four wheels, or

b) the vehicle does not stop within nine metres from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 40%) for a vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 February 1977 which has a service brake designed to act on fewer than four wheels, or

c) the vehicle does not stop within 20m from a speed of 30 km/h (average braking efficiency of 18%) or equivalent efficiency at its maximum speed for a vehicle manufactured before 31 December 1918 and not capable of exceeding a speed of 30km/h.

38. When the service brake is applied:

a) the vehicle vibrates under braking to the extent that the control of the vehicle is adversely affected, or

b) the brake fails to release immediately after the brake pedal has been released, or

c) the directional control is affected (eg swerving to one side, or the brakes on one side apply more slowly than the other side), or

d) the brake balance, at any time above the threshold value, varies by more than 30% between wheels on a common axle.

39. The ABS or brake system warning lamp or self-check system, if fitted, indicates a defect in the ABS or brake system (does not apply to brake pad wear warning systems).

40. An ABS system is inoperative (Note 11).

Parking brake (Note 7)

41. When the parking brake is applied:

a) the vehicle does not stop within 18 m from a speed of 30 km/h (average brake efficiency of 20%), or

b) it does not hold all the wheels on a common axle stationary against attempts to drive the vehicle away.

42. The parking brake is unusually difficult to apply or release.

Compressed air brake systems

43. Reservoir capacity: With the air pressure in the braking system at its maximum operational pressure as specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer and the compressor stopped, the reserve of compressed air does not provide:

a) for a combination of heavy vehicles equipped with a towing vehicle protection valve (tractor protection valve) on the towing vehicle and an emergency or a breakaway valve on the trailer(s):

i. three full service brake applications with full release of the brakes before the low-pressure warning device operates, or before the emergency valve operates, and

ii. two full applications with full release of the brakes after the low-pressure warning device operates, or

b) For a single class NB or NC vehicle that complies with a Australian Design Rule 35 or European brake standard:

i. three full service brake applications, with full release of the brakes after each application, before the low-pressure warning device operates, and

ii. two full applications, with full release of the brakes, after the low-pressure warning device operates, or

c) For all other vehicles:

i. five full service brake applications, with full release of the brakes after each application, before the low-pressure warning device operates, and

ii. two full applications, with full release of the brakes, after the low-pressure warning device operates.

  • A full service-brake application is considered to be made when the brake pedal is fully depressed and there is no further movement of the brake actuators.

44. Compressor capacity: At the maximum governed speed, or where the engine is not governed at a speed determined by the vehicle inspector, the compressor is not capable of raising the air pressure in the braking system to the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer, in the following times:

a) in not more than three minutes, starting from the pressure at which:

i. the low pressure warning device ceases to operate, or:

ii. the pressure at which the emergency brake operates, and

b) in not more than 90 seconds, starting from the pressure to which the brake system falls from the maximum specified operating pressure as a result of fully applying and releasing the service brakes:

i. five times for a single class NB or NC vehicle, or a heavy vehicle combination without a towing vehicle protection valve (tractor protection valve) and an emergency or breakaway valve on the trailer(s), or

ii. three times for heavy vehicle combinations with a towing vehicle protection valve (tractor protection valve) and an emergency or breakaway valve on the trailer(s).

45. A service brake reservoir air-pressure gauge does not operate correctly.

46. A required low-pressure warning device does not give a continuous signal, visible or audible, that clearly indicates to the driver when the pressure in any of the service brake circuits is below the minimum safe operating pressure unless the parking brake is fully applied or an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position (Note 8).

47. A required towing vehicle protection valve does not operate.

48. A required drain valve cannot be operated manually.

  • Operation of drain valves must not require the use of tools.

49. A class NB or NC vehicle has more than one air service brake circuit and there is no protection between those circuits (Note 9).

50. On a vehicle that is certified to the New Zealand Heavy-vehicle Brake Specification (HVBNZ) the simultaneous application of the service brake and the spring parking brake results in the compounding of the two individual brake forces on that axle.

