In-service certification (WoF and CoF)

Correct as at 24th April 2019. It may be superseded at any time.

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Introduction

1 Purpose and scope

The NZ Transport Agency Waka Kotahi (NZTA) has prepared this manual to assist vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations achieve correct and consistent standards of in-service vehicle inspection and certification (WoF and CoF).

The purpose of this manual is to enhance the safety of in-service vehicles in New Zealand by conveying to vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations the conditions of their appointment and the requirements for the inspection and certification of vehicles for operation in service.

The scope of this manual is to set out the statutory requirements for all in-service vehicle inspections. No attempt has been made to give details on how to inspect a vehicle, a matter best addressed by training programmes.

Amendments to this manual will be issued from time to time as inspection requirements change and improvements are made. Details of amendments are available from the Amendments tab on the horizontal menu. Suggestions for improvement should be made using the feedback button found on every page.

2 Overview of the manual

How is the manual structured?

The manual is divided into ten vehicle-type sections plus technical bulletins and this introduction.

What information is in each part of the manual?

1. Introduction

The introduction is relevant to all vehicles requiring in-service inspection and certification (WoF and CoF). It explains the duties and responsibilities of the inspecting organisation and vehicle inspector, the inspection and certification process, complaints procedures, inspection premises and equipment, and the appointment of vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations. It also includes definitions and abbreviations, and sample certification documents. Improvement suggestions can be made by clicking the 'Send us your feedback' button found on every page.

2. General vehicles (WoF)

This section contains the WoF inspection requirements for light vehicles of classes LE that do not have motorcycle controls, MA, MB, MC, MD1 and NA.

Many of these requirements are general requirements applicable to other types and classes of vehicles. They have been copied into other relevant sections as outlined below.

3. Heavy vehicles (CoF)

This section contains the CoF inspection requirements for heavy vehicles of classes NB and NC. They consist of general requirements applicable to all vehicles and additional or replacement requirements that apply specifically to heavy vehicles.

4. Light PSVs (CoF)

This section contains the CoF inspection requirements for light passenger service vehicles (PSVs) of classes LE that do not have motorcycle controls, MA, MB, MC, MD1 and MD2. They consist of general requirements applicable to all vehicles and additional or replacement requirements that apply specifically to light PSVs.

This section also contains the transport service licence (TSL) requirements for light vehicles of the above classes used in a rental service or vehicle recovery service.

5. Heavy PSVs (CoF)

This section contains the CoF inspection requirements for heavy passenger service vehicles (PSVs) of classes MD3, MD4 and ME, and any NB and NC class vehicles used as PSVs. They consist of general requirements applicable to all vehicles, requirements applicable to all heavy vehicles and additional or replacement requirements that apply specifically to heavy PSVs.

6. Motorcycles (WoF and CoF)

This section covers the WoF and CoF inspection requirements for vehicles of classes LC, LD and LE that have motorcycle controls. For CoF, this section also contains additional requirements for these vehicles used in a passenger service or rental service.

7 General trailers (WoF)

This section covers the WoF inspection requirements for light trailers of classes TA and TB. They consist of general requirements applicable to all trailers.

8. Heavy trailers (CoF)

This section covers the CoF inspection requirements for heavy trailers of classes TC and TD. They consist of general requirements applicable to all trailers and additional or replacement requirements that apply specifically to heavy trailers.

9. Forklifts (WoF)

This section contains the WoF inspection requirements for light and heavy forklifts which must meet WoF requirements as far as practicable for their design and type.

10. Tractors (WoF)

This section contains the WoF inspection requirements for light and heavy tractors and self-propelled machines used in agricultural, land management and roading operations.

11. Unclassified vehicles (WoF)

This section contains the WoF inspection requirements for light and heavy unclassified vehicles which must meet WoF requirements as far as practicable for their design and type. It includes heavy vehicles exempt from CoF, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and some trailers. It does not include vehicles already covered in the Forklifts and Tractors sections.

12. Technical bulletins (general)

These contain detailed requirements or helpful information which is not appropriate to put into the vehicle sections of the manual. Examples are processes/requirements for seatbelt replacements and jacking points for correctly checking suspension ball joints. These bulletins cover WoF vehicles and vehicles in general.

13. Technical bulletins (CoF)

These bulletins are similar to the Technical bulletins (general), but cover information specific to vehicles operated on a CoF.

'WoF only’ inspecting organisations

An inspecting organisation appointed to carry out WoF inspections only will only need to view the general vehicle pages, motorcycle pages, general trailer pages, forklift pages, tractor pages, unclassified vehicle pages and technical bulletin (general) pages.

'CoF only' inspecting organisations

An inspecting organisation appointed to carry out CoF inspections only will need to view the pages for motorcycles, heavy vehicles, light PSVs, heavy PSVs, heavy trailers, technical bulletins (general) and technical bulletins (CoF).

Note that some pages will refer to general vehicles or general trailers pages where appropriate.

‘WoF and CoF’ inspecting organisations

An inspecting organisation appointed to carry out WoF and CoF inspections will need to view all the WoF and CoF pages. These are the same pages as for 'WoF only', but with additional pages for heavy vehicles, light PSVs, heavy PSVs, heavy trailers and technical bulletins (CoF).

How to use the manual

WoF inspections
  • For a WoF inspection on a car, for example, refer only to the general vehicle pages.
CoF inspections

Many CoF requirements are the same as the WoF requirements and have been copied into the relevant CoF sections. Where requirements differ:

  • For a light PSV, refer to the light PSV pages and link to the general vehicle pages if so indicated on the light PSV page
  • For a heavy truck, refer to the heavy vehicle pages and link to the general vehicle pages if so indicated on the heavy vehicle page
  • For a heavy PSV, refer to the heavy PSV pages and link to the heavy vehicle pages and/or the general vehicle pages if so indicated on the heavy PSV page.
Layout of manual pages

For each vehicle component, the inspection requirement pages are generally divided into two tabs, one for reasons for rejection, the other for summary of legislation. These tabs list the requirements under ‘mandatory equipment’, ‘permitted equipment’, ‘condition’, ‘performance’ and ‘modifications’ (and ‘repairs’ for heavy vehicles on a CoF).

The Reasons for rejection column specifies the vehicle defects that must result in the vehicle being rejected for a WoF or CoF. The condition and performance reasons for rejection apply to mandatory, permitted, and modified equipment, unless otherwise stated. NZTA has imposed these requirements in accordance with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, section 2.3(1). This column also contains notes for additional guidance, as referred to in the two columns.

The Summary of legislation column summarises the legislation that is relevant to in-service inspection and certification.
Many vehicle components have an additional one or two tabs:

  • Tables and images contain tables and illustrations referred to in the Reasons for rejection and Summary of legislation tabs.
  • Technical information contains additional relevant information that is not part of the manual, but which may be useful information, such as NZTA pamphlets.
  • The figure below illustrates the typical layout of pages in the manual. Greater detail is given in the Vehicle inspection portal user guide and the Vehicle inspection portal quick reference guide.

5

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

3 Inspection and certification process

 

Overview – steps in the inspection and certification process

In order to inspect and certify a vehicle for a WoF or CoF the vehicle inspector and inspecting organisation must take the following steps:

1. Know the vehicle inspector’s and inspecting organisation’s responsibilities.

The legal responsibilities are listed in section 3.1. The vehicle inspector and inspecting organisation must read these and understand them.

2. Identify the vehicle class.

A table of vehicle classes is given in section section 3.2.

3. Identify whether the vehicle requires a WoF or CoF inspection.

Section 3.3 shows a list of vehicles that require a WoF, a list of vehicles that require a CoF and a list of vehicles that do not require a WoF or CoF.

4. Establish whether the vehicle may be inspected for the purposes of issuing a WoF or a CoF.

The vehicle must meet a number of criteria before inspection. These are listed in section 3.4.

5. Establish whether the vehicle complies.

Section 3.5 explains how to use this manual in order to determine the vehicle’s compliance with the requirements.

6. Complete the inspection documentation (checksheet).

Section 3.6 explains the requirements for handling and completing checksheets.

7. Record the inspection outcome (‘determination’).

Section 3.7 explains how to record WoF and CoF inspection results into the NZTA computer system (WoF Online and LATIS).

8. Issue the WoF label, CoF label, or temporary permit.

Section 3.8 explains the requirements when issuing the WoF label, CoF label, or temporary permit and attaching it to the vehicle.

9. Collect fees.

Section 3.9 lists the requirements for the inspecting organisation when charging and collecting fees.

3.10 Operating a vehicle without a current WoF or CoF.

Section 3.10 explains the vehicle operator’s responsibilities when operating a vehicle without a current WoF or CoF.

3-1 Duties and responsibilities


3.1.1 General duties and responsibilities

Applicable legislation: Vehicle Standards Compliance Rule 2002 (the Rule).

1. Vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations [Definitions in the Rule]

Vehicle inspector means an individual appointed by the NZTA under 2.2(1) of the Rule to carry out inspection and certification activities in accordance with requirements and conditions imposed by the NZTA.

Inspecting organisation means a person or organisation appointed by the NZTA under 2.2(1) who is responsible for inspection and certification outcomes.

2. Inspection and certification activities [section 2.1(1) of the Rule]

Only vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations appointed by NZTA may carry out inspection and certification activities as specified in the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.

3. Primary duty [section 2.1(2) of the Rule]

Vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations must carry out inspection and certification activities competently and diligently and in accordance with the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, this manual, the Notice of appointment and the Code of conduct.

4. Inspection and certification activities that can be carried out [section 2.2(2) of the Rule]

Vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations may carry out only those inspection and certification activities for which NZTA has appointed them.

5. Requirements, conditions, and period of appointment [section 2.3(1) of the Rule]

The NZTA may specify the period of appointment for a vehicle inspector and inspecting organisation and may impose requirements and conditions as to the performance of the inspection and certification activities, including the performance of those activities at individual sites. This manual contains the requirements and conditions imposed by the NZTA.

6. Driver licence

Vehicle inspectors must hold a current driver licence for the vehicles that they are inspecting.

7. Fit and proper person [section 2.3(3) of the Rule]

It is a condition of an appointment that a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation continues to be fit and proper.

For further information about what it means to be a fit and proper person, refer to the Transport Agency's Fit and proper person guidelines.

8. Document retention, Advise incorrect certification, Advise vehicle defects [section 2.3(4) of the Rule]

It is a condition of an appointment that a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation:

a) keeps all records and associated documents relating to vehicle inspections and certifications (including failed inspections) for a minimum period of 12 months (LT400s and other HVS/engineer certificates indefinitely), and

b) advises the NZTA as soon as practicable if there is a reason to believe that the inspection and certification of a vehicle has been carried out incorrectly, and

c) advises the NZTA as soon as practicable of a defect in a manufacturer’s production run or quality control process of which the inspector or organisation has become aware that may affect the safety performance of a vehicle that has been inspected and certified.

9. Delegation [section 2.4(1) of the Rule]

A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation may not delegate any function or power to carry out inspection and certification activities for which they were appointed, except under conditions specified by NZTA in writing.

10. Additional duties and responsibilities of inspecting organisations under the quality management system (QMS) and the Notice of appointment

In addition to requirements specified elsewhere in this manual, an inspecting organisation must comply with the requirements of their QMS and Notice of appointment, including the following:

a) advise the NZTA as soon as possible when a vehicle inspector leaves or joins an inspecting organisation or moves to another site (Notification of vehicle inspector transfer)

b) manage actual, potential and perceived conflicts of interest (refer to Information for inspecting organisations)

c) report the loss or theft of controlled documents to the NZ Police and the NZTA as soon as possible (Notification of lost or stolen controlled documents)

d) comply with any NZTA requirements relating to IT systems, including protecting access to the NZTA computer system from unauthorised persons

e) carry out regular internal performance assessments (at least once a year)

f) inspect and certify vehicles only at authorised sites unless otherwise permitted

g) responsible for maintaining technical and administrative competence of vehicle inspectors and other persons carrying out vehicle inspection and certification work

h) responsible for ensuring vehicle inspectors continue to abide by the Code of Conduct.

3.1.2 Inspection and certification
1. Inspection and certification of vehicles for operation in service [section 7.3(3) of the Rule]

The inspection and certification of a vehicle for operation in service must be carried out in accordance with requirements and conditions imposed by NZTA.

2. Determining compliance of a vehicle [section 7.4(1) of the Rule]

A vehicle is certified for in-service based on the condition of the vehicle at the time of the inspection.

A vehicle may be certified for operation in-service only if a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has identified the vehicle and has determined, on reasonable grounds, that the vehicle meets all of the following:

a) it is safe to be operated under normal conditions of use, and

b) it has been designed and constructed using components and materials that are fit for their purpose, and is within safe tolerance of its state when manufactured or modified, and

c) it complies with the applicable requirements (all of which are contained within this manual), and

d) it has undergone specialist inspection and certification as required by paragraphs 4, 5, and 6 below and the specific aspects of the vehicle have been certified.

3. Information to take into account when determining compliance of a vehicle [section 7.4(3) of the Rule]

A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation, in making a determination, must take into account:

a) information obtained from inspecting the vehicle and associated documents, and

b) additional relevant information, if any, about the vehicle issued by a manufacturer, modifier, repairer, or other relevant person of which the inspector or organisation is aware.

4. Low volume vehicle specialist certification [section 7.5(1)(a) of the Rule]

Low volume vehicle (LVV) specialist inspection and certification is required prior to inspection and certification for in-service, if the vehicle is a light vehicle that, since it was last certified for operation in-service or last certified as a low volume vehicle, has been modified so as to affect its compliance with an applicable requirement (Note 1).

5. Heavy vehicle specialist certification [section 7.5(1)(b) of the Rule]

Heavy vehicle specialist (HVS) inspection and certification is required prior to inspection and certification for in service, if the vehicle is a heavy vehicle that, since it was last certified for operation in service or last certified for modification, has been modified so as to affect its compliance with an applicable requirement, including modifications to its chassis, brakes, log bolster attachments, towing connections or load anchorages.

6. Other specialist certification [section 7.5(1)(c) of the Rule]

Other specialist inspection and certification is required in accordance with an applicable requirement or as required by NZTA, all of which are contained within this manual.

7. Modified vehicles not requiring specialist certification [section 7.5(3) of the Rule]

Low volume vehicle (LVV) specialist inspection and certification or heavy vehicle specialist (HVS) inspection and certification is not required if a modified vehicle is:

a) excluded in this manual from the requirement for LVV or HVS certification and meets the inspection requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition, and performance, or

b) modified for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services.

Note that this only covers the modifications for the specialised functions of the vehicle. Other modifications that affect compliance are subject to certification.

Note 1
Modifications not requiring LVV certification

All modifications must meet WoF or CoF requirements. However, not every modification requires LVV certification.

A modified light vehicle may or may not be required to undergo LVV certification, depending on the level of modification. Typical modifications that are made to vehicle components and systems are listed in tables, and identify:

a) those modifications that do not require LVV certification unless they exceed a certain level. Where modifications exceed those listed in the table, a WoF or CoF provider must not issue a WoF or CoF for the vehicle until LVV certification has been issued

b) those modifications that have been certified to an accepted overseas system as shown in Technical bulletin 13

c) those lower levels of modification that are never required to be LVV certified.

For most modifications, the introduction date for the requirement for LVV certification is 1 March 1999, which was the date that the Compliance Rule came into force. In addition, LVV certification was required for some items under the Transport (Vehicle Standards) Regulations 1990. In particular LVV certification is required for:

a) a modification after 1 January 1992 that affected compliance with a brake standard on a class MA vehicle, or after 1 January 1993 on a vehicle of class MB, MC or NA.

b) a modification after 1 January 1992 that affected a seatbelt anchorage standard on a passenger vehicle with up to nine seats, that is class MA, MB or MC.

c) a modification after 1 January 1992 that affected compliance with a standard for door locks and hinges, steering column impact or interior impact on a class MA vehicle.

If a modification was carried out prior to LVV certification coming into force, a valid modification declaration must be produced. The vehicle inspector may also accept other authentic evidence to verify that the modifications were carried out prior to LVV certification coming into force. Examples are an invoice from the company that carried out the modification, insurance policy cover notes and motoring magazine features provided they record the vehicle’s registration number or VIN, the modification details and a date or other information verifying when the modifications were carried out. Documents such as statements from previous owners are not acceptable.

Where the information on the modification declaration (other than the plate number) differs from the vehicle, the vehicle must be failed and sent to an appropriate LVV certifier. For example, if the vehicle has been further modified or the declaration date is incorrect for the vehicle or the modifications. See sample modification declaration for information on modification declarations).

Note 2
Confirming LVV certification

Modifications can be confirmed as certified under the LVV Code by the following means:

a) LVV certification plate riveted and glued to the vehicle in any one of the following positions:

i. within the engine compartment in a clearly visible position, or

ii. where there is insufficient available space within the engine compartment to enable the LVV certification plate to be fitted and remain clearly visible, in any one of the following locations:

(1) within the passenger compartment on the vehicle’s A-pillar or B-pillar, or

(2) in the case of a sedan, on the rear bulkhead or other prominent position within the boot area, or

(3) in the case of a van with an engine cover in the passenger compartment, on a non-removable panel steel part of the engine cover or seat frame, or

(4) in the case of a vehicle with a raised floor, on the vertical area of a step behind a door, or

(5) in the case of a hatchback or station wagon, in the spare wheel well which is accessible without the use of tools.

b) LVV authority card, linking listed vehicle modifications to the special requirements of one person.

All enquiries about the LVV process, LVV certifier locations and the issuing of LVV certification plates should be directed to the NZTA (0800 587 287) or LVVTA (04 238 4343) .

Note 3
Information on LVV plate differs from the vehicle

Where the information on the LVV plate (other than the vehicle’s registration plate) differs from the vehicle, for example where a vehicle has been further modified or returned to original, the vehicle must be failed and sent to an appropriate LVV certifier:

a) where the vehicle has been further modified or partially returned to the original condition, the LVV certifier will inspect and certify the vehicle to ensure the correct details are on the new LVV plate, or

b) where the vehicle has been fully returned to original, the LVV certifier will confirm that this has been done and remove the LVV plate from the vehicle (only an LVV certifier or delegated NZTA staff can remove an LVV plate).

3.1.3 Revocation of a WoF, CoF, temporary permit, CoL, or record of determination
1. Revocation of evidence of vehicle inspection and conditional permit [section 11.3(1) of the Rule]

The NZTA may revoke, by giving written notice to a vehicle’s operator, a WoF, CoF, conditional permit or a record of determination issued under the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 if the NZTA believes, on reasonable grounds, that:

a) the vehicle does not comply with applicable requirements, or

b) the WoF, CoF, permit or record of determination was issued on the basis of an incorrect determination.

2. Revocation of certificate of loading [section 11.3(2) of the Rule]

The NZTA may revoke, by giving written notice to a vehicle’s operator, a certificate of loading issued for that vehicle under the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 if the NZTA believes, on reasonable grounds, that the certificate is not valid.

3. Re-inspection and re-certification of a vehicle [section 11.4 of the Rule]

If a WoF, CoF, conditional permit, record of determination or certificate of loading has been revoked, the NZTA may require in writing that a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation:

a) repeat the inspection and certification of the vehicle, and

b) issue, if appropriate, a WoF, CoF, permit, record of determination or other evidence, and

c) meet the costs of the activities undertaken under (a) and (b).

3.1.4 Vehicles ordered off the road (green and pink stickers) [Land Transport Act 1998: section 115 and section 96]

A green sticker, which directs that the vehicle is not to be driven on a road, may be issued to the driver or owner of a vehicle by an enforcement officer who believes on reasonable grounds that a vehicle does not comply with the provisions of the regulations or rules, or that a vehicle was operated with unnecessary exhibition of speed or acceleration or sustained loss of traction. At the discretion of the enforcement officer, the green sticker notice will remain in force until:

a) the vehicle has been inspected and a new WoF or CoF has been issued, or

b) the enforcement officer has been notified in writing that the vehicle is now compliant (this type of green sticker is often referred to as ‘discretionary green sticker’ or ‘G2 sticker’). A new WoF or CoF is not required, however, instead of notifying the enforcement officer in writing, the vehicle driver/owner may choose to obtain a new WoF or CoF, which will automatically remove the flag from the NZ Police system.

A pink sticker, which directs that the vehicle is not to be driven on a road, may be issued to the driver or owner of a vehicle by an enforcement officer who believes on reasonable grounds that a vehicle is not in a safe condition to be driven on a road. A pink sticker will remain in force until the vehicle has been inspected and a new WoF or CoF has been issued.

Where a light vehicle has been ordered off the road by an enforcement officer for non-compliant exhaust noise, the vehicle must pass an LVVTA objective noise test before the vehicle may be issued with a new WoF or CoF – even if the vehicle is presented with a quieter or original exhaust system or with a previous LVV noise certification. Due to this requirement, for each green- or pink-stickered light vehicle presented for WoF or CoF and before issuing a new WoF or CoF, the vehicle inspector must check (usually by sighting the ordering-off-the-road notice or Landata):

a) whether the vehicle was ordered off the road for non-compliant exhaust noise, and

b) if (a) applies, that a valid LVVTA objective exhaust noise emissions test certificate was issued for the vehicle after the date the ordering off the road notice was issued.

A vehicle that has been green or pink stickered can only be inspected by a vehicle inspector who is employed with an inspecting organisation that does not engage in the repair of vehicles in the course of their business (other than replacing bulbs or wiper blades). This generally includes VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA and some independent testing stations. A new WoF or CoF must be issued by the inspecting organisation before the vehicle is permitted to be used on the road. Once the new WoF or CoF has been issued, the vehicle inspector removes the green or pink sticker. The flag is automatically removed from the NZ Police system.

3.1.5 Performance review
1. The NZTA may monitor and review performance [section 3.1(1) of the Rule]

The NZTA may monitor and review the performance of a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation in complying with the requirements and conditions imposed by the NZTA, including the performance of inspection and certification activities at individual sites.

The requirements and conditions are contained in this manual, the Notice of appointment and the Transport Agency’s Quality Management System (QMS) requirements.

2. Providing information to the NZTA [section 3.1(2) & (3) of the Rule]

In monitoring and reviewing performance, the NZTA may require a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation to undergo such monitoring and review and provide such information as the NZTA reasonably considers relevant. A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation must comply with a requirement from the NZTA.

3. Costs of monitoring and review [section 3.1(4) of the Rule]

A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation must bear the costs of the monitoring and reviewing of their performance in accordance with any prescribed fee.

Any non-payment of the required fees may result in suspension of the appointment until full payment is received.

3.1.6 Investigations
1. Investigations [section 3.2(1) of the Rule]

If the NZTA has reason to believe that a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has failed to comply with any of the conditions of their appointment (including the Notice of appointment and Code of conduct), or has failed to comply with the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 (the Rule) or with this manual, the NZTA may require the inspector or organisation to undergo such an investigation and to provide such information as the NZTA reasonably considers appropriate.

2. Notification of action (suspension or revocation, but not immediate suspension or imposition of conditions) [section 3.2(3) of the Rule]

Following an investigation and before carrying out action, the NZTA must notify the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation in writing of:

a) the action that is being considered, and

b) the reasons for the action that is being considered, and

c) the date by which submissions may be made to the NZTA in respect of the action that is being considered, which must be at least 21 days after the notice is given, and

d) where appropriate, the date on which the action that is being considered will take effect, which, unless the NZTA determines otherwise, must be at least 28 days after the notice is given.

3. Responding to a notification of action [section 3.2(5) of the Rule]

If a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation is notified as above, they must ensure that all information that they wish the NZTA to consider in relation to the action that is being considered is received by the NZTA within the period specified in the notice or within any further period that the NZTA may allow.

4. The NZTA must consider submissions [section 3.2(6) of the Rule]

The NZTA must consider the submissions made and information supplied, and must:

a) decide whether or not to take the action that is being considered, and

b) as soon as is practicable, provide written notification to the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation of:

i. the NZTA’s decision, and

ii. if appropriate, the date on which the action is to take effect, and

iii. if appropriate, the right of appeal under section 106 of the Land Transport Act 1998.

5. Remedial action, suspension, revocation [section 3.2(2) of the Rule]

If, following an investigation, the NZTA is satisfied that the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has failed to comply with any of the conditions of their appointment (including the Notice of appointment and Code of conduct), or failed to comply with the Rule or this manual, NZTA may do one or more of the following:

a) require that remedial action, such as training, be undertaken by the inspector or organisation

b) suspend the whole or any part of the appointment of the inspector or organisation for a specified period or until specified conditions are met

c) revoke the whole or any part of the appointment of the inspector or organisation.

6. Immediate suspension or imposing of conditions [section 3.3(1) of the Rule]

If the NZTA has reason to believe that a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has failed to comply with a condition of their appointment (including the Notice of appointment and Code of conduct) or with the Rule or this manual, and that this presents a significant risk to land transport safety, the NZTA may suspend, with immediate effect, the whole or any part of the appointment, or impose any conditions on the appointment.

7. Notification of immediate suspension or imposing of conditions [section 3.3(2) of the Rule]

Where the NZTA suspends the whole or any part of an appointment, or imposes conditions on the appointment, the NZTA must notify the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation in writing of:

a) the grounds for the suspension or imposing of conditions

b) the fact that the inspector or organisation may make submissions to the NZTA

c) the right of appeal under section 106 of the Land Transport Act 1998.

8. The NZTA must consider submissions following immediate suspension or imposition of conditions [section 3.3(3) of the Rule]

The NZTA must, as soon as is practicable, consider any submission made and notify the inspector or inspecting organisation in writing of the result of any such consideration.

9. Duration of immediate suspension or imposing of conditions [section 3.3(5) of the Rule]

A suspension or condition imposed remains in force until the NZTA has determined the action to be taken and that action has been taken.

10. Withdrawal of immediate suspension or imposing of conditions [section 3.3(4) of the Rule]

The NZTA may at any time withdraw a suspension or condition imposed.

11. Right of appeal [section 3.3(6) of the Rule]

A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation may appeal under section 106 of the Land Transport Act 1998 against a decision by the NZTA to immediately suspend or impose conditions.

12. Costs of investigations [section 3.2(7) of the Rule]

The NZTA may require a vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation to bear the costs associated with an investigation or remedial action in accordance with any prescribed fee.

13. Obligation to comply [section 3.2(8) of the Rule]

A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation must comply with a requirement of the NZTA in relation to paragraphs 1, 5, and 12.

top

Page amended 1 May 2017 (see amendment details).

3-2 Identifying the vehicle class

The table of vehicle classes - Table 3-2-1, and the charts in Figure 3-2-1 (four-wheeled vehicles), Figure 3-2-2 (three-wheeled vehicles), Figure 3-2-3 (two-wheeled vehicles) and Figure 3-2-4 (trailers) identify the class of the vehicle that is to be inspected.

Confirm that the vehicle inspector and inspecting organisation have been appointed by the NZTA for the purpose of inspecting and certifying vehicles for a WoF or CoF specific to the class of vehicle that has been presented.

Table 3-2-1. Vehicle equipment standards classifications
ClassDescription
AA (Pedal cycle)

A vehicle designed to be propelled through a mechanism solely by human power.

AB (Power-assisted pedal cycle)

A pedal cycle to which is attached one or more auxiliary propulsion motors having a combined maximum power output not exceeding 300 watts.

For further information visit the Transport Agency website's Low powered vehicles page.

LA (Moped with two wheels)*

A motor vehicle (other than a power-assisted pedal cycle) that:

  • has two wheels; and
  • either:
    • has an engine cylinder capacity not exceeding 50ml and a maximum speed not exceeding 50km/h; or
    • has a power source other than a piston engine and a maximum speed not exceeding 50km/h.
LB (Moped with three wheels)

A motor vehicle (other than a power-assisted pedal cycle) that:

  • has three wheels; and
  • either:
    • has an engine cylinder capacity not exceeding 50ml and a maximum speed not exceeding 50km/h; or
    • has a power source other than a piston engine and a maximum speed not exceeding 50km/h.

An LB 1 motor vehicle has one wheel at the front and two wheels at the rear. An LB 2 motor vehicle has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear.

LC (Motorcycle)

A motor vehicle that:

  • has two wheels; and
  • either:
    • has an engine cylinder capacity exceeding 50ml; or
    • has a maximum speed exceeding 50km/h.
LD (Motorcycle and side-car)

A motor vehicle that:

  • has three wheels asymmetrically arranged in relation to the longitudinal median axis; and
  • either:
    • has an engine cylinder capacity exceeding 50ml; or
    • has a maximum speed exceeding 50km/h.
Side-car

A car, box or other receptacle attached to the side of a motorcycle and supported by a wheel.

LE (Motor tri-cycle)

A motor vehicle that:

  • has three wheels symmetrically arranged in relation to the longitudinal median axis; and
  • has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding one tonne; and
  • either:
    • has an engine cylinder capacity exceeding 50ml; or
    • has a maximum speed exceeding 50km/h.

An LE 1 motor vehicle has one wheel at the front and two wheels at the rear. An LE 2 motor vehicle has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear.

Passenger vehicle

A motor vehicle that:

  • is constructed primarily for the carriage of passengers; and
  • either:
    • has at least four wheels; or
    • has three wheels and a gross vehicle mass exceeding one tonne.
MA (Passenger car)

A passenger vehicle (other than a class MB or class MC vehicle) that has not more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position).

MB (Forward control passenger vehicle)

A passenger vehicle (other than a class MC vehicle):

  • that has not more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position); and
  • in which the centre of the steering wheel is in the forward quarter of the vehicle's total length.
MC (Off-road passenger vehicle)

A passenger vehicle, designed with special features for off-road operation, that has not more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position), and that:

  • has four-wheel drive; and
  • has at least four of the following characteristics when the vehicle is unladen on a level surface and the front wheels are parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centre-line and the tyres are inflated to the vehicle manufacturer's recommended pressure:
    • an approach angle of not less than 28 degrees;
    • a breakover angle of not less than 14 degrees;
    • a departure angle of not less than 20 degrees;
    • a running clearance of not less than 200mm;
    • a front-axle clearance, rear-axle clearance or suspension clearance of not less than 175mm.
Omnibus

A passenger vehicle that has more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position). An omnibus comprising two or more non-separable but articulated units shall be considered as a single vehicle.

MD (Light omnibus)

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 5 tonnes.

MD 1

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes and not more than 12 seats.

MD 2

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes and more than 12 seats.

MD 3

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 4.5 tonnes.

MD 4

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 4.5 tonnes but not exceeding 5 tonnes.

ME (Heavy omnibus)

An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 5 tonnes.

Goods vehicle

A motor vehicle that:

  • is constructed primarily for the carriage of goods; and
  • either:
    • has at least four wheels; or
    • has three wheels and a gross vehicle mass exceeding one tonne.

For the purpose of this description:

  • a vehicle that is constructed for both the carriage of goods and passengers shall be considered primarily for the carriage of goods if the number of seating positions multiplied by 68kg is less than 50 percent of the difference between the gross vehicle mass and the unladen mass
  • the equipment and installations carried on special purpose vehicles not designed for the carriage of passengers shall be considered to be goods
  • a goods vehicle that has two or more non-separable but articulated units shall be considered to be a single vehicle.
NA (Light goods vehicle)

A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.

NB (Medium goods vehicle)

A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 12 tonnes.

NC (Heavy goods vehicle)

A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 12 tonnes.

Trailer

A vehicle without motive power that is constructed for the purpose of being drawn behind a motor vehicle.

TA (Very light trailer)

A single-axled trailer that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 0.75 tonnes.

TB (Light trailer)

A trailer (other than a class TA trailer) that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.

TC (Medium trailer)

A trailer that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 10 tonnes.

TD (Heavy trailer)

A trailer that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 10 tonnes.

Figure 3-2-1. Vehicle class logic chart – four-wheeled vehicles

5

Figure 3-2-2. Vehicle class logic chart – three-wheeled vehicles

5

Figure 3-2-3. Vehicle class logic chart – two-wheeled vehicles

5

3-2-4. Vehicle class logic chart – trailers

5

3-3 Establishing whether the vehicle requires a WoF or CoF


The lists below show the type of inspection and certification (WoF or CoF) that is required for the different types of vehicles.

3.3.1 Certificate of Fitness (CoF) (Note 1)

A CoF is required for the following vehicles:

  • Heavy vehicles, other than those listed under WoF below.
  • Passenger service vehicles (including MD2 vehicles), other than those listed under WoF below.
  • Rental service vehicles (except light rental trailers – these only require a WoF).
  • Vehicle recovery service vehicles.
3.3.2 Warrant of Fitness (WoF)

A WoF is required for the following vehicles:

1. Vehicles that are not listed under certificate of fitness (section 3.3.1) or that are not listed as a vehicle not requiring a WoF or CoF (section 3.3.3).

2. Tractors (other than agricultural tractors), or machines used solely in non-agricultural, land management or roading operations, whether for traction or otherwise, that are operated at a speed exceeding 30km/h.

3. Class MA, MB or MC vehicles that, in the carriage of passengers for hire or reward:

a) are used solely for transporting not more than seven schoolchildren, and

b) do not exceed the designed adult passenger capacity of the vehicle by more than two schoolchildren.