Modification and certification.

51. A vehicle in Table 8-1-6:

a) has not been certified as required by that table, or

b) has been modified so that recertification is required.

52. A modification that affects the brake system has not been inspected and certified by a heavy vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excepted from the requirement for heavy vehicle specialist certification (Table 8-1-7), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Note 1 Definitions

Air brake means a brake, the operation of which requires the use of compressed air.

Anti-lock braking system (ABS) means a device that senses that one or more of the wheels is starting to lock-up during braking and regulates the braking forces automatically and effectively to prevent it.

Auxiliary brake means a device, other than a service brake or parking brake, fitted to a vehicle to enable the driver to control its speed, whether or not it is suitable to stop the vehicle.

Dedicated combination means a combination of vehicles certified for use in combination where both vehicles are affixed with a plate clearly and indelibly marked with the VIN or chassis number of the other vehicle.

Emergency brake in relation to any vehicle, or combination of vehicles, means the system that makes it possible to undertake a controlled stop of the vehicle or combination in the event of the failure of the service brake. (Emergency brakes must act as directly as practicable without any interposition of any differential gearing.)

Foundation brake means the basic brake assembly fitted to each axle or road wheel which produces the braking force necessary to bring a vehicle to a stop; and includes the complete drum or disc brake.

Hydraulic brake means a brake that utilises hydraulic pressure to activate the foundation brake, whether its operation is assisted by compressed air, vacuum or any other means.

Modify means to change the vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment; but does not include repair.

Parking brake means a brake that is designed for keeping the vehicle stationary, and that is readily applicable and capable of remaining applied for an indefinite period without further attention. (Hydraulic locking devices are not acceptable as parking brakes. The parking brake must be applied by solely mechanical means.)

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment; and includes the replacement of damaged or worn structures, systems, components or equipment with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Reservoir for the purpose of the Heavy-vehicle Brakes Rule, means a device designed and constructed to store fluid, compressed air, compressed gas, or vacuum; and does not include pipes, valves, hoses, or booster cylinders operated by vacuum or compressed air.

Service brake means a brake for intermittent use that is designed for the purpose of slowing down and stopping the vehicle.

Trailer brake hand control means a hand-operated control capable of applying the service brake of the trailer or trailers.

Wheel means a rotating load-carrying member between the tyre and the hub, which usually consists of two major parts, the rim and the wheel disc, which may be manufactured as one part, or permanently attached to each other, or detachable from each other; and includes the tyre fitted to the rim.

Note 2

For in-service inspections standards compliance must be verified when there is reason to believe a hose or flexible tubing does not comply or when it forms part of a brake modification or repair.

Note 3

A vehicle may be fitted with more than one gauge, but only one gauge that indicates the pressure in one service brake reservoir is necessary. A gauge fitted to a supply reservoir (wet tank) cannot be used to indicate the pressure in a service brake reservoir.

Note 4

Towing vehicle protection means a means by which the air brake system of a towing vehicle is protected from loss of air pressure in the event of failure of the trailer’s brake system, or when the trailer becomes disconnected from the towing vehicle.

Note 5

Protection, in this case, means a system to prevent the operation or failure of the device lowering the pressure in any service brake reservoir below the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer or, if this information is not available, two-thirds of the maximum operational pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer. (Air auxiliaries have to be inspected at Entry certification however they do not have to be tested for in-service inspection provided:

  • they have been fitted as standard equipment by the vehicle manufacturer or their approved New Zealand agent, or
  • they are connected to an auxiliary take-off point provided by the vehicle manufacturer).
Note 6

A pressure gauge must indicate the pressure in pressure units, or on a coloured scale, or in an equivalent way. The gauge display must be visible, though it may be multi-functional, ie have the ability to display various items including the air pressure.

Note 7

For the purpose of testing the brakes, the vehicle shall be presented with a load of at least 60 per cent of the road legal limit, or be subject to equivalent load simulation (refer to CoF and entry certification brake test protocol and procedure for specific requirements).

Note 8

Where the minimum safe operating pressure is not specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer, the minimum safe operating pressure is taken as 50% of the correctly adjusted cut-out pressure for the compressor or governor.

Note 9

Protection, in this case, means a system to prevent a brake failure that lowers the pressure in one service brake circuit below the minimum safe operating pressure from lowering the pressure in any other service brake circuit below the minimum safe operating pressure or pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer.

Note 10

A supply reservoir (wet tank) is a brake reservoir from which the service brake reservoirs receive compressed air.

Note 11

The ABS system must be cycled, this can be done by shutting down the vehicle engine and returning the ignition to 'on' only, observe ABS warning light operation and listen for a clicking or chuffing sound from the modulator or valve unit.

  

Check wheel sensors and pulse rings (if visible) and for trapped wiring or damaged air lines.

Table 8-1-2. Class NB and NC vehicles that must be fitted with an anti-lock braking system1

Class NB and NC vehicles

Imported vehicles

  • operated in a combination with a GM2>39 ≤44 t, and
  • first registered in New Zealand after 1 March 2007 and before 1 July 2008, EXCEPT FOR

– vehicles that comply with European standards3 UNLESS fitted OE with ABS, and

– logging vehicles UNLESS fitted OE with ABS, and

– vehicles that comply with HVBS(2) or HVBC(2)

Imported vehicles

  • fitted with a towing connection for towing a heavy trailer, and
  • first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2008, EXCEPT FOR

– vehicles that comply with European standards3 UNLESS fitted OE with ABS, and

– logging vehicles UNLESS fitted OE with ABS

1 The OE fitting of an anti-lock braking system (ABS) indicates that it was probably required by the standard. The removal of an ABS is a modification and must be HVS certified.

2 GM means gross mass (see definitions in the Introduction)

3 A vehicle that complies with European standards is identified as HVBE on the Certificate of Loading. Refer to Table 3-1-2-1 of the LATIS agent's manual.

Table 8-1-3. Emergency brake requirements for class NB and NC vehicles

All vehicles first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 except those in the right hand column

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand 1 November 1990 to 31 December 1994 when the parking brake acts on the transmission and brakes not modified since manufacture

Full dual-circuit service brake1, and

a) one of those circuits activates the brake on all the front wheels and the other circuit activates the brake on all the rear wheels, or

b) each circuit activates the brake on at least one-third of the wheels2.

EITHER

A full dual-circuit service brake1, and

a) one of those circuits activates the brake on all the front wheels and the other circuit activates the brake on all the rear wheels, or

b) each circuit activates the brake on at least one-third of the wheels2

OR

A dual-line service brake that is fitted with a tandem/dual master cylinder

OR

A single-line hydraulic service brake that is divided into two independent circuits through and excess flow-prevention valve, and the brake fluid reservoir is fitted with a low-level warning device.

1 For a hydraulic system, this means a dual or tandem master cylinder.

2 Both circuits together must activate the brake on all the wheels.

Table 8-1-4. Approved vehicle standards for brake hoses and flexible tubing1

All vehicles

SAE J844: Nonmetallic Air Brake System Tubing

SAE J1394: Metric Nonmetallic Air Brake System Tubing

SAE J1402: Automotive Air Brake Hose and Hose Assemblies

SAE J1403: Vacuum Brake Hose (supersedes SAE 40 R3)

British Standard AU 110: 1965, Specification for rubber hoses and hose assemblies for automotive air pressure brakes systems (withdrawn, revised)

British Standard AU 109: 1965, Specification for vacuum brake hose (heavy duty) of oil-resistant rubber (withdrawn)

Japan Industrial Standard D2606-80: Rubber hose for automotive air brake system

DIN 74324-1: 1996, Air braking systems – Thermoplastic tubing – Requirements and tests

DIN 73378: 1996, Polyamide tubing for motor vehicles

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 106: Brake hoses

SAE 40 R2 (A-E)

SAE 70 R3H

SAE 40 R3 L

SAE 40 R3 H

SAE R3 M

Nylon tubing of approved makes: Anson Plastics, Nylex, TWL

1 Hoses and tubing may comply with a more recent version of these standards if the safety performance of the vehicle is not adversely affected.