4. Vehicles that are lawfully affixed with and operated under the authority of trade plates.

5. Vehicles used by the New Zealand Defence Force that are being used to convey persons who would otherwise use public transport during a period in which any public transport in New Zealand is suspended.

6. Motor caravans that:

a) have an original manufacturer’s rating of 3750kg or less, and

b) were registered in New Zealand as motor caravans before 1 January 1992.

7. Vehicles that are used on a public highway only in connection with the inspection, servicing or repair of the vehicle or for the purpose of allowing any person to sit a practical driving test in that vehicle.

8. Vehicles used on roads only in road construction zones in accordance with notices declaring those zones.

9. Vehicles that are used on a road only when crossing or proceeding along a section of the road where the vehicles have been authorised to operate by an authorisation of a road-controlling authority that requires:

a) a written agreement by the vehicle’s operator or the person for whom the vehicle is being operated, to construct, reconstruct, maintain or restore to the satisfaction of the road-controlling authority all or part of the road used by the vehicle, and

b) the erection and maintenance of warning devices, signs or control devices as required by the road-controlling authority and the NZTA, and

c) where the use of the road does not consist solely of the direct crossing of the road, the prior approval of the NZTA.

10. Light rental trailers.

11. Motor vehicles designed exclusively or principally as part of the armament of the New Zealand Defence Force.

12. The vehicles listed in the table below - these vehicles require a WoF only as far as is practicable for their design or type:

a) vehicles propelled and supported solely by self-laying tracks

b) motor vehicles exclusively designed and used on a road for driving, carrying or propelling any of the following, which must be permanently attached to the vehicle:

i. aerodrome runway sweepers

ii. electrical substations

iii. filters for transformer oil

iv. log haulers that are stationary when hauling logs

v. aeroengine test benches

c) tractors owned by a local authority and used exclusively for the construction, maintenance or mowing of stopbanks and the banks of rivers, streams, drains, canals or other watercourses

d) mobile or movable huts, galleys or similar vehicles that are used on a road solely in connection with the construction or maintenance of roads

e) tractors used exclusively for shunting railway rolling stock

f) forklifts

g) aerodrome crash fire tenders that are used on a road only in emergencies

h) trailers while being drawn by a vehicle as stated in (b) to (g) above

i) motor vehicles used exclusively in connection with the embarking and disembarking of ships’ passengers or for loading and unloading ships’ mails, cargo and passengers’ baggage, and used on a public highway only when proceeding unladen from one wharf to another wharf or from their usual place of storage to a wharf and returning to that place of storage

j) cable jinkers

k) front-end loaders

l) log skidders

m) tractor cranes

n) rough-terrain cranes

o) mobile crushing and screening plant machines which are mounted on trailers

p) motor graders

q) motor scrapers

r) trailer scrapers

s) plant for servicing oil-filled cables

t) post debarkers

u) saw bench apparatus

v) forestry chippers (designed and used exclusively in the operation or management of a forest)

w) tree feller bunchers

x) trench diggers and excavators

y) vehicles that are always used unladen on the road and that are designed exclusively for carrying earth or other bulk materials

z) mobile concrete mixers that are mounted on tractors

aa) a vehicle that is similar in design, construction or purpose to a vehicle listed above that cannot be categorised by vehicle class.

bb) an agricultural motor vehicle that is operated at a speed exceeding 40km/h.
cc) all-terrain vehicles (other than those listed in 3.3.3 Vehicles that do not require a WoF or CoF).
3.3.3 Vehicles that do not require a WoF or CoF

The vehicles listed in the table below do not require a WoF or CoF:

a) a vehicle of class AB, LA or LB

b) an armoured vehicle used exclusively as equipment of the New Zealand Defence Force

c) a traction engine

d) a mechanically propelled roller

e) a crane fitted with self-laying tracks

f) an excavator fitted with self-laying tracks

g) a tractor (other than an agricultural tractor), or a machine used solely in non-agricultural, land management or roading operations, whether for traction or otherwise, that is not operated at a speed exceeding 30km/h, together with any trailer operated only while being towed by that tractor or machine

h) a trailer designed exclusively for agricultural purposes and not operated except when being:

i. delivered from a manufacturer to the manufacturer’s agent, or

ii. taken to or from an agricultural show for display or demonstration purposes, or

iii. delivered from a manufacturer or a manufacturer’s agent to a farm or an agricultural contractor

iv. proceeding to or from a farm, or

v. when being inspected, serviced or repaired.

i) a vehicle normally propelled by mechanical power while it is being temporarily towed without the use of its own power

j) an all-terrain vehicle used:

i. in moving from the operator’s place of residence to a road that is not a public highway, when the distance travelled is less than 3km, or

ii. in connection with its inspection, servicing or repair, or

iii. as an agricultural vehicle.

k) an agricultural motor vehicle that is operated at a speed not exceeding 40km/h.
Note 1

A vehicle that does not require inspection for regular use still does not need inspection if operated in a transport service (eg rental mopeds).

Page amended 1 November 2015 (see amendment details).

3-4 Establishing whether the vehicle may be inspected for a WoF or CoF

Before a vehicle can be inspected for the purpose of issuing a WoF or CoF, it must meet one of the following requirements:

a) the number on the registration plate(s) is the same as that stated on the licence label, and the label correctly describes the vehicle and is current, or

b) the number on the registration plate(s) is the same as that stated on the licence label, and the label correctly describes the vehicle and has not been expired for more than 12 months or de-registered, or

c) it has been certified for entry or re-entry into service within the previous two years, but has not been registered, or

d) The number on the registration plate(s) is the same as that stated on the licence label, and the label correctly describes the vehicle and has expired more than 12 months ago, but the vehicle has a current licence exemption (‘restoration register’), or

e) it is a vehicle that is listed in the table below, which does not require certification for entry or re-entry.

a) class TA or TB trailers

b) tractors (other than agricultural tractors) or machines, including trailers, for use solely in non-agricultural, land management or roading operations, whether for traction or otherwise that are operated at a speed exceeding 30km/h

c) pedestrian-controlled goods service vehicles

d) vehicles used on roads only in road construction zones in accordance with notices declaring those zones

e) vehicles that are used on a road only when crossing or proceeding along a section of the road where the vehicles have been authorised to operate by an authorisation of a road-controlling authority that requires:

i. a written agreement by the vehicle’s operator or the person for whom the vehicle is being operated, to construct, reconstruct, maintain or restore to the satisfaction of the road-controlling authority all or part of the road used by the vehicle, and

ii. the erection and maintenance of warning devices, signs or control devices as required by the road-controlling authority and the NZTA, and

iii. where the use of the road does not consist solely of the direct crossing of the road, the prior approval of the NZTA

f) all-terrain vehicles

g) motor vehicles exclusively designed and used on a road for driving, carrying or propelling any of the following, which must be permanently attached to the vehicle:

i. aerodrome runway sweepers

ii. electrical substations

iii. filters for transformer oil

iv. log haulers that are stationary when hauling logs

v. aeroengine test benches

h) tractors owned by a local authority and used exclusively for the construction, maintenance or mowing of stopbanks and the banks of rivers, streams, drains, canals or other watercourses

i) mobile or movable huts, galleys or similar vehicles that are used on a road solely in connection with the construction or maintenance of roads

j) tractors used exclusively for shunting railway rolling stock

k) forklifts

l) aerodrome crash fire tenders that are used on a road only in emergencies

m) trailers while being drawn by a vehicle as stated in (b) to (l) above

n) motor vehicles used exclusively in connection with the embarking and disembarking of ships’ passengers or for loading and unloading ships’ mails, cargo and passengers’ baggage, and used on a public highway only when proceeding unladen from one wharf to another wharf or from their usual place of storage to a wharf and returning to that place of storage

o) cable jinkers

p) front-end loaders

q) log skidders

r) tractor cranes

s) rough-terrain cranes

t) mobile crushing and screening plant machines which are mounted on trailers

u) motor graders

v) motor scrapers

w) trailer scrapers

x) plant for servicing oil-filled cables

y) post debarkers

z) saw bench apparatus

aa) forestry chippers

bb) tree feller bunchers

cc) trench diggers and excavators

dd) vehicles that are always used unladen on the road and that are designed exclusively for carrying earth or other bulk materials

ee) mobile concrete mixers that are mounted on tractors

ff) a vehicle that is similar in design, construction or purpose to a vehicle listed above that cannot be categorised by vehicle class

gg) a vehicle that is registered for use on a road in a country other than New Zealand and that is not going to be in New Zealand for a continuous period of more than 18 months.

hh) an agricultural motor vehicle.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

3-5 Establishing whether the vehicle complies

1. Select the relevant section that relates to vehicle inspection requirements for the vehicle class. For temporary import vehicles on overseas registration plates, please refer to Technical bulletin 6.

2. Visually inspect the vehicle to determine whether the vehicle complies with the requirements set out in this manual (see clause 3.1.2.2 of the Introduction). Vehicle inspectors are not required to remove vehicle components during the inspection of the vehicle.

3. The vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation may refuse to inspect a vehicle which:

a) is presented in such a condition that inspection is unreasonably difficult or cannot be completed (components missing, covered in dirt, etc) or

b) has an insecure load.

4. Where the vehicle inspector determines that a Reason for rejection or clause 3.1.2.2 of the Introduction to this manual applies to a vehicle, the vehicle inspector must reject the vehicle for certification.

5. Where the vehicle inspector requires further information in order to determine compliance with the requirements, the inspector must reject the vehicle until the information has been obtained.

6. Where a vehicle has changed use to a passenger service vehicle since it was last certified for entry or in-service (ie the vehicle enters service as a passenger service vehicle), the vehicle inspector must have written confirmation (in the form of a PSV entry checksheet) that the vehicle complies with the PSV requirements in the VIRM: Entry certification before it can pass certificate of fitness inspection.

3-6 Checksheets

Applicable legislation: Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, section 2.3.

1. A checksheet that has been approved by the NZTA must be used. To get a checksheet approved, see:

2. The checksheet must be completed fully and accurately and the writing must be clearly legible on the original and the duplicate page. The vehicle inspector must sign the checksheet once he/she has completed the inspection and determined that the vehicle has either passed or failed the inspection.

3. Where parts of a vehicle are inspected by different people, all those inspecting the vehicle must be vehicle inspectors. The checksheet must record which inspector inspected which part of the vehicle. One vehicle inspector must take overall responsibility for the inspection of the vehicle and that vehicle inspector must sign the checksheet.

4. A vehicle inspector can determine one of two outcomes:

a) Passed inspection: record the ‘determination’ as stated in section 3-7 and issue a WoF label or CoF label or temporary permit

b) Failed inspection: record the ‘determination’ as stated in section 3-7 . The reasons for the failed inspection must be clearly stated on the checksheet.

5. The customer copy (usually the original) of the completed checksheet must be supplied to the vehicle owner or operator. The agent copy (usually the duplicate) is retained by the inspecting organisation.


For information on rechecks and reinspections see 3-11 Rechecks.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

3-7 Recording the inspection outcome (‘determination’)


Applicable legislation: Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, section 7.6

1. The inspection outcome is recorded in either the WoF Online system or the LATIS system.

2. The inspection details must be entered into the system before the vehicle leaves the inspecting organisation’s premises. This ensures that:

a) the vehicle can be relicensed by the vehicle owner

b) the correct inspection frequency can be ascertained

c) any restrictions placed on the vehicle are identified before issuing a WoF or CoF, such as a ban flag or a pink or green sticker.

3. Inspection details entered into the system must be accurate at the time the vehicle was inspected. This includes updating the odometer and hubodometer readings when a vehicle is re-presented for inspection.

4. For vehicles required to operate under a TSL, vehicle inspectors must also collect and record in the system the TSL number for both passed and failed inspections, and when issuing temporary permits.

3.7.1 WoF Online

1. The inspection details must be entered into the WoF Online system on the day of inspection in either:

a) express mode,

b) pass re-check mode (use this where a vehicle is failed, repaired then passes a WoF inspection without leaving the inspecting organisation site. This mode will record a fail and a pass in one transaction), or

c) normal mode.

  • Note Inspecting organisations must have the NZTA flow charts that show how to use the WoF Online system (express mode and recheck mode are mandatory; normal mode is optional).

2. Where the inspecting organisation wishes to issue WoFs but is unable to obtain the necessary authorisation numbers from the WoF Online system, several options are available:

a) The NZTA computer system is not working: the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation must use the checksheet number as the system authorisation number. The OFF-LINE box on the reverse side of the WoF label must be ticked.

b) The inspecting organisation’s computer terminal is not working: the inspecting organisation must contact TRC Agent Help Desk (0800 804 580) who may grant permission for the inspecting organisation to continue to issue off-line WoFs.

c) The WoF Online system goes down during WoF entry: the vehicle inspector needs to ask the customer if they intend to relicense the vehicle in the next 24 hours. If NO, the WoF details should be keyed in as soon as possible. If YES, the vehicle inspector must fax or email a copy of the checksheet directly to the Transport Agency (fax 06 953 6406, email inspections@nzta.govt.nz) with a covering note of explanation. When the system is working again they must check to see if the WoF information is in the system. If not, the vehicle inspector must key the WoF in themselves to minimise any inconvenience to the customer. If it is, they must make a record of the system authorisation number, to cross reference on their copy of the checksheet.

3. To check whether or not a vehicle has a current WoF, select ‘View WoF result’ and enter the vehicle’s registration number. One of three screen displays are possible:

Case 1:

Screen message:

Problem This plate is not attached to a vehicle. If the plate number is incorrect, overtype with the correct plate number and click on the Continue button. If the plate number is correct, advise owner that a plate must be attached before a WoF can be issued. This can be done at an NZTA Plate Agent.

The error message means that:

The vehicle is not currently registered (never registered, registration cancelled, or registration lapsed because the licence label has been expired for more than 12 months).

Action:

A WoF must not be issued. The vehicle should be referred to an entry inspecting organisation for entry or re-entry inspection and certification.

Case 2:

Screen message:

Plate Number: PX8961

Blue 1991 Holden Commodore

Exec Saloon Passenger CarVan

System Authorisation Number: 81-487

Inspection Date: 08/02/2006

Expires: 6 months

AVIC ID: MS62621

The screen message means that:

The vehicle is currently registered, licenced and has a current WoF.

Action:

A new WoF may be issued, or, if necessary, a duplicate WoF may be issued.

Case 3:

Screen message:

Problem This vehicle does not have a current WoF.

The error message means that:

The vehicle has a registration plate attached, but the licence label has been expired for less than 12 months, and the WoF has expired.

Action:

A WoF may be issued.

Case 4:

The vehicle is unregistered and presented for inspection operating on trade plates. The vehicle must match the description on either:

  • form 4085 or MR2A, or
  • the expired licence label.

4. Calculate the WoF expiry date as specified in clause 3.8.1.

3.7.2 LATIS

The procedures for keying inspections into LATIS are given in the LATIS users’ manual.

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

3-8 Issuing the WoF or CoF label - ‘evidence of vehicle inspection’ - or temporary permit


Applicable legislation: Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, sections 7.9 and 9

3.8.1 Expiry dates
Expiry date of the WoF

The WoF expiry date is calculated from the reference date. The reference dates are:

  • For a vehicle with an expired WoF or without a previous WoF: the date the vehicle passes the inspection
  • For a vehicle with a current WoF expiring in 14 days or less after the vehicle passes the inspection: the expiry date of the current WoF
  • For a vehicle with a current WoF expiring in more than 14 days after the vehicle passes the inspection: the date that is 14 days after the vehicle passes the inspection
  • For a vehicle that has been issued with a pink or green sticker (other than a ‘G2’ green sticker) or that has its WoF revoked: the date the vehicle passes the inspection.

The WoF expiry date must be determined as follows:

Vehicle

Date of first registration anywhere or vehicle age

WoF expiry

Light motor vehicle
(other than an agricultural motor vehicle)

Never registered anywhere previously and not yet registered in New Zealand

3 years from reference date

Any WoF issued within 2 years from date of first registration anywhere

Third anniversary of date of first registration anywhere

First registered anywhere on or after 1/1/2000 (other than a vehicle listed above)12 months from reference date

First registered anywhere before 1/1/2000

6 months from reference date

Heavy motor vehicle (CoF exempt)
(other than an agricultural motor vehicle)

Never registered anywhere previously

12 months from reference date

Less than six years old from date of first registration anywhere

12 months from reference date

Six years or older from date of first registration anywhere

6 months from reference date

Agricultural motor vehicle

Any age

12 months from reference date

Important note: A vehicle’s date of first registration anywhere is generally not available to the WoF inspector. Where it is important to know the exact date to determine the correct expiry date, the vehicle inspector must identify the correct expiry date on Landata or WoF-online BEFORE issuing a WoF label.
Expiry date of the CoF

The CoF expiry date is calculated from the reference date. The reference dates are:

  • For a vehicle with an expired CoF or without a previous CoF: the date the vehicle passes the inspection
  • For a vehicle with a current CoF expiring in 28 days or less after the vehicle passes the inspection: the expiry date of the current CoF
  • For a vehicle with a current CoF expiring in more than 28 days after the vehicle passes the inspection: the date that is 28 days after the vehicle passes the inspection
  • For a vehicle that has been issued with a pink or green sticker (other than a ‘G2’ green sticker) or that has its CoF or temporary permit revoked: the date the vehicle passes the inspection.