Refer also Figure 8-1-4.

Table 8-1-5. Air-braked class NB and NC vehicles that must have towing vehicle protection

Air-braked class NB and NC vehicles

Operated in a combination with a GM1>39 ≤44 t, and

  • first registered in New Zealand after 1 March 2007 and before 1 July 2008, or
  • modified after 1 March 2007 and before 1 July2008.

Fitted with a towing connection for towing a heavy trailer, and

  • first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2008, or
  • modified on or after 1 July 2008.

1GM means gross mass (see definitions in the Introduction).

Table 8-1-6. Heavy vehicle brakes: certification requirements for class NB and NC vehicles

Conditions applying

Requirements

Operated in a combination with a GM2>39 ≤44 t, and

  • first registered in New Zealand before 1 March 2007, and
  • not modified on or after 1 March 2007 (includes vehicles modified before 1 March 2007)

Existing applicable certification:

  • IHVBS(1) Interim Performance Specification for Heavy Vehicle Braking, or
  • IHVBS(2) Heavy vehicle braking specification of 6 December 1998, or
  • HVBC(1) Heavy Vehicle Brake Code, First Edition 1991, or
  • HVBC(2) Heavy vehicle brake code, second edition

Modified3 in New Zealand 1 March 2007–30 June 2008, and

  • operated in a combination with a GM2>39 ≤44 t.

Applicable certification:

  • IHVBS(2) Heavy vehicle braking specification of 6 December 1998, or
  • HVBC(2) Heavy vehicle brake code, second edition, or
  • HVBNZ New Zealand heavy vehicle brake specification1

Modified3 in New Zealand 1 March 2007–30 June 2008

Heavy vehicle specialist certification

Modified3 in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2008, and with a towing connection for towing a heavy trailer

Applicable certification:

  • HVBNZ New Zealand heavy vehicle brake specification1

Modified3 in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2008, and without towing connection for towing a heavy trailer.

Applicable certification:

  • HVBNZ New Zealand heavy vehicle brake specification1, or
  • 6.1(2)(b) of Heavy Vehicle Brake Rule (stopping tests)1

1 Except that a vehicle that originally complied with one of the approved vehicle standards for brakes and that is modified by fitting an additional axle, removing an axle, replacing an axle with one that is not of the same make and model, or replacing the brake of an axle with one that is not of the same make and model may be modified so as to continue to meet the technical and performance requirements of the approved vehicle standard for brakes with which it originally complied. (A heavy vehicle specialist certifier is required to certify compliance).

2GM means gross mass (see definitions in the Introduction).

3Modified in this case means to change the vehicle or its braking system from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment that may affect the brakes and includes, but is not limited to:

  • altering a vehicle’s wheelbase
  • fitting a tow connection to tow a heavy vehicle.
Table 8-1-7. Modifications that do not require HVS certification

Fitting of or modification to:

HVS certification is not required provided that:

Aftermarket brake pedal pads or covers

  • the fitment of the pads or covers does not:

– necessitate any modification to the pedal arm, or

– have any effect on the operation of other pedals.

Aftermarket or custom brake pedal extensions (for unusually short people)

the extension:

– does not compromise the strength of the original pedal, and

– is sufficiently strong to withstand emergency braking loads.

Additional brake pedals (for driving school vehicles)

  • the operation of the primary brake pedal is not affected, and
  • no modifications to the primary brake pedal or any other part of the primary brake system has occurred.

Replacement of an air brake coupling device

  • the coupling replaces:

– glad hands with a duomatic or triomatic, or

– a duomatic with a triomatic.