The CoF expiry date must be either:

a) six months from the reference date, or

b) between three and 12 months from the reference date (for vehicles for which NZTA have specified an alternative CoF expiry date), or

c) for a class MA rental vehicle that was new when it was first registered in New Zealand as a rental service vehicle:

i. 12 months from the date the vehicle passes its first CoF inspection, then

ii. six months from the reference date for any subsequent CoF inspections.

Important note: As a vehicle may be on a CoF frequency other than six months, the vehicle inspector must identify the correct expiry date BEFORE issuing a CoF label.
Expiry date of a temporary permit (CoF vehicles only)

The expiry date is 28 days after the date of issue of the permit.

When a WoF, CoF or temporary permit ceases to be current

A WoF, CoF or temporary permit ceases to be current:

a) after its expiry date , or

b) if the vehicle has been green or pink stickered and a new WoF or CoF is required (note that a new WoF or CoF is not required for a ‘G2’ green sticker so the existing expiry date remains unaffected), or

c) if the WoF, CoF or temporary permit has been revoked by a person authorised by the NZTA.

3.8.2 Completing and affixing the WoF or CoF label
Completing the WoF label
Figure 3-8-1. Warrant of fitness (WoF) label (for expiry dates from 2014 onwards)

If the vehicle passes the WoF inspection, the new WoF label must be completed in the following manner:

a) Front side:

i. select the WoF label with the correct year of expiry of the WoF, and

ii. using a hole punch of at least 6mm diameter, punch out the appropriate numbers representing the month and year of the WoF expiry date.

b) Reverse side: record the:

i. name of the inspecting organisation (a business stamp is acceptable), and

ii. vehicle registration number, and

iii. system authorisation number, and

iv. full expiry date of the WoF.

Each WoF label has a unique serial number printed on three places of the reverse side. The two small serial number stickers on the left are for cross referencing of the inspection documentation. The vehicle inspector must remove both serial number stickers and attach one to the file copy of the checksheet and the other to the customer’s copy of the checksheet.

Affixing the WoF label

The WoF label must be affixed by the vehicle inspector or a delegated employee of the inspecting organisation in one of the following positions:

a) if the vehicle is fitted with a windscreen:

i. to the inside of the windscreen facing outwards on the same side as the steering wheel, and

ii. as close as possible to the edge of the windscreen where it is clearly visible from the outside and is not obscured by an anti-glare band or sticker

b) for a trailer, on the back of the vehicle near the registration plate, or on the right-hand side of the vehicle at the rear, or if this is impracticable, in a position where it can readily be seen

c) for any other vehicle, in a position where it can readily be seen.

Not more than one WoF label may be displayed at one time. When issuing a new WoF label, the vehicle inspector or a delegated employee of the inspecting organisation must remove the existing label.

Completing the CoF label
Figure 3-8-2. Certificate of Fitness (CoF) label details

If the vehicle passes the CoF inspection, the new CoF label must be completed in the following manner:

a) Front side:

i. select the CoF label with the correct year of expiry of the CoF, and

ii. using a hole punch of at least 6mm diameter:

-punch out the appropriate numbers representing the month and year of the CoF expiry date if using the CoF label in Figure 3-8-2.

b) Reverse side: record the:

i. vehicle registration number, and

ii. vehicle make, and

iii. full expiry date of the CoF, and

iv. name of the inspecting organisation.

c) Label record (butt): record the:

i. vehicle registration number, and

ii. date the CoF is issued, and

iii. full expiry date of the CoF, and

iv. signature of the vehicle inspector.

Each CoF label has a unique serial number which must be recorded on both copies of the checksheet.

Affixing the CoF label

The CoF label must be affixed by the vehicle inspector or a delegated employee of the inspecting organisation in one of the following positions:

a) if the vehicle is fitted with a windscreen:

i. to the inside of the windscreen facing outwards, on the same side as the steering wheel, and

ii. as close as possible to the edge of the windscreen where it is clearly visible from the outside and is not obscured by an anti-glare band

b) for a trailer, on the back of the vehicle near the registration plate, or on the right-hand side of the vehicle at the rear, or if this is impracticable, in a position where it can readily be seen

c) for any other vehicle, in a position where it can readily be seen.

Not more than one CoF label may be displayed at one time. When issuing a new CoF label, the vehicle inspector must remove the existing label.

3.8.3 Completing the temporary permit (’28 day permit’ for CoF vehicles only)
Figure 3-8-3. Temporary permit (28 day permit for CoF vehicles)

This permit may be issued by an inspecting organisation in the case of a vehicle that does not comply with all applicable requirements, but is safe to be operated subject to specified conditions. The completed permit must be carried in the vehicle.

The permit must be completed in the following manner:

Record the:

1. vehicle registration number, and

2. expiry date of the permit, and

3. validity period of 28 days, and

4. class of the vehicle, and

5. make and model, and

6. VIN or chassis number, and

7. name of the registered owner, and

8. registered owner’s business address, and

9. specified conditions relating to the vehicle’s operation, and

10. date of issue of the permit, and

11. signature of the vehicle inspector.

  • These details must be clearly legible on both copies of the permit.
  • Each permit has a unique serial number which must be recorded on both copies of the checksheet.

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

3-9 Collecting fees

Applicable legislation: Land Transport (Certification and Other Fees) Regulations 2014.

3.9.1 Application for inspection and certification of vehicles for in-service

The fee to be paid by an applicant for inspection and certification of a vehicle for in-service (WoF, CoF or permit) is the amount fixed by the inspecting organisation that is reasonable, having regard to:

a) the time spent in inspecting the vehicle to ascertain whether it complies with the relevant requirements, and

b) any fees payable to the NZTA, and

c) any standard or usual rate at which the inspecting organisation imposes charges for other work carried out in respect of motor vehicles.

Where a vehicle fails a WoF inspection, no additional fee is payable for any subsequent inspection by the same inspecting organisation for the purpose of the same certification, if such application is made within 28 days of the first inspection for the issue of the evidence of vehicle inspection. A fee is payable for an inspection if the vehicle is presented after the 28 days have lapsed.

  • For more information on rechecks and reinspections see 3-11 Rechecks.
3.9.2 Duplicate evidence of vehicle inspection

The inspecting organisation or vehicle inspector may charge a reasonable fee for providing a duplicate of an evidence of vehicle inspection.

When issuing a duplicate WoF or CoF label, the same requirements apply as for the original label as specified in section 3.8, that is, it must be attached by the vehicle inspector or delegated employee, and only one label may be attached to the vehicle at any time.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

3-10 Operating a vehicle without a current WoF or CoF

A person must not operate a vehicle on the road unless it has a current WoF/CoF and complies with WoF/CoF requirements.

A person may legally operate a vehicle with an expired WoF/CoF ONLY if the vehicle is being operated SOLELY for the purpose of bringing it into compliance, and provided the vehicle is safe to be operated for that purpose.

The 28 days given after a failed WoF/CoF only relate to the payment of inspection fees and when a new inspection starts, see sections 3.6.6 and 3.9. The 28 days do NOT allow a person to continue using the vehicle for a purpose other than for bringing the vehicle into compliance.

Where a vehicle still has a current WoF/CoF when it is failed, it must be brought up to compliance before it can again be operated for other purposes up to the date the WoF/CoF expires.

3-11 Rechecks

If a vehicle fails a WoF inspection, there is no fee for any subsequent inspection as long as it is done:

  • within 28 days of the first inspection where the vehicle failed, and
  • at the same inspecting organisation (does not have to be the same site if the inspecting organisation operates at more than one site).

Notes

  • In the case of split testing for heavy vehicle brakes at CoF, the 28 days start from the completion of the second phase of the split test.
  • A fee may be charged for CoF reinspections.

A fee is payable, and a new WoF or CoF inspection is required if the vehicle is presented after the 28 days have passed.

Legislation

Land Transport (Certification and Other Fees) Regulations 2014

Page added 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

4 Complaints

Customers should be encouraged to direct any complaints to the inspecting organisation in the first instance.

To ensure all written complaints received are investigated, the inspecting organisation must maintain an effective complaint management process, which must meet the following requirements:

1. a clear and concise statement that recognises the positive value of complaints

2. clear and concise instructions to all customers on how to register a complaint. This can be accomplished in several ways, for example:

a) a conspicuous notice on the workplace wall, or

b) a clear statement on any receipt or invoice issued, or

c) a clear statement on the inspecting organisation’s checksheet

3. a straightforward explanation of the expected standards for resolution and the customer’s right to appeal to the NZTA if they are dissatisfied with the proposed resolution

4. documentation of any investigation into a complaint prepared in accordance with the QMS requirements so that details of the investigation can be readily checked

5. acknowledgment of all written complaints in writing within three working days, and the investigation completed and a resolution proposed to the complainant within 20 working days of the complaint being made

6. a record of all complaints, both verbal and written, in accordance with the QMS requirements

7. directions for any customer who wishes to make a complaint or appeal a decision made by an inspecting organisation to contact the NZTA Helpdesk (0800 699 000).

Dealing with disputed failed CoF inspections for vehicles subject to the Operator Rating System (ORS)

Where the operator of a vehicle subject to ORS queries a failed inspection, please follow the Operator issue resolution process – disputed failed inspections in section 3-9-3 of the LATIS manual (password required).

Vehicle operators may be referred to the Transport Agency website for more information about querying failed CoF inspection results.

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

5 Inspection premises and equipment


5.1 General requirements
  • The inspecting organisation must continue to comply with the applicable requirements in this section.
  • The inspecting organisation must maintain their premises and equipment in a good state of repair at all times while conducting inspection and certification activities.
  • The inspecting organisation must use any specified equipment when inspecting a vehicle, where appropriate.
  • Inspection equipment must meet equipment manufacturer’s requirements and have current calibration.
  • Brake performance testing equipment must be calibrated at least every 12 months, or more frequently if required by the equipment manufacturer, or following any maintenance that may alter the calibration.
  • Inspections must take place in the inspection area, using the approved or specified equipment, unless otherwise permitted by the Transport Agency.
  • It is the IO’s responsibility to ensure that the inspection premises and equipment it uses comply with Occupational Health and Safety requirements, and any other relevant Acts, regulations and local bylaws.
5.2 Administration requirements

Feature

Minimum requirement

Examples and things to consider

Administration

  • Access to the vehicle inspection portal for the VIRMs, forms, news and other information relevant to vehicle inspections
  • Access to WoF-online and user charts, or access to Landata and the agents portal for the LATIS manual, to record inspections
  • Administration equipment must be located and operated from a location where the public does not have access when staff are not present.
  • CoF only: ability to provide Certificate of Loading certificates (CoL printer and media)
  • Controlled documents (WoF/CoF labels, CoL labels and check sheets) must be securely stored and kept locked away outside normal business hours to protect from public access
  • Equipment must be in good condition and working order

To connect to our computer systems, you must operate Windows 7, 8.1 or 10 and use Internet Explorer 11 (IE11) to connect. These are the only operating systems that are supported by the Transport Agency to ensure security to our systems.

5. 3 Inspection site requirements
Feature

Minimum requirement

Examples and things to consider

Access to and exit from inspection area

No requirements; however, if the site has access restrictions for a particular standard legal size vehicle, that vehicle will not be able to be inspected at the site.

A standard legal size vehicle is one that either:

  • meets Table 4.1 the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Dimensions and Mass 2002, or
  • a high productivity motor vehicle

Inspection area

The inspection area needs to be situated within a building that has a roof, sides and doors made of permanent materials, and a solid and level floor so that a vehicle or vehicle combination remains stationary when parked in neutral with all brakes off, and there must be sufficient clearance (width, length and height) to allow doors to be fully opened and all inspection actions to be carried out.

Room for suspension test bars, room to view roof structure for corrosion/damage and raise vehicle, room to check headlamps.

Lighting

  • There must be sufficient suitable lighting in the inspection area, including underbody.
  • An inspection lamp is required.

Required for vehicle exterior, interior and underbody inspections. (If you meet AS/NZS 1680 that will be suitable.)

Underbody examination, including running gear

Ability to carry out inspection of the underside of the vehicle, including structure, running gear, steering, brake systems and suspension by means of a pit, hoist, fixed ramp, or other equipment enabling adequate inspection of the underbody of the vehicle.

Examples:

  • Four-post vehicle hoist and industrial-quality trolley jack.
  • Inspection pit with in-pit jack.
  • Two-post hoist with a method of completing laden steering test.
  • Inspection pit and industrial-quality trolley jack.
  • Four-post vehicle hoist with built-in jacking mechanism.
  • Fixed ramp and industrial-quality trolley jack.
  • Motorcycle jack/stand

Note: Axle stands and creepers will not be approved for use as part of the vehicle inspection of standard vehicles unless specifically for use at a specified site.

Steel test bar or similar for steering and suspension, or a steering or suspension test machine.

5.4 Inspection equipment requirements
Feature

Minimum requirement

Examples and things to consider

Vehicle dimensions

Measuring device(s) appropriate for the vehicle being inspected. The measurement must be taken with a single measure.

Required to confirm interior and exterior vehicle dimensions, e.g. overall length, width or height or passenger service vehicle (PSV) seat spacing. A 3m and a 25m measuring tape will be appropriate for most vehicles.

Tyres

Device for measuring tyre tread depth.

Graduated tyre tread depth gauge.

Brake testing

  • WoF – Access to a Transport Agency-approved decelerometer and level test strip, or a Transport Agency-approved brake testing machine (see section 5.5 for list of approved brake testers).
  • CoF A (light) – Transport Agency-approved plate or roller brake machine for all classes of vehicle, except classes LC and LD and certain special vehicles where access to a Transport Agency-approved decelerometer and level test strip is the minimum that is required (see section 5.6 for list of approved brake testers).
  • CoF B (heavy) – Transport Agency-approved roller brake machine (RBM) (refer to Heavy vehicle brake testing: CoF and entry certificate brake test protocol and procedures). For certain special vehicles, access to a Transport Agency-approved decelerometer and level test strip will be required (see section 5.7 for list of approved brake testers).
  • Air gauge (minimum 1000kPa), and fittings that enable the air gauge to be attached to a duomatic coupling.
  • Stopwatch or timing equipment.

Level access either side of a roller brake machine: such that the vehicle or vehicle combination remains stationary when in neutral with the brakes off; and that allows the vehicle to enter and exit the RBM in a straight line so that all axles can be tested correctly.
Access to a Transport Agency-approved decelerometer and level test strip will be required if testing vehicles for which RBM testing is not appropriate or if the RBM is inoperative for any reason and you want to continue to offer CoF inspections temporarily while it is repaired or a replacement can be organised. For heavy vehicles, see approval requirements for alternative brake testing in heavy vehicle brake testing: CoF and entry certificate brake test protocol and procedure.

Headlamps

Commercial-quality optical headlamp beam tester (or for motorcycles only, a graduated light board).

 

Vision

Equipment optional. If checking light transmission through glazing using a light transmission measuring device, it must be calibrated.

A 35% VLT tint sample or a calibrated light transmission meter.

Heavy vehicle towing connections

  • 40mm tow pin wear indicator gauge
  • 50mm tow pin wear indicator gauge
  • 40mm tow eye wear indicator gauge
  • 50mm tow eye wear indicator gauge
  • Method of inspecting ball-race turntables.

Steel test bar for ball-race turntables or similar.

PSV door test

Test bar and spring force scale for checking power-operated door closing force (refer to Technical bulletin 5 for test bar technical specifications).

 

Taximeter testing

  • Surveyed test strip (mandatory)
  • Calibrated rolling road (optional)
  • Meter seal kit
  • Stopwatch.

Not part of CoF inspection but required if you also want to carry out taximeter calibration checks.
Refer to Technical bulletin 4 for requirements.

5.5 Approved brake test equipment (WoF)

Note The vehicle inspector must use an approved brake tester when carrying out the brake test. Should the tester break down, or a vehicle cannot reasonably be tested with that tester, the vehicle must be tested with another approved brake tester or undergo the brake distance test.