Fitting an air brake coupling device

  • the coupling and associated air lines utilise the tractor protection valve fitted by the vehicle manufacturer

Fitting of a valve to allow the spring parking brake of any towed trailer(s) to operate when the parking brake of the powered vehicle is applied.

  • the fitting of the valve is carried out in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations

Fitting of air auxiliary devices

  • the air auxiliaries:

- have been fitted as standard equipment by the vehicle manufacturer or their approved New Zealand agent, or

- they are connected to an auxiliary take-off point provided by the vehicle manufacturer, or

- the supply line has an outside diameter no greater than 8 mm.

Air fittings (eg a connector, T-piece or an air reservoir drain valve)

  • the air fitting:

- does not affect the performance of the braking system, and

- is suitable for the intended purpose, and

- is unmodified (ie not welded, drilled or tapped), and

- is installed correctly to unmodified components.

Any modifications for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Figure 8-1-4. Brake hoses and flexible tubing information.

Refer also to Table 8-1-4.

hv.brake hoses and flaexible tubing info

Figure 8-1-5. ABS visual inspection guide

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirements
Service brake

1. A heavy vehicle must have a service brake that acts on each wheel, except for a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 November 1990 which may have a service brake that is designed to act on those wheels as determined by the vehicle manufacturer.

2. A vehicle of class NB or NC listed in Table 8-1-2 must be fitted with an anti-lock braking system (ABS).

Parking brake

3. A heavy vehicle must have a parking brake.

4. A parking brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 must act on at least 40% of the wheels.

5. The parking brake of a heavy vehicle, whether in combination or not, must be able to be applied by the driver from the normal driving position using one control only.

Emergency brake

6. A heavy vehicle must have an emergency brake which may be combined with the parking or service brake.

7. The emergency brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 that is combined with the service brake or the parking brake acts on the transmission must meet the requirements of Table 8-1-3.

Hoses and other flexible tubing

8. A hose or other flexible tubing forming part of the compressed air or vacuum lines of a vehicle must comply with one or more of the approved vehicle standards in Table 8-1-4.

Compressed air brake systems

9. An air-braked class NB or NC vehicle must be fitted with one (or more) pressure gauge(s), readily visible to the driver at all times from the driver’s normal driving position, to indicate to the driver the pressure in the brake reservoir(s).

10. An air-braked class NB or NC vehicle must be fitted with a device that provides a continuous signal that is clearly visible or audible from the driver’s normal driving position if the pressure in one or more of the service brake reservoirs is below the minimum safe operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer. An audible signal may be rendered inoperative only while the parking brake is fully applied or an automatic transmission is in the park position.

11. An air-braked vehicle of class NB or NC listed in Table 8-1-5 must have towing vehicle protection.

12. The air brake of a heavy vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 March 2007 or modified on or after that date that can be operated in a combination vehicle must be capable of being connected to the air brake of the other vehicle by means of a two-line system.

13. A two-line system must consist of:

a) a supply line that supplies compressed air from the towing to the towed vehicle, and

b) a control line that supplies a control signal, in the form of modulated air pressure, to regulate the intensity of the brake application on the towed vehicle or vehicles.

14. A vehicle that is certified to the New Zealand Heavy-vehicle Brake Specification (HVBNZ) must:

a) have a drain valve fitted to the lowest point of each brake reservoir, specifically, the reservoirs of the service brake and park brake, and including the so-called ‘wet tank’, and

b) a drain valve fitted to an air-brake reservoir or to the reservoir of auxiliary equipment must be capable of being operated by a person standing beside the vehicle, without the need for a pit or hoist, and

c) an automatic drain valve must have a means of manual operation.

Permitted equipment

15. An air-operated device may be connected to the air brake only if:

a) the brake is protected so that the operation or failure of the device cannot lower the pressure in any service or parking brake reservoir(s) below the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer, or, if such information is not available, two-thirds of its maximum operational pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer, and

b) the supply to the device is drawn from a reservoir separate from the service brake or parking brake reservoir(s) supplying the brake, except that an air-operated device may be supplied with compressed air from the service brake or parking brake reservoir(s) if:

i. the operation of the device requires only a small amount of compressed air and it is supplied with compressed air by a hose or pipe with an external diameter not exceeding 8mm, or

ii. the device is operated only when the vehicle is stationary, or

iii. the vehicle manufacturer allows it.