Manufacturer

Models

Gazette notice details

AECS SST 10SST 1015 December 2016, No 118

Anzen

BS52FL Roller brake testing machine

26 October 1989, No 189, p 5299

Autoteknik

Portable truck brake testing machine Model No BM20200

30 January 1997, No 8, p 190

Model No BM8010 (with or without the facility to test the brakes on dedicated 4WD vehicles)

2 May 1996, No 41, p 1182

BMX200 Roller brake testing machine

12 November 1998, No 184, p 4350

BMX010 Turbo roller brake testing machine

14 January 1999, No 246, p 65

Model BM17200

10 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

Auto Test Products

AutoStop Mini 1.0
AutoStop Maxi 6.2 and 6.2x
AutoStop HVBM

5 December 2000, No 164, p 4262

AutoStop Micro Plus
AutoStop Mini Plus

3 March 2011, No 23, p 623

Banzai

BBT51S Roller brake testing machine

26 August 1989, No 189, p 5299

Bear

450, 451, 452, 4510 and 4511

7 March 1957, No 20, p 449

BM Autoteknik

BM17200

1 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

BM7010

31 October 2000, No 150, p 3866

BM30200 (upgraded Crypton EB30)

5 December 2000, No 164, p 4262

BM63200 (upgraded Crypton 630)

12 March 2002, No 28, p 626

BM3010, BM9010, BM12200

5 April 2001, No 37, p 829

14200 series

17 April 2008, No 73, p 2055

BM4010

14 December 2006, No 172, p 5032

BM182006 April 2017, No 37, 2017-au1651

Bowmonk

Brake Check Model 801

25 May 2006, No 46, p 1232

Bowmonk

Brake Check Model 803

25 May 2006, No 46, p 1232

Bowmonk

Model MkIII Dynamometer

25 August 1960, No 54, p 1281

CEMB

DCA 3 Roller brake testing machine

10 June 1999, No 67, p 1549

DCA5-FN3

25 June 2009, No. 94, p 2117

Circuitlink

Brake Check

22 May 2003, No 53, p 1380

Brake-Testa Model BT1

25 May 1995, No 50, p 1282

Crypton

Crypton Bradbury E10 dynamic brake tester

16 March 1967, No 16, p 384

Crypton Models 630 and 660 Roller brake testing machine

26 October 1989, No 189, p 5299

Crypton 690A brake tester

14 August 2003, No 101, p 2689

Hammar

Dynometer 54

21 March 1968, No 15, p 474

Hartridge

MkII Brake tester

3 September 1970, No 53, p 1574

Hoffman Werkstatt

Brekon 131-3
Brekon 131-4 and 4S
Safeline Pro testing lanes that include one of the following:
Brekon 130-3
Brekon 130-4 and 4S
Safeline Truck testing lanes that include brake testing devices suitable for 10, 13, 16 or 18 t axle load at a test speed of 2.6, 2.8, 5.2, or 5.6 km/h

25 September 2001, No 135, p 3469

Brekon 141-3 and 141-4

9 November 2006, No. 132, p 3837

HPA

Models 2302, 2303, and 2313-MK Roller brake testing machine

22 March 1973, No 23, p 524

Model 5023 Roller brake testing machine

29 June 1995, No 64, p 1733

Model LX5004.138.009 Roller brake testing machine

21 March 1996, No 28, p 867

Hunter

B400 Plate Brake Tester

19 September 1991, No 140, p 2992

B404 Plate Brake Tester

22 August 1991, No 126, p 2727

Intertech

Model No HH650 EV

7 March 1996, No 23, p 735

JevolModel BT390020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model BT220020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model PBT390020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model PBT220020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model RRT-25002 June 2016, No 50
Model RRT-2500W2 June 2016, No 50
Model RRT-750021 August 2014, No 96, p2732
Model RRT-7500M27 November 2014, No 143
Model RRT-95005 February 2015, No 13

Kismet

Model Nos KBT 300, 301 and 302

22 March 1973, No 23, p 524

MAHA

MAHA PP2 Platform brake tester (digital and analogue)

6 October 1988, No 170, p 3973

MAHA Platform brake tester Model Junior-Check 2P

14 September 1995, No 99, p 3102

MAHA Platform brake tester MPP 2240

9 June 2011, No 81, p1909

MAHA Roller brake testing machine Model IW 2 Series

24 February 1994, No 16, p 914

MAHA Roller brake testing machine Model IW 4

21 March 1996, No 28, p 867

MAHA Roller brake tester Model IW 7 Mobile

15 June 2006, No 52, p 1430

MAHA Roller brake tester Model MBT 2100

17 December 2009, No 188, p4524

MBT 5250 and MBT 4250 Eurosystem (was Model IW 4)17 October 2013, No 143, p 3914
 MTL 525016 February 2017, No 2017-au642

Muller BEM

Billanmatic series 45200, 43300, 44800, 44700
Note the model number may also include B, 2V, B-2V Billanmatic series 7300, 7500, 7700, 8600, 10000

5 December 2000, No 164, p 4262

Nepean

Model Barbie 14104 Vehicle inspection trailer

11 June 1998, No 79, p 1760

Nissalco

Model IM2581 Roller brake tester

3 December 1981, No 145, p 3661

Model M2581 Super-Combi Tester

24 June 1999, No 75, p 1696

PlateTronic

Models Pitstop 2P, Pitstop 4P Platebrake tester

9 April 2009, No 48, p 1177

21 August 2014, No 96, p 2732

12 March 2015, No 24

Shenzhen Cosber Industrial Co Ltd

Model Cosber KZD-3 series of roller brake testing machines

25 September 2008, No 143, p 3901

SherpaBS Kompact 3.527 November 2014, No 143
PBT-24-475711 May 2017, No. 49, 2017-au2196

Simaret

Models Simaret BrakeSafe, Simaret 3000, Simaret F

12 November 1998, No 184, p 4350

Tapley

Tapley portable brake tester

7 March 1957, No 20, p 449

Tecalemit

Model No DE 5000 CU Roller brake testing machine

22 February 1996, No 15, p 508

Tiangle

Brake testing instruments Commercial Vehicle Model and Standard Model (Ref. DBT2)

5 May 1966, No 25, p 737

VamagRBT-C2 June 2016, No 50
RBT3500 C716 March 2017, No 29, 2017-au1231
RBT3500 XS16 March 2017, No 29, 2017-au1232

Vane

Vane Bowmonk dynometer

16 March 1967, No 16, p 384

Van Leeuwen Test Systems B.V.VLT 423 roller brake machine16 January 2014, No 4, p129

Vehicle Inspection Systems Pty Ltd

VIS-Check, VIS-TF-RL and VIS-VE-RL

4 March 2010, No 25, p 580

Vericom

Model VC2000 and VC2000PC brake testing computers

26 October 1995, No 122, p 3775

Model VC3000

27 March 2003, No 30, p 847

Vipac

Model VBT101 brake-tester

23 June 1994, No 62, p 2089, or
25 May 1995, No 50, p 1282

VTEQ S.L. (Spain)
(previously BCN)

VTEQ 3080

14 August 2003, No 101, p 2689

VTEQ 2080

17 February 2004, No 17, p 372

VTEQ 6000 (analogue)

VTEQ 7000 (digital)

9 November 2006, No. 132, p 3837

Weaver

WY-25, WY-30, WY-40S, WY-55, WY-60, WY-70S, WY-75 and WY-76

7 March 1957, No 20, p 449

5.6 Approved brake test equipment (CoF – light vehicles)

Note The vehicle inspector must use an approved brake tester when carrying out the brake test. Should the tester break down, or a vehicle cannot reasonably be tested with that tester, the vehicle must be tested with another approved brake tester (including a decelerometer listed in section 5.5) or undergo the brake stopping distance test.

Manufacturer

Models

Gazette notice details

AECS SST 10SST 1015 December 2016, No 118

Anzen

BS52FL Roller brake testing machine

26 October 1989, No 189, p 5299

Autoteknik

Portable truck brake testing machine Model No BM20200

30 January 1997, No 8, p 190

Model No BM8010 (with or without the facility to test the brakes on dedicated 4WD vehicles)

2 May 1996, No 41, p 1182

BMX200 Roller brake testing machine

12 November 1998, No 184, p 4350

BMX010 Turbo roller brake testing machine

14 January 1999, No 246, p 65

Model BM17200

10 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

Banzai

BBT51S Roller brake testing machine

26 August 1989, No 189, p 5299

BM Autoteknik

BM17200

1 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

BM7010

31 October 2000, No 150, p 3866

BM30200 (upgraded Crypton EB30)

5 December 2000, No 164, p 4262

BM63200 (upgraded Crypton 630)

12 March 2002, No 28, p 626

BM3010, BM9010, BM12200

5 April 2001, No 37, p 829

14200 series

17 April 2008, No 73, p 2055

BM4010

14 December 2006, No 172, p 5032

BM182006 April 2017, No 37, 2017-au1651

CEMB

DCA 3 Roller brake testing machine

10 June 1999, No 67, p 1549

DCA5-FN3

25 June 2009, No. 94, p 2117

Crypton

Crypton Bradbury E10 dynamic brake tester

16 March 1967, No 16, p 384

Crypton Models 630 and 660 Roller brake testing machine

26 October 1989, No 189, p 5299

Crypton 690A brake tester

14 August 2003, No 101, p 2689

Hammar

Dynometer 54

21 March 1968, No 15, p 474

Hartridge

MkII Brake tester

3 September 1970, No 53, p 1574

Hoffman Werkstatt

Brekon 131-3
Brekon 131-4 and 4S
Safeline Pro testing lanes that include one of the following:
Brekon 130-3
Brekon 130-4 and 4S
Safeline Truck testing lanes that include brake testing devices suitable for 10, 13, 16 or 18 t axle load at a test speed of 2.6, 2.8, 5.2, or 5.6 km/h

25 September 2001, No 135, p 3469

Brekon 141-3 and 141-4

9 November 2006, No. 132, p 3837

HPA

Models 2302, 2303, and 2313-MK Roller brake testing machine

22 March 1973, No 23, p 524

Model 5023 Roller brake testing machine

29 June 1995, No 64, p 1733

Model LX5004.138.009 Roller brake testing machine

21 March 1996, No 28, p 867

Hunter

B400 Plate Brake Tester

19 September 1991, No 140, p 2992

B404 Plate Brake Tester

22 August 1991, No 126, p 2727

Intertech

Model No HH650 EV

7 March 1996, No 23, p 735

JevolModel BT220020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model BT390020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model PBT220020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model PBT390020 April 2018, 2018-au1916
Model RRT-25002 June 2016, No 50
Model RRT-2500W2 June 2016, No 50
Model RRT-750021 August 2014, No 96, p2732
Model RRT-7500M 27 November 2014, No 143
Model RRT-95005 February 2015, No 13

Kismet

Model Nos KBT 300, 301 and 302

22 March 1973, No 23, p 524

MAHA

MAHA PP2 Platform brake tester (digital and analogue)

6 October 1988, No 170, p 3973

MAHA Platform brake tester Model Junior-Check 2P

14 September 1995, No 99, p 3102

MAHA Platform brake tester MPP 2240

9 June 2011, No 81, p1909

MAHA Roller brake testing machine Model IW 2 Series

24 February 1994, No 16, p 914

MAHA Roller brake testing machine Model IW 4

21 March 1996, No 28, p 867

MAHA Roller brake tester Model IW 7 Mobile

15 June 2006, No 52, p 1430

MAHA Roller brake tester Model MBT 2100

17 December 2009, No 188, p4524

MBT 5250 and MBT 4250 Eurosystem (was Model IW 4)17 October 2013, No 143, p 3914
MTL 525016 February 2017, No 2017-au642

Muller BEM

Billanmatic series 45200, 43300, 44800, 44700
Note the model number may also include B, 2V, B-2V Billanmatic series 7300, 7500, 7700, 8600, 10000

5 December 2000, No 164, p 4262

Nepean

Model Barbie 14104 Vehicle inspection trailer

11 June 1998, No 79, p 1760

Nissalco

Model IM2581 Roller brake tester

3 December 1981, No 145, p 3661

Model M2581 Super-Combi Tester

24 June 1999, No 75, p 1696

PlateTronic

Models Pitstop 2P, Pitstop 4P Platebrake tester

9 April 2009, No 48, p 1177

21 August 2014, No 96, p 2732

12 March 2015, No 24

Shenzhen Cosber Industrial Co Ltd

Model Cosber KZD-3 series of roller brake testing machines

25 September 2008, No 143, p 3901

SherpaBS Kompact 3.527 November 2014, No 143
PBT-24-475711 May 2017, No. 49, 2017-au2196

Tecalemit

Model No DE 5000 CU Roller brake testing machine

22 February 1996, No 15, p 508

VamagRBT-C2 June 2016, No 50
RBT3500 C716 March 2017, No 29, 2017-au1231
RBT3500 XS16 March 2017, No 29, 2017-au1232
Van Leeuwen Test Systems B.V.VLT 423 roller brake machine16 January 2014, No 4, p129

Vehicle Inspection Systems Pty Ltd

VIS-Check, VIS-TF-RL and VIS-VE-RL

4 March 2010, No 25, p 580

VTEQ S.L. (Spain)
(previously BCN)

VTEQ 3080

14 August 2003, No 101, p 2689

VTEQ 2080

17 February 2004, No 17, p 372

VTEQ 6000 (analogue)

VTEQ 7000 (digital)

9 November 2006, No. 132, p 3837

Weaver

WY-25, WY-30, WY-40S, WY-55, WY-60, WY-70S, WY-75 and WY-76

7 March 1957, No 20, p 449

5.7 Approved brake test equipment (CoF - heavy vehicles)

Note A decelerometer from the WoF list under 5.1.7 may be used only under special circumstances, such as the roller brake machine breaking down unexpectedly, or being presented with a vehicle that cannot be reasonably tested on the roller brake machine. Refer to Heavy vehicle brake testing protocol for detailed requirements.

An approved independently qualified persons list is also available.

Manufacturer

Models

Gazette notice details

AECS SST 45 20 April 2018, 2018-au1907

Autoteknik

Portable truck brake testing machine Model No BM 20200

30 January 1997, No 8, p 190

Model BM 17200

10 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

BM Autotecknik

BM17200

1 August 2000, No 89, p 2184

BM12200

5 April 2001, No 37, p 829

BM18200 6 April 2017, No 37, 2017-au1650

ESPI.ME

ESPI-VIS roller brake machine 16 January 2014, No 4, p128
Jevol Model RRT-7500 21 August 2014, No 96, p2732
Model RRT-7500M 27 November 2014, No 143
Model RRT-9500 5 February 2015, No 13
MAHA

MAHA Roller brake testing machine Model IW 4

21 March 1996, No 28, p 867

MAHA Roller brake tester Model IW 7 Mobile

15 June 2006, No 52, p 1430

MBT 5250 and MBT 4250 Eurosystem (was Model IW 4) 17 October 2013, No 143, p 3914

MBT 7250 EUROSYSTEM

29 May 2018, No 2018-au2604
MTL 5250 16 February 2017, No 2017-au642

Nepean

Model Barbie 14104 Vehicle inspection trailer

11 June 1998, No 79, p 1760

Simaret

Models Simaret BrakeSafe, Simaret 3000, Simaret F

12 November 1998, No 184, p 4350

Tiangle

Brake testing instrument Commercial Vehicle Model

5 May 1966, No 25, p 737

Vamag

RBT-C

2 June 2016, No 50

RBT/CMS FW

20 April 2018, No 2018-au2606

Van  Leeuwen Test Systems B.V.

VLT 14033 and VLT 140033 roller  brake machines

VLT 16033 and VLT 160033 roller brake machines
16  January 2014, No 4, p 129

Vehicle Inspection Systems Pty Ltd

VIS-Check, VIS-TF-RL and VIS-VE-RL

4 March 2010, No 25, p 580

Vericom

Model VC2000 and VC2000PC Brake testing computers

26 October 1995, No 122, p 3775

Model VC3000

27 March 2003, No 30, p 847

VTEQ S.L. (Spain)

VTEQ 7000 (digital)

November 2006, No 132, p3837

Page amended 1 November 2017 (see amendment details)

Page updated 8 June 2018 (see details)

6 Appointments


6.1 Vehicle inspectors

Application packs may be obtained from, and completed application packs must be sent to:
Website

vehicleinspection.nzta.govt.nz/applications

Applications may be completed and submitted online.

Emailinspectors@nzta.govt.nz
Mail

Licencing Assessments - Vehicle Inspectors
NZ Transport Agency
Palmerston North Office
Private Bag 11777
Palmerston North 4442

Phone0800 587 287
Fax06 953 6201
6.1.1 Warrant of Fitness
An applicant may apply for appointment to inspect one or more of the following categories of vehicles:
  • Light trailers (class TA, TB)
  • General vehicles (class LE, MA, MB, MC, MD1, NA), includes light tractors, light forklifts and light unclassified vehicles
  • Motorcycles (class LC, LD, LE)
  • Heavy motor vehicles exempt CoF (includes tractors, forklifts, unclassified vehicles)
  • Tractors only
  • Forklifts only.

The applicant must meet all of the following requirements:

a) have the following qualifications/work experience:

i. be qualified as an automotive technician with either NZ Trade Certificate, National A-Grade Registration, NZ Advanced Trade Certificate or equivalent, or

ii. be qualified as an automotive technician with either National Certificate in Automotive Engineering, National Registration or equivalent, and three years relevant work experience, or

iii. have worked full-time carrying out repairs and maintenance to all safety aspects of light motor vehicles for at least five years cumulatively

Note 1

Overseas qualifications must be recognized in New Zealand through the NZ Qualifications Authority (NZQA).

Note 2

Vehicle inspectors currently or wishing to be appointed to inspect general vehicles under this clause may, on application, also be appointed to inspect motorcycles if they are able to provide evidence of:

i. appropriate training on motorcycle repairs, maintenance or inspections (may be external or internal training), or

ii. appropriate work experience repairing, maintaining or inspecting motorcycles (other practical experience, such as repairing and servicing own motorcycles, will be considered).

Note 3

Vehicle inspectors wishing to be appointed to inspect heavy motor vehicles exempt from CoF, tractors and/or forklifts must be able to provide evidence of appropriate training or work experience in the repair, maintenance or inspection of these vehicles.

b) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of the requirements in the VIRM: In-service certification, sufficient to inspect and certify a vehicle

c) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of common vehicles and their:

i. structure, including glazing and external projections

ii. suspension, steering and braking systems

iii. safety equipment, including seatbelts and airbags

iv. lighting system requirements

d) be a fit and proper person (section 2.6 of the Rule - see also Fit and proper person guidelines). The criteria considered with any application include:

i. relevant criminal convictions

ii. transport related offences

iii. relevant warnings, penalties and disciplinary actions imposed

iv. relevant complaints

v. the public interest and land transport safety

e) have a current driver licence for the class(es) of vehicles to be inspected

f) agree to and sign the Code of conduct.

6.1.2 Certificate of Fitness - light vehicles (CoF A)

An applicant may apply for appointment to inspect one or both of the following categories of vehicles:

  • Light vehicles except motorcycles (class LE, MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2, NA)
  • Motorcycles (class LC, LD, LE)

The applicant must meet all of the following requirements:

a) have the following qualifications/work experience:

i. be qualified as an automotive technician with either NZ Trade Certificate, National A-Grade Registration, NZ Advanced Trade Certificate or equivalent, or

ii. be qualified as an automotive technician with either National Certificate in Automotive Engineering, National Registration or equivalent, and three years relevant work experience, or

iii. have worked full-time carrying out repairs and maintenance to all safety aspects of light motor vehicles for at least five years cumulatively.

Note 1

Overseas qualifications must be recognized in New Zealand through the NZ Qualifications Authority (NZQA).

Note 2

Vehicle inspectors currently or wishing to be appointed to inspect general vehicles under this clause may, on application, also be appointed to inspect motorcycles if they are able to provide evidence of:

i. appropriate training on motorcycle repairs, maintenance or inspections (may be external or internal training), or

ii. appropriate work experience repairing, maintaining or inspecting motorcycles (other practical experience, such as repairing and servicing own motorcycles, will be considered).

b) have completed a certificate in vehicle inspection (CoFA)

c) must be a current WoF inspector for general vehicles (and/or motorcycles where appropriate)

d) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of the requirements in the VIRM: In-service certification, sufficient to inspect and certify a vehicle

e) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of common vehicles and their:

i. structure, including glazing and external projections

ii. suspension, steering and braking systems

iii. safety equipment, including seatbelts and airbags

iv. lighting system requirements

f) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of light passenger vehicles and their requirements, including entry requirements (see PSV sections in the VIRM: Entry certification)

g) be a fit and proper person (section 2.6 of the Rule - see also Fit and proper person guidelines). The criteria considered with any application include:

i. relevant criminal convictions

ii. transport-related offences

iii. relevant warnings, penalties and disciplinary actions imposed

iv. relevant complaints

v. the public interest and land transport safety

h) have a current driver licence for the class(es) of vehicles to be inspected

i) agree to and sign the Code of conduct.

6.1.3 Certificate of fitness - heavy vehicles (CoF B)

An applicant may only apply for one of the two following categories at a time. Heavy PSVs may only be applied for after the applicant has held their current appointment for heavy vehicles except PSVs for a minimum of two months:

  • Heavy vehicles except PSVs (class NB, NC, TC, TD), or
  • Heavy PSVs (class MD3, MD4, ME).

The applicant must meet all of the following requirements:

a) be qualified as:

i. an automotive technician with either NZ Trade Certificate, National A-Grade Registration, or NZ Advanced Trade Certificate or equivalent and three years relevant workshop experience performing vehicle maintenance and repair work

ii. an automotive technician with either National Certificate in Automotive Engineering, National Registration or equivalent and three years relevant work experience

iii. a person who has worked in full-time employment carrying out repairs and maintenance to all safety aspects of heavy motor vehicles for at least five years cumulatively.

Note 1

Overseas qualifications must be recognized in New Zealand through the NZ Qualifications Authority (NZQA).

b) have completed the relevant certificate in vehicle inspection (CoF B)

c) must have completed roller brake machine (RBM) training by a Transport Agency approved RBM training provider

d) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of the requirements in the VIRM: In-service certification, sufficient to inspect and certify a vehicle

e) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of common vehicles and their:

i. structures, including glazing and external projections, and

ii. suspensions, steering and braking systems, and

iii. tow connections and load anchorages, and

iv. lighting system requirements

f) demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of heavy passenger service vehicles and their requirements (applicable to MD3, MD4 and ME classes only), including entry requirements (see PSV sections in the VIRM: Entry certification)

g) be a fit and proper person (section 2.6 of the Rulee - see also Fit and proper person guidelines). The criteria considered with any application include:

i. relevant criminal convictions

ii. transport-related offences

iii. relevant warnings, penalties and disciplinary actions imposed

iv. relevant complaints

v. the public interest and land transport safety

h) have a current and correct class of driver licence to drive the class of vehicles being inspected. Where a class 5 vehicle does not have to be driven by the vehicle inspector who is conducting the inspection, the minimum class of licence to be held is a class 4 licence.

i) agree to and sign the Code of conduct.

6.1.4 Requirements to retain appointment

Vehicle inspectors are appointed for a three year term. (Note: The three year term commences from the date of appointment for all new vehicle inspectors appointed on or after December 1 2014. For vehicle inspectors appointed prior to December 1 2014 the three year re-appointment process commences from the day they sign up to and agree to the new NZ Transport Agency Vehicle Inspector Code of Conduct).

To maintain appointment, a vehicle inspector must carry out a minimum total of 25 vehicle inspections per 12-month period, including at least one in each of the following categories for which they are appointed:

  • WoF
  • CoF (light vehicles)
  • CoF (heavy vehicles).

Note: The total of 25 inspections per year requirement commences from the date of appointment for all new vehicle inspectors appointed on or after December 1 2014. For vehicle inspectors appointed prior to December 1 2014 the minimum of 25 inspections per year commences from the day the vehicle inspectors signs up to and agrees to the NZ Transport Agency Vehicle Inspector Code of Conduct. Exceptions can be made. This must be approved in writing by the Transport Agency. These include, but are not limited to, a NZ Police CVST Vehicle Safety Officer or NZ Defence Force Inspectors not issuing due to overseas posting.

A vehicle inspector's appointment category may be revoked if it is not used within a 12-month period.

6.2 Inspecting organisations

Application packs may be obtained from, and completed application packs must be sent to:
Website

vehicleinspection.nzta.govt.nz/applications

Applications may be completed and submitted online.

Emailvehicleinspections@nzta.govt.nz
Mail

Vehicle Inspections
NZ Transport Agency
Palmerston North Office
Private Bag 11777
Palmerston North 4442

Phone0800 587 287

WoF and/or CoF inspecting organisations must:

a) meet the requirements for inspection premises and equipment, and

b) be fit and proper (section 2.6 of the Rule - see also Fit and proper person guidelines). The criteria considered with any application include:

i. relevant criminal convictions

ii. transport-related offences

iii. relevant warnings, penalties and disciplinary actions imposed

iv. relevant complaints

v. the public interest and land transport safety, and

c) have currently employed a vehicle inspector approved for the relevant classes of vehicles

d) advise which quality management system (QMS) they will be operating under

e) agree to the Notice of appointment.

Page amended 1 May 2017 (see amendment details).

7 Definitions and abbreviations


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


A-train

means an articulated vehicle towing a full trailer.

Affix

in relation to a vehicle identifier, means stamp, emboss, etch or engrave onto

a) the permanent structure of a motor vehicle, or

b) a plate affixed to the permanent structure of a vehicle.

Agricultural

in relation to purposes or operations, means connected directly with the operation or management of a farm.

Agricultural motor vehicle a) means a motor vehicle that is designed, constructed or adapted for agricultural purposes, and includes:

i) an agricultural trailer, and

ii) an agricultural tractor, but

b) does not include any vehicle that is:

i) of a class specified in section 3-2 of the Introduction, and

ii) designed or constructed for general road use.

Agricultural purpose includes:

a) land cultivation

b) growing and harvesting crops (including horticulture and viticulture)

c) rearing livestock

d) any land management operation undertaken in connection with the operation or management of a farm.

  • Agricultural purpose does not include forestry, or any land management operation not referred to in (a) to (d) above.
Agricultural tractor means a vehicle that is designed and constructed principally for the purposes of:

a) towing an agricultural trailer, or

b) drawing, or powering, an implement ordinarily used for an agricultural purpose.

Agricultural trailer

means:

a) a trailer that is used exclusively for agricultural purposes, and

b) includes a wheeled agricultural implement, the wheels of which are in contact with the road when the implement is being towed; but

c) does not include a trailer that is

i. designed for the carriage of goodsoperated at a speed exceeding 40km/h, or

ii. a logging trailer.

Air brake

means a brake, the operation of which requires the use of compressed air.

All-terrain vehicle (ATV)

means a vehicle, with or without motor cycle controls and equipment, that:

a) is principally designed for off-road use, and

b) has three or more wheels, and

c) has an engine capacity exceeding 50 ml, and

d) has a gross weight of less than 1000 kg.

Alley lamp

means a work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of a vehicle to which it is fitted.

Alternative fuel inspection certificate

means evidence of vehicle inspection relating to the periodic in-service inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel installation certificate or compliance plate

means an inspection and certification document relating to the installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel system

means a fuel storage and conducting system that is used to provide liquid petroleum gas, compressed natural gas or any other pressurised liquid or gaseous fuel (other than petrol or diesel) for the purpose of propulsion of a vehicle.

Alternative fuel system inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system comprising either

a) specialist inspection and certification required for the issuing of an alternative fuel installation certificate or an alternative fuel installation compliance plate, or

b) in-service inspection and certification required for the issuing of an alternative fuel inspection certificate.

Ambulance

means a motor vehicle designed and used principally for the carriage of sick or injured persons.

Ambulance service

means a service that complies with the requirements in NZS 8156:2002 Ambulance Sector Standard, and is generally a vehicle marked and identified as an ambulance.

Anti-glare band overlay

means a tinted overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the top edge of the windscreen for the purpose of reducing glare from the sun.

Anti-lock braking system (ABS)

means a device that senses that one or more of the wheels is starting to lock up during braking and regulates the braking forces automatically and effectively to prevent it.

Applicable requirement

means any requirement specified or incorporated in an Act, regulation, code or rule that applies to the design, construction, condition, equipment, modification, repair or maintenance of a specific vehicle. All applicable requirements for in-service inspection and certification are contained in this manual.

Approved

in relation to an appliance, apparatus, device, system, component, equipment or fitting, means approved by NZTA.

Articulated bus

means a bus consisting of two or more rigid sections that:

a) articulate relative to each other, and

b) have interconnecting passenger compartments that allow passengers to move freely between them, and

c) are not easily detachable from each other without specialist equipment.

Articulated vehicle

means any motor vehicle with a semi-trailer attached, so that part of the semi-trailer is superimposed upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the semi-trailer and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle.

Asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp

means a dipped-beam headlamp that emits a beam of light with a distinct horizontal cut-off from at least the centre to the edge of the beam.

At a height not exceeding

in relation to lighting equipment fitted to a vehicle, means the height above which no part of the illuminated area of the equipment extends when the vehicle is at its gross vehicle mass and when each tyre with which the vehicle is fitted is inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Auxiliary brake

means a device, other than a service brake or parking brake, fitted to a vehicle to enable the driver to control its speed, whether or not it is suitable to stop the vehicle.

Average deceleration

means the average deceleration during braking, which is either the mean value of deceleration during braking or the deceleration calculated from the distance travelled during the period when the deceleration occurred and the difference between the speed immediately before and after that.

Axle

means one or more shafts, spindles, or bearings in the same vertical transverse plane by means of which, in conjunction with wheels mounted on those shafts, spindles, or bearings, a portion of the weight of the vehicle is transmitted to the roadway, and:

a) if two or more wheels of a motor vehicle are substantially in the same line transversely and some or all of them have separate axles, the axles of all those wheels are to be treated as one axle;

b) if the longitudinal centre-line of an axle of a motor vehicle is less than 1m distant from the longitudinal centre-line of another axle, the two axles are to be treated as one axle (“a dual axle”);

c) for the purposes of measuring the distance of a dual axle from any other axle, the measurement is taken from the longitudinal centreline of the axle that is nearer to the axle from which the distance is to be measured.

Axle set

means a single axle set, a tandem axle set, a twin-steer axle set, a tri-axle set or a quad-axle set.

Axle stop device

means a device to control the movement of the axle in the event of suspension failure.

B-train

means a motor vehicle comprising a towing vehicle and two semi-trailers connected at two points of articulation where the forward distance of the longer trailer divided by the forward distance of the shorter trailer does not exceed 1.4.

Ballrace turntable

means a device incorporating a low friction ball bearing fitted between two substantial structural components of a vehicle to enable rotational motion between those components about a vertical axis.

Beacon

means a warning lamp comprising one or more light sources designed to emit a flashing light or a revolving beam of light.

Body

means the part of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants or to hold any goods, and (for PSVs) includes all of the portion of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants and their luggage, and to hold any goods that may be carried.

Body transfer vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is used primarily for the transportation of deceased persons.

Bolster Attachment Code

means the Bolster Attachment Code of the Log Transport Safety Council, approved by the NZTA.

Brake

means a system to reduce the speed of a vehicle, to stop the vehicle or to keep the vehicle stationary.

Brake circuit

means the combination of components that functionally links the brake control and the foundation brake. The circuit may be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical or a mix of these.

Brake coupling

means the device for connecting the control and supply lines of the towing vehicle to the control and supply lines of the trailer.

Brake friction material

means a brake component having a friction surface that is designed to be preferentially sacrificed.

Brake friction surface

means any surface of a brake component that is designed to convert kinetic energy to heat.

Brake lining

means a brake lining in the case of a drum brake, and a brake pad in the case of a disc brake.

Brake lining assembly

means a component of a friction brake, including a brake lining and its backing plate or a brake lining and its brake shoe, that is pressed against the brake disc or drum to produce friction force.

Brake pedal assembly

means an assembly containing the brake pedal and pedal pivot, pedal bracket, pedal return spring and associated components.

Brake reservoir

means a device designed and constructed to store fluid, compressed air, compressed gas or vacuum; does not include pipes, valves, hoses or booster cylinders operated by vacuum or compressed air.

Braking force

means the retarding force generated by a brake assembly.

Breakaway brake

means a service brake or parking brake fitted to a trailer that ensures, under all conditions of use, that, if the trailer is unintentionally disconnected from its towing vehicle, the brake will automatically and immediately apply and will remain applied for at least 15 minutes.

Cab-guard

means a structure attached to a vehicle that provides protection to the cab occupants from the effects of load impact, and may include a headboard.

Caravan trailer

means a trailer that is permanently equipped with features intended to make the vehicle suitable as a person’s dwelling place, and must include at least one sleeping berth and one table, both of which may be of a design that allows them to be retracted or folded away.

Central tyre inflation system

means a type of tyre pressure control system that adjusts tyre pressure for the purpose of inflating and deflating tyres to improve tyre adhesion and reduce road surface damage and which is under the central control of the driver or an automated system, or a combination of both the driver and an automated system (commonly known as ‘CTI’).

Certificate of fitness (CoF)

means evidence of vehicle inspection issued to vehicles listed under 3.3.1 of the Introduction.

Certificate of fitness inspection and certification

means periodic in-service inspection and certification of a vehicle listed under 3.3.1 of the Introduction.

Certificate of loading (CoL)

means a certificate issued to a vehicle that requires verification of its loading and weight limits.

Certificate of loading inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a vehicle, required for the issuing of a certificate of loading.

Certify

means

a) in relation to a vehicle, or specific aspect of a vehicle, to make a record of determination that confirms that the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has determined that the vehicle or specific aspect of the vehicle complies with the applicable requirements, or

b) in relation to a vehicle’s loading and weight limits, to make a record of determination of a vehicle’s loading and weight limits.

Chassis

means the structural lower part of a vehicle to which the running gear and, as applicable, engine, transmission, steering system and body may be attached.

Chassis assembly

means a chassis with running gear attached and, as applicable, engine, transmission and steering system attached.

Child restraint

includes child seats, booster seats and seatbelts designed specifically to fit children.

Child safety lock

means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from inside of the vehicle.

Class

in relation to vehicles, means a category of vehicle of one of the Groups A, L, M, N and T, as specified under 3.2 of the Introduction.

CNG

means compressed natural gas.

Coaming rail

means a raised frame boarder around the load platform of a vehicle.

Code of conductmeans the code that provides the minimum ethical and behavioural standards that are expected of all vehicle inspectors appointed by the Transport Agency to deliver vehicle inspection and certification services.

Combination vehicle

means a towing vehicle in combination with one or more trailers or other motor vehicle that is being towed.

Compliance label

means an attachment to a vehicle in the form of a label that confirms compliance of the vehicle or a specific aspect of the vehicle with applicable requirements.

Compliance plate

means an attachment to a vehicle in the form of a plate that confirms compliance of the vehicle or a specific aspect of the vehicle with applicable requirements.

Conditional permit (or permit, including temporary permit or 28-day permit)

means inspection and certification document that confirms that a determination has been made that the vehicle is safe to be operated under specified conditions.

Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest means where there is, could be, or may be perceived to be, a conflict between the financial or professional interests or obligations of the inspecting organisation or vehicle inspector and their obligations under the terms of the IOs Notice of Appointment.

It means that the impartiality, independence or objectivity of the IO and/or VI may be called into question. The conflict may be (a) actual: where the conflict currently exists; (b) potential: where the conflict is about to happen or could happen; (c) perceived: where other people may reasonably think a person is compromised.

Construction (vehicle)

means the manufacture, assembly, reassembly or modification of a vehicle, and includes all acts and activities related or incidental to the construction of a vehicle.

Construction (tyre)

means:

a) for a pneumatic tyre, the type of tyre carcass (including ply orientation and ply rating or load index), or

b) for any other tyre, characteristics relating to size, shape and material.

Control

means the part of the brake actuated directly by the driver to regulate the operation of the brake.

Controlled document

means a document you must use and complete as part of your inspection and certification work, such as a WoF or CoF label, WoF or CoFchecksheet, or a certificate of loading

Control (service) line

means the part of the brake circuit that transmits the service brake signal within a vehicle and also between vehicles being operated as a combination vehicle.

Converter dolly

means an individual trailer unit with a fifth-wheel coupling used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer. A dolly must have either

a) a rigid drawbar associated with an oscillating fifth wheel and a single axle or a tandem axle set, or

b) a tandem axle set with a hinged drawbar with a fixed fifth wheel.

Cornering lamp

means a lamp designed to emit light at the front of the vehicle to supplement a vehicle’s headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

Corrosion damage

is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Coupling

means that part of a vehicle that is specifically designed to enable it to be connected to another vehicle, and does not include a structural member of the towing or towed vehicle.

Cosmetic lamp

means a lamp that is not a headlamp, stop lamp, direction-indicator lamp, position lamp, rear registration plate illumination lamp, reflector, fog lamp, daytime running lamp, cornering lamp, reversing lamp, reflective material, interior lamp, work lamp, flashing or revolving beacon or illuminated vehicle-mounted sign.

Crew

in relaton to a PSV, means the person or group of persons in control or having responsibility for the operation of the vehicle or the well-being of the passengers.

Cross-ply

means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords in the tyre carcass extend to the beads and are laid at alternate angles, which are substantially less than 90 degrees, to the centreline of the tread. This tyre structure is also referred to as ‘bias ply’ or ‘diagonal ply’.

Cut-off

means that part of a dipped beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower luminance.

Daytime running lamp

means a lamp designed to emit a low-intensity light forward of a vehicle to make it more easily seen in the daytime.

Deceleration

means the rate of speed reduction over time.

Dedicated combination

means, in relation to heavy vehicle brakes, a combination of vehicles certified for use in combination where both vehicles are affixed with a plate clearly and indelibly marked with the VIN or chassis number of the vehicle.

Dedicated emergency exit

in relation to a PSV, means any doorway, window, hatch or other opening that is designed and constructed solely to provide a means of leaving the vehicle in the event of an emergency.

Dedicated groundsprayer

means a self-propelled or trailing machine whose sole function is the application of chemicals or liquid fertiliser to crops or to the ground.

De-registered

means that a vehicle’s New Zealand registration has been cancelled in accordance with section 27 or section 28 of the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Design

in relation to a motor vehicle, refers to the construction of the motor vehicle, and not its use or intended use, and ‘designed’ has a corresponding meaning.

Determination

means a record, in paper or electronic form, that a vehicle or specific aspect of vehicle complies or does not comply with the applicable requirements.

Dipped beam

means a beam of light, emitted from a lamp fitted to a vehicle, that is angled downwards in such a way that it prevents undue dazzle or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.

Dipped-beam headlamp

means a headlamp designed to emit a dipped beam.

Direct trailer service brake

means a service brake fitted to a trailer that allows the driver of a towing vehicle, by operating the service brake of the towing vehicle, to directly and progressively regulate the trailer brake effort.

Direction indicator lamp

means a lamp designed to emit a flashing light to signal the intention of the driver to change the direction of the vehicle to the right or to the left.

Door retention system

means any system, contrivance or mechanism that connects the doors of a motor vehicle to those doorways that are used for the entry and exit of vehicle occupants.

Drawbar

means an assembly of components, that includes: the trailer coupling that connects the trailer to the coupling of the towing vehicle, hinges (where applicable) and the structural and other related components between the trailer coupling and trailer bogie or chassis.

Drawbeam

means the part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling is fitted to enable a heavy trailer to be connected, and includes the attached coupling.

Dual steeringin relation to a vehicle, means the vehicle is able to be steered from the left-hand and right-hand side of the vehicle.

Electronic stability control (ESC)

means a system that electronically regulates the stability of a motor vehicle and, as a minimum, has the following attributes:

a) improves vehicle directional stability by at least having the ability to automatically control individually the braking torques of the left and right wheels on each axle, or an axle of each axle group, to induce a correcting yaw moment based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver, and

b) is computer-controlled, with the computer using a closed-loop algorithm to limit vehicle oversteer and to limit vehicle understeer based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver, and

c) has a means to determine directly the value of the vehicle’s yaw rate and to estimate its side slip or side slip derivative with respect to time, and

d) has a means to monitor driver steering inputs.

Emergency brake

in relation to any vehicle, or combination of vehicles, means the system that makes it possible to undertake a controlled stop of the vehicle or combination in the event of the failure of the service brake.

Emergency exit

means:

a) a door used for the entry and exit of the occupants and, for this purpose, a door of double width is a single emergency exit

b) the access between the front and rear sections of an articulated bus

c) the stairway from the upper deck to the lower deck

d) a dedicated emergency exit.

Emergency vehicle

means a vehicle used for attendance at emergencies and operated

a) by an enforcement officer, or

b) by an ambulance service, or

c) as a fire service vehicle, or

d) as a civil defence emergency vehicle, or

e) as a defence force emergency vehicle.

End-outline marker lamp

means a position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of a vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps, and includes a cab roof lamp.

Engine brake

means a device or feature of an engine to increase, when applied, the retardation force provided by the engine that can be utilised to control the speed of the vehicle.

Enter service

in relation to a vehicle, means to begin to be operated in service on the road in New Zealand for the first time in compliance with registration requirements of the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Entered service as a passenger service vehicle

means the most recent occasion of the vehicle entering service as a passenger service vehicle.

Entry inspecting organisation

means an inspecting organisation appointed to carry out entry and re-entry inspection and certification activities, including the issuing of VIN numbers. For a list of appointed entry IOs, click here.

Entry inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a vehicle that is entering or re-entering service, and that is carried out by an entry certifier.

Evidence of vehicle inspection

in relation to a vehicle, means any certificate, label or document issued as evidence of the completion of the periodic vehicle inspection requirements in respect of that vehicle (ie a WoF or CoF label or an Alternative Fuel Inspection Certificate, but not a temporary permit).

Exhaust system

means a pipe assembly through which the engine exhaust gases pass to the atmosphere and includes some means of sound attenuation.

Fifth wheel

means a device fitted to a vehicle to enable a semi-trailer to be connected to it by means of a kingpin so that the semi-trailer may be towed.

First registered

in relation to a motor vehicle, means, unless specified otherwise, first registered in any country.

Fog lamp

means a high-intensity lamp designed to aid the driver or other road users in conditions of severely reduced visibility, including fog or snow, but not including clear atmospheric conditions under the hours of darkness, and that is

a) a front fog lamp, or

b) a rear fog lamp.

Foot room

means an area on the floor in front of the seat or partially under the seat to accommodate the feet of the person sitting on the seat.

Forestry

in relation to purpose or operations, means connected directly with the operation or management of a forest. A ‘forestry chipper’ is a vehicle that is designed and used exclusively in this capacity.

Forklift

means a motor vehicle (not fitted with self-laying tracks) designed principally for lifting, carrying and stacking goods by means of one or more tines, platens or clamps.

Forward distance

means:

a) in relation to a rigid vehicle, or the front section of an articulated bus, the distance from the rear axis to the front of the vehicle or its load, whichever is foremost

b) in relation to a full trailer, the distance from the rear axis to the front of the trailer (excluding the drawbar and front axle set with its associated carriage) or its load, whichever is foremost

c) in relation to a simple trailer, or the rear section of an articulated bus, the distance from the rear axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle

d) in relation to a semi-trailer, the distance from the rear axis to centre of the kingpin

e) in relation to a pole trailer with only one axle set, the distance, excluding load, from the trailer’s rear axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle with the drawbar fully extended

f) for a pole trailer having two axle sets, the distance, excluding load, from the trailer’s front axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle with the drawbar fully extended.

Foundation brake

means the basic brake assembly fitted to each axle or road wheel which produces the braking force necessary to bring a vehicle to a stop; and includes the complete drum or disc brake.

Front axis

means:

a) the centre point of the front axle set of a trailer that has two axle sets and is steered by the front axle set, or

b) the centre of the foremost axle of a rigid vehicle with motive power.

Front fog lamp

means a fog lamp designed to provide a dipped beam of light to the front of a motor vehicle for the purpose of illuminating the road ahead of that vehicle.

Front overhang

means the distance measured to the foremost point of the vehicle, including its load but in the case of a full trailer excluding the drawbar, from the following positions:

a) for a rigid vehicle, from the front edge of the driver’s seat, when in the rearmost position, or

b) for a semi-trailer, the centre of the kingpin, or

c) for a full trailer, the centre of the turntable, or

d) for a simple trailer, the centre of the tow coupling, or

e) for the load of a pole trailer combination, the centre of the turntable on the towing vehicle.

Frontal impact protection system

means a set of associated parts, components and systems incorporated in a motor vehicle to protect occupants in a frontal impact collision.

Full trailer

means a trailer with two axle sets, the foremost of which is steered by a drawbar, and includes a semi-trailer with non-steering axles coupled to a converter dolly.

Goods

means all kinds of movable personal property, and includes articles sent by post and animals.

Goods service

means the carriage of goods on any road, whether or not for hire or reward, by means of a motor vehicle whose gross laden weight is 6000 kg or more, and includes the letting on hire of a motor vehicle whose gross laden weight is 6000kg or more by a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle, where the motor vehicle is used for the carriage of goods.

Goods service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a goods service.

Goods service vehicle

means a motor vehicle used or capable of being used in a goods service for the carriage of goods, but does not include a vehicle specified as an exempt goods service vehicle in the regulations or the rules.

Goods vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is constructed primarily for the carriage of goods.

Gross combination mass

means, for a vehicle that is permitted to tow another vehicle, the maximum permitted combined mass of the towing vehicle and any combination of attached trailers or vehicles, determined by the vehicle manufacturer and approved by the NZTA, or determined by the NZTA.

Gross laden weight

in relation to a motor vehicle, means:

a) the greatest of the following weights:

i. a weight specified (subsequent to the latest modification specified, if any) as the gross laden weight of the vehicle by the manufacturer of the vehicle

ii. a weight specified as the gross laden weight of the vehicle, or of a vehicle of that kind, by or under the regulations or the rules

iii. the weight of the vehicle, together with the load that the vehicle is for the time being carrying, including equipment and accessories

b) if evidence is adduced in respect of any but not all of the 3 weights referred to in paragraph (a), the greater of the weights, or (as the case may be) the only weight, in respect of which evidence is adduced

c) if evidence is not adduced in respect of any of the weights referred to in paragraph (a), the total of the unladen weight of the vehicle and the weight of the maximum load that the vehicle may safely carry.

Gross mass (GM)
(or gross weight)

in relation to any vehicle or combination vehicle, means the mass of that vehicle and its load, equipment, and accessories, which may be determined by adding the mass on the vehicle’s axles or axle sets.

Gross vehicle mass (GVM)

means either:

a) the maximum permitted mass of a vehicle, which includes the mass of the accessories, the crew, the passengers and load, and is, unless (b) applies, the gross vehicle mass specified (subsequent to the latest modification, if any) by the manufacturer of the vehicle, or

b) if a person approved for the purpose by the NZTA determines that the gross vehicle mass of a vehicle should differ from that specified by the manufacturer, taking into account evidence on the capability of the systems and components of the vehicle, or the effects of any modification, that mass determined by that person.

Groundspreader

means a vehicle designed specifically for the carriage of powder or particulate artificial fertilisers on the road, and for the distribution of those fertilisers directly from the vehicle onto the land by means of a mechanical or pneumatic distributor that forms part of the vehicle.

Group

in relation to vehicles, means a collective category of the vehicle classes listed under 3.2 of the Introduction as follows:

(a) Group A means vehicles of class AA and AB

(b) Group L means vehicles of class LA, LB, LC, LD and LE

(c) group M means vehicles of class MA, MB, MC, MD and ME

(d) Group N means vehicles of class NA, NB and NC

(e) Group T means vehicles of class TA, TB, TC and TD.

Head restraint

means a fitting forming part of a vehicle seat intended to restrain occupants’ heads from excessive movement in the event of a crash.

Headboard

means the substantially vertical part of the forward end of a flat deck or curtain-sided body of a vehicle.

Headlamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is:

(a) a dipped-beam headlamp, or

(b) a main-beam headlamp, or

(c) a combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp.

Heavy haulage trailer

means a trailer that is fitted with an hydraulic suspension system that allows the adjustment of the ride height, and for which the pressure in the hydraulic system varies significantly at any given load condition of the trailer depending solely on the ride height.

Heavy (motor) vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is:

(a) of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC or TD, or

(b) a vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction with a gross vehicle mass that exceeds 3500 kg.

Heavy passenger service vehicle (heavy PSV)

means a passenger service vehicle whose gross vehicle mass exceeds 3500kg.

Heavy vehicle specialist inspection and certification

means specialist inspection and certification of specific aspects of a heavy vehicle.

High-mounted stop lamp

means a stop lamp that is designed to be fitted in a central, high-mounted position at the rear of a vehicle.

Hook truck

means a vehicle recovery service vehicle with a crane hoist that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Hours of darkness

means:

(a) a period of time between half an hour after sunset on one day and half an hour before sunrise on the next day, or

(b) any other time when there is not sufficient daylight to render clearly visible a person or vehicle at a distance of 100 m.

Hub

means the part of a vehicle that is attached to the axle and rotates on, or with, the axle, and to which the wheel is attached, and includes any bearings.

HVS

means heavy vehicle specialist, as in HVS certification.

Hydraulic brake

means a brake that utilises hydraulic pressure to activate the foundation brake, whether its operation is assisted by compressed air, vacuum or any other means.

Independent brake

means a brake of which the entire operating mechanism or system is either:

(a) distinct and separate from all parts or connections of any other brake or brake system, so that the independent brake cannot be adversely affected by the operation or failure of any other brake, or

(b) common to any other brake or brake system only in parts or connections which are of such design and strength that under normal operating conditions and with a proper standard of maintenance there is no reasonable probability of failure by reason of the failure of any other brake or brake system.

Indirect trailer service brake

means a service brake fitted to a trailer where the action of the driver of a towing vehicle applying the brakes of that vehicle results in a reaction by the trailer that is used to progressively regulate the trailer brake effort.

Inspecting organisation

means a person or organisation appointed by the NZTA who is responsible for inspection and certification outcomes.

Inspection and certification

means the performance of two or more of the following, for the purposes of determining compliance with applicable requirements:

(a) examining vehicles

(b) determining whether or not a vehicle or specific aspect of a vehicle complies with applicable requirements

(c) issuing evidence of vehicle inspection, a conditional permit or a certificate of loading

(d) recording and making available information about vehicles (including their systems, components, devices, fittings and equipment).

Inspection and certification document

means a document required, produced or issued in the inspection and certification process, including a plate, a label, an electronic record and a check sheet.

Inspection and certification outcome

in relation to a vehicle, means:

(a) production of a record of determination as appropriate to the inspection and certification activity, or

(b) provision of other records and information about the vehicle to the NZTA or other persons, or

(c) production of evidence of vehicle inspection, conditional permits or certificates of loading.

Installer

in relation to glazing, means a person who repairs or modifies a vehicle by installing glazing in the vehicle.

Inter-vehicle spacing

means the distance between a towing vehicle (excluding the tow coupling shroud) and trailer (excluding the drawbar or tow rope or front dolly but including the load).

Interior lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the interior of the vehicle for the convenience of passengers.

J-hook assembly

means a load-rated metal lashing that:

(a) consists of a bush, fastener, associated washer or washers, and J-shaped bar including its threaded portion, and

(b) is used for the retention of a stockcrate or detachable bin to the vehicle load platform, and

(c) is vertically fixed either inside or outside the deck coaming rail and tensioned through a permanently fitted bush on the crate or bin structure by way of a threaded fastener.

Jinker pole

means a telescoping or sliding pole that forms the drawbar to steer a pole trailer.

Kingpin

means a pin attached to the skid plate of a semi-trailer and used for connecting the semi-trailer to the fifth wheel of a towing vehicle.

KSDPmeans key service delivery partner. They are defined as organisations that are contracted or appointed by the Transport Agency to delivery regulatory products or services and who have sufficient market share and/or are of sufficient size and standing within an industry segment to be able to represent and influence the customer expectation of that industry segment.

Laden weight

means the weight of the vehicle and its load for the time being carried.

Laminated glass

means glazing consisting of two or more pieces of sheet glass, plate glass or float glass bonded together by one or more intervening layers of plastic material.

Lamp

means a device designed to emit light, and includes an array of separate light sources that appear as a continuous illuminated surface.

Lap-and-diagonal seatbelt

means a seatbelt comprising a lap strap that passes across the front of the wearer’s pelvic region, and a diagonal strap that passes across the front of the wearer’s torso from one side of the pelvic region to the shoulder on the opposite side.

Lap seatbelt

means a seatbelt that passes solely across the front of the wearer’s pelvic region.

Lifting gear

in relation to a vehicle recovery service vehicle, means any equipment used to lift another vehicle, and includes towing attachments.

Light (motor) vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is:

(a) of group A or L, or of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2, NA, TA or TB, or

(b) a vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction with a gross vehicle mass of 3500kg or less.

Light output

means the intensity or brightness of light emitted from lighting equipment per unit area in a given direction.

Light passenger service vehicle (light PSV)

means a passenger service vehicle whose gross vehicle mass is 3500kg or less.

Light source

means a device that emits light, including an incandescent or fluorescent light bulb, with each filament in an incandescent bulb having multiple filaments deemed to be a separate light source.

Light trailer

means a trailer that has a gross vehicle mass of 3500 kg or less.

Lighting equipment

means equipment designed both to emit or reflect light and to be fitted to a vehicle, and includes a reflector and reflective material.

Lighting equipment endorsement

means an endorsement, relating to lighting equipment on historic vehicles, on a valid Vehicle Identity Card issued by the Vintage Car Club of New Zealand (Inc.).

Load

includes part of a load, and:

(a) includes covers, ropes, ties, blocks, tackles, barrows or other equipment or objects used in the securing or containing of a load on a vehicle or the loading or unloading of a vehicle, whether or not any other load is on the vehicle, and

(b) does not include animal wastes discharged from animals being carried on a vehicle at the time.

Load anchorage point

means a device permanently attached to a vehicle to enable a load to be secured or attached to the vehicle.

Load rating

means the maximum force that can be withstood without incurring any loss of structural capacity.

Load securing equipment

means equipment or a device permanently fitted to a vehicle to secure, either by itself or in conjunction with other equipment or devices such as lashings, a load to a vehicle.

Load-sharing axle set

means an axle set suspension system that has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the set and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if

(a) the load were divided in the axle set so that each tyre carries an equal load, or

(b)

the axle set is a tandem axle set comprising a twin-tyred axle and a single large-tyred axle and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that

i. 60% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 40% of the load is borne by the single large-tyred axle, or

ii. 55% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 45% of the load is borne by the single large-tyred axle.

Logging bolster

means a vertically orientated member attached to a vehicle that is used to secure loads of timber logs.

Logging truck

means a heavy motor vehicle designed and used principally for transporting logs.

Logging vehicle

means a vehicle that is constructed exclusively for transporting timber logs using permanently fitted log bolsters.

Low volume vehicle

means a make and model of a vehicle of a class other than MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC and TD, that is:

(a) manufactured, assembled, or scratch-built in quantities of 500 or less in any one year, and where the construction of the vehicle may directly or indirectly affect compliance of the vehicle with any of the vehicle standards prescribed by New Zealand law, or

(b) modified uniquely, or in quantities of 500 or less in any one year, in such a way that compliance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment with a legal requirement relating to safety performance applicable at the time of the modification may be affected.

Low Volume Vehicle Code

means the code of the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association Incorporated (LVVTA).

Low volume vehicle plate, label or authority card

means a plate, label or authority card issued in accordance with the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

Low volume vehicle specialist inspection and certification

means specialist inspection and certification of a light vehicle as specified in the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

LPG

means liquefied petroleum gas.

LVV

means low volume vehicle.

LVVTA

means the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association. The LVVTA administers the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

Main-beam headlamp

means a headlamp designed to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of a vehicle.

Manufacturer’s operating limits

means:

(a) in relation to a motor vehicle, the allowance provided by the vehicle manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to deterioration, malfunction or damage beyond which the safe performance of the vehicle, as defined by the vehicle manufacturer, is compromised, and

(b) in relation to a system, component or item of equipment, incorporated in or attached to a vehicle, the allowance provided by the system, component or equipment manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to the deterioration, malfunction or damage, beyond which the safe performance of the system, component or item of equipment (and consequently the vehicle) is compromised.

Maximum towed mass

means the maximum permitted mass of all vehicles that may be towed behind a vehicle as determined by the manufacturer of the towing vehicle and approved by the NZTA.

Middle seating position

means a seating position in a vehicle that is not an outer seating position.

Military trailer

means a trailer that is used exclusively as equipment of the New Zealand Defence Force.

Mobile crane

means a non-load carrying self-propelled vehicle designed solely or principally for lifting objects using a boom with lifting gear.

Modify

in relation to a vehicle, means to change the vehicle structure from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Monocoque

in relation to a motor vehicle, means that the chassis of the vehicle is integral to the body.

Motor vehicle

means a vehicle drawn or propelled by mechanical power, and includes a trailer, but does not include:

(a) a vehicle running on rails

(b) a trailer (other than a trailer designed solely for the carriage of goods) that is designed and used exclusively as part of the armament of the New Zealand Defence Force

(c) a trailer running on one wheel and designed exclusively as a speed measuring device or for testing the wear of vehicle tyres

(d) a vehicle designed for amusement purposes and used exclusively within a place of recreation, amusement or entertainment to which the public does not have access with motor vehicles

(e) a pedestrian-controlled machine

(f) a vehicle that the NZTA has declared is not a motor vehicle under section 168A of the Land Transport Act 1998

(g) a mobility device.

Motorcycle

means a motor vehicle running on 2 wheels, or not more than 3 wheels when fitted with a sidecar, and includes a vehicle with motorcycle controls that is approved as a motorcycle by the NZTA, but does not include a moped.

Motorhome

in relation to seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages only, means a motor vehicle, other than a trailer, that is permanently equipped with features intended to make the vehicle suitable as a dwelling place, and must include at least one sleeping berth and one table, both of which may be of a design that allows them to be retracted or folded away.

Mudguard

means a fitting, inclusive of any portion of the vehicle and of any mudflaps attached, that serves to intercept material thrown up by a wheel more or less in the plane of the wheel.

Multiple-sensitive emergency-locking retractor

means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the strap to the wearer, and that is activated by two or more of the following:

(a) deceleration of the vehicle (ie vehicle sensitive), or

(b) acceleration of the strap from the retractor (ie web-sensitive), or

(c) other means of activation.

Non-steering axle

means any axle of a vehicle the wheels of which remain substantailly parallel with the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle while the vehicle is turning.

Normal braking

means the level of braking applied to a vehicle that does not lock any of the vehicle’s wheels and permits the vehicle to decelerate without adversely affecting directional control.

Notice of appointmentmeans the notice by which the Transport Agency appoints an inspecting organisation under the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 to carry out specified inspection and certification activities at specified sites. The appointment is subject to certain specified requirements and conditions, including compliance with the requirements contained in this manual [the VIRM].

NZTA

means the New Zealand Transport Agency

Occupant

in relation to a PSV, means a passenger or a member of the crew, whether seated or standing.

Open-bodied vehicle

means a PSV which is not fully enclosed by a permanent body structure.

Operate

in relation to a vehicle, means to drive or use the vehicle on a road, or to cause or permit the vehicle to be on a road or to be driven on a road, whether or not the person is present with the vehicle.

Operation in service

in relation to a vehicle, means to be operated on the road in New Zealand after having been registered in compliance with requirements in the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Original equipment (OE)

(unless stated otherwise elsewhere in this manual) means equipment that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer when the vehicle is manufactured, or equipment that is approved by the vehicle manufacturer for use in a specific vehicle type for a specific purpose or as a replacement for the original equipment.

Oscillating Axle

means any axle that complies with the following provisions:

(a) the axle has four wheels and four or eight tyres attached to it, consisting of two pairs of wheels, and

(b) each of the pair of wheels is mounted on a separate axle affixed to the vehicle so as to share the load equally between the two wheels and to permit oscillation of the separate axles in a vertical transverse plane which is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle, and

(c) the centre of each such wheel is at least 500mm distant from the centre of every other wheel fitted to the motor vehicle.

Outdoor-access vehicle

means a PSV that is used to provide access to remote areas solely in connection with outdoor activities.

Outer seating position

means a seating position next to a side wall of the vehicle where there is no more than 500mm between the longitudinal centre of the seat and the side wall.

Outrigger

in relation to a vehicle that is fitted with a crane or hoist, means a device fitted to the vehicle that extends and stabilises the vehicle while the crane or hoist is in use.

Overall length

means the length of a vehicle or vehicle combination measured in a straight line, and includes:

(a) the length of any load, and

(b) the length of the drawbar in a fully extended horizontal straight ahead position measured to the towing eye centre of a full trailer when measured on its own.

Overall visible light transmittance

is the visible light transmittance (VLT) of glazing including any overlays that are applied to the glazing.

Overlay

means a transparent, translucent or opaque self-adhesive or clinging film that is applied to large areas, or the entirety, of a piece of glazing for purposes such as, but not limited to, reduction of ultraviolet, infrared or visible light transmission, advertising, identification, information, protection or for aesthetic reasons, and includes:

(a) an anti-glare band overlay, and

(b) a stoneguard overlay, and

(c) a sticker of a size that cannot be wholly contained within the limits relating to the location and size of stickers on a particular piece of glazing, depending on the location of that piece of glazing on the vehicle.

Parking brake

means a brake that is designed for keeping the vehicle stationary, and that is readily applicable and capable of remaining applied for an indefinite period without further attention.

Passenger

means a person travelling in a vehicle but does not include the crew.

Passenger service

means the carriage of passengers on any road for hire or reward by means of a motor vehicle, and includes the letting on hire of a vehicle by a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle if, during the hiring, the vehicle is used for the carriage of passengers.

Passenger service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a passenger service.

Passenger service vehicle (PSV)

means:

(a) a motor vehicle used or available for use in a passenger service for the carriage of passengers, or

(b) a motor vehicle with more than 12 seating positions, or

(c) a heavy motor vehicle with more than nine seating positions.

Note The following vehicles are not required to comply with the Passenger Service Vehicles Rule requirements contained in the light PSV and heavy PSV VIRM pages:

(a) vehicles exempted from the transport service licensing requirements

(b) ambulances designed to carry recumbent patients

(c) vehicles designed or modified for lawfully-detained persons

(d) NZ Defence Force dual purpose trucks with removable seating (eg some NZ Army Pinzgauers)

(e) NZ Defence Force armoured vehicles

(f) Vehicles registered under the Amusement Devices Regulations 1978 that are either used in venture tourism or that are trailers designed, constructed and permitted to be drawn at a maximum speed of 50 km/h or less

(g) Motorcycles and motorcycles with side cars.

Passenger vehicle

means a motor vehicle constructed primarily for the carriage of passengers.

Permanent structure

means a non-removable structure capable of sustaining loads associated with seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages.

Pivot steer vehicle

means a vehicle with a chassis that is split into two dependent parts that are connected by a permanent steering pivot.

Pneumatic tyre

means a tyre that, when in use, is inflated by air or gas introduced from time to time under pressure so as to enclose under normal inflation a cushion of air or gas forming altogether at least half of the total area of an average cross-section of a tyre so inflated.

Pole trailer

means a trailer that is attached to a towing vehicle by a telescoping or sliding pole, and is designed to support a common long load spanning between the trailer and the towing vehicle.

Position lamp

means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

(a) a forward-facing position lamp, or

(b) a rearward-facing position lamp, or

(c) a side-marker lamp, or

(d) an end-outline marker lamp.

PRS manual

means the Performance review system manual.

QMSmeans quality management system which replaces the old performance review system (PRS)

Quad-axle set

means a set of four axles, where:

(a) the centres of the first and fourth axles are spaced not less than 3.75m and not more than 4m apart, and

(b) all axles contain an equal number of tyres, and

(c) none of the axles is a single standard-tyred axle.

Radial-ply

means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords, which extend from bead to bead, are laid at approximately 90 degrees to the centreline of the tread, the carcass being stabilised by an essentially inextensible circumferential belt.

Re-enter service

in relation to a vehicle previously certified for entry into service on the road in New Zealand that has been de-registered, means to begin to be operated in service again.

Rear axis

(a) in relation to a vehicle with only one non-steering axle, means that axle

(b) in relation to a vehicle with a non-steering axle set of two axles, means

i. midway between those axles, if each axle has an equal number of tyres on it

ii. two-thirds of the distance from the lesser-tyred axle towards the greater-tyred axle, if one axle has twice as many tyres on it as the other axle

(c) in relation to a vehicle with a non-steering tri-axle set or a non-steering quad-axle set, or an overdimension vehicle with more than three axles, means midway between the extreme axles of the set

(d) except as specified in (e) below, in relation to a vehicle whose rear axle set includes one or more steerable axles in conjunction with one or more non-steering axles, means midway between the extreme non-steering axles of the set

(e) in relation to a semi-trailer with two non-steering axles at the front and two steering axles at the rear, means the centre line of the second non-steering axle

(f) in relation to a vehicle whose rear axle set includes one or more retracted axles in conjunction with one or more non-retracted axles, means midway between the extreme non-retracted axles of the set

(g) in relation to a vehicle that does not have an axle arrangement that is in paragraphs (a) to (f), means a position determined by the NZTA.

Rear fog lamp

means a fog lamp designed to indicate to road users the presence of the rear of the vehicle.

Rear overhang

(a) for pole trailers transporting a long load, means the distance from the rear axis or centre of the bolster to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is greater

(b) for all other vehicles, means the distance from the rear axis to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is the greater.

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the rear registration plate of a motor vehicle.

Rear seating position

means a seating position in a vehicle behind the driver.

Rear trailing unit distance

means the maximum distance from the centre of the fifth wheel or tow coupling on the towing vehicle to the rear of the combination.

Record of determination

means a record, in paper or electronic form, that a vehicle or specific aspect of a vehicle complies or does not comply with applicable requirements.

Reflective material

means any material that reflects incident light back towards the light source or in a specific direction, but does not include a reflector.

Reflector

means a distinct item of lighting equipment that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source, but does not include retroreflective