16. A vehicle may be fitted with a device (temporary stop brake) that can be operated by the driver from the driver’s normal driving position to keep the vehicle stationary temporarily, provided that the device does not prevent the safe operation of the service brake or the parking brake of the vehicle.

17. A temporary stop brake may:

a) apply the service brake, either partially or fully, on some or all of the vehicle’s wheels, or

b) prevent the release of the service brake, when applied by the driver, on some or all of the vehicle’s wheels.

18. A temporary stop brake that can only be deactivated by the driver must have a label permanently attached displaying the words NOT FOR PARKING.

19. A temporary stop brake that can be deactivated by the control system of the vehicle must have:

a) a label permanently attached displaying the words NOT FOR PARKING, or

b) an audible warning device that operates when the driver’s door is open while the device is activated and the parking brake is not fully applied.

20. A vehicle may be fitted with a retarder or engine brake to control the speed of the vehicle.

21. A retarder or engine brake fitted on or after 1 March 2007 must have a control that can be operated from the driver’s normal driving position.

22. A powered vehicle that is operated as a combination vehicle may be fitted with a trailer-brake hand control that must be capable of applying the service brake of the trailer or trailers in a progressive manner; and must automatically return to its original position.

23. A powered vehicle with a hydraulic service brake may be fitted with an additional rear axle that has an air operated disc brake as a service brake.

24. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with a warning system that is part of, or associated with, the use of a brake component or system.

Prohibited equipment

25. A heavy vehicle must not have a device fitted by which the driver would be able to adjust the service brake force distribution between the axles or between the vehicles that are used in combination.

26. The service brake of a vehicle must not have more than one control (other than a separate trailer hand brake control, or a vehicle converted to dual steering in which case the service brake control assembly must be replicated on the other side of the vehicle.)

Condition

27. A brake must be easily adjustable to compensate for wear or have a means of automatic adjustment and be in good condition.

28. The brake friction material of a brake must be:

a) secure, and

b) in good condition, and

c) free of defects that could noticeably and adversely affect the performance of the brake.

29. When a brake lining or a brake pad on an axle is replaced:

a) all the brake linings or brake pads on that axle must be replaced, and

b) all replacement brake linings and brake pads on that axle must be of the same make, type and grade.

30. A pressure gauge must indicate the pressure in pressure units, or on a coloured scale, or in an equivalent way.

31. A towing vehicle and an air-braked towed vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 March 2007 or modified on or after that date must be fitted with a coupling device to connect the air brake to, and disconnect it from, that of the other vehicle, and that device must:

a) be robust, durable, and suitable for automotive application, and

b) prevent, either through the design of the coupling device or through its installation, the incorrect connection of the control and supply lines, and

c) not adversely affect the performance of the brake of either the towing or towed vehicle(s), and

d) have an effective break-away function.

32. The socket of a coupling device must be fitted as close as practicable to:

a) the centre-line of the vehicle, and

b) the towing connection by which the towed and towing vehicles are connected.

Performance

33. A brake test that verifies that a vehicle complies with performance requirements must be carried out, and the test results evaluated, in accordance with methods and conditions approved by the NZTA by notice in the New Zealand gazette.

34. The service brake on a heavy vehicle must be able to be applied in a controlled and progressive manner.

35. Every brake which simultaneously applies the braking pressure on two wheels with a common axis must be adjusted or fitted so that the braking effect is approximately the same on both wheels when the brake is applied by the driver, except if the braking effect is modulated by a device to prevent the wheels locking or to improve stability (eg ABS or EBS).

36. When the brake on a heavy vehicle is applied:

a) the vehicle or its controls must not vibrate to the extent that control of the vehicle is adversely affected, and

b) the braking effort on each wheel must provide stable and efficient braking without adverse effect on the directional control of the vehicle, and

c) if the vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock braking system (ABS), the vehicle’s rotationally-sensed wheels must not lock, when the speed of the vehicle is above the ABS-activation parameters set by the vehicle manufacturer.

37. A brake warning system, if fitted on a heavy vehicle must function correctly (does not apply to a brake pad wear system ).

Service brake

38. The service brake of a vehicle that is operated on a hard, dry, level surface that is free of loose material, and without assistance from the compression of the engine or other retarders must operate in the following manner:

a) a service brake that is designed to act on four or more wheels must stop the vehicle within a distance of seven metres from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 50%).

b) a service brake that is designed to act on fewer than four wheels on a vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 February 1977 must stop the vehicle within a distance of 9m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 40%).

c) A service brake on a heavy vehicle manufactured before 31 December 1918 not capable of exceeding a speed of 30km/h must stop the vehicle within a distance of 20m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency 18%) or equivalent brake efficiency at its maximum speed.

Parking brake

39. A parking brake of a vehicle or vehicle combination that is operated on a hard, dry, level surface that is free of loose material, and without assistance from the compression of the engine or other retarders must operate in the following manner:

  • Stop the vehicle within 18m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 20%).
Compressed air brake systems

40. Reservoir capacity: With the air pressure in the braking system at its maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer and with the compressor stopped, the reserve of compressed air of the braking system must provide a minimum of:

a) For a combination of heavy vehicles equipped with a towing vehicle protection valve (tractor protection valve) on the towing vehicle and an emergency or break-away valve on the trailer(s):

three full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low pressure warning device or emergency valve operates, and two further full applications after the low pressure warning device operates, or

b) In the case of a single vehicle that complies with Australian Design Rule 35 or a European brake standard:

three full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low-pressure warning operates, and two further full applications after the low pressure warning device operates, or

c) For all other vehicles:

five full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low-pressure warning device operates, and two further full applications after the low pressure warning device operates.

  • A full service-brake application is considered to be made when all the brake actuators on the vehicle or combination are operated to apply their associated brakes in an effective manner.)

41. Compressor capacity: At the maximum governed speed, or where the engine is not governed at a speed determined by the vehicle inspector, the compressor shall be capable of raising the pressure in the braking system to the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer in the following times:

a) in not more than 3 minutes, starting from the pressure at which the low-pressure warning ceases to operate or, when the emergency braking operates, and

b) in not more than 90 seconds, starting from the pressure to which the brake system falls from the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer as a result of fully applying and releasing the service brakes three times as permitted in Summary of legislation 40 above, or five times in all other cases.

42. The compressor must supply only the brake reservoirs with compressed air until the pressure in those reservoirs reaches the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the brake manufacturer, or, if such information is not available, two-thirds of the maximum operational pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the brake manufacturer.

43. An air brake must have priority of supply of compressed air from the brake reservoir.

44. For a class NB or NC vehicle that has more than one compressed air service or parking brake circuit, a failure in any service or parking brake circuit that lowers the pressure in any service or parking brake reservoir below the pressure at which the low pressure warning device starts to operate, must not reduce the pressure in any other service or parking brake reservoir below that pressure.

45. A vehicle that is certified to the New Zealand Heavy-vehicle Brake Specification (HVBNZ) and fitted with a spring-operated parking brake that is normally released by compressed air, the simultaneous application of the service brake and parking brake must not result in a compounded brake force on the axle or axles on which the parking brake acts. This may be referred to as an ‘anti-compounding’ requirement.

Modification and certification

46. The brakes fitted to a heavy vehicle must comply with the certification requirements in Table 8-1-6.

47. A modification that may affect the brake system must be inspected and certified by a heavy vehicle specialist certifier of category HVEK or HMKD, unless the vehicle:

a) is excepted from the requirement for heavy vehicle specialist certification (Table 8-1-7), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 October 2020 (see amendment details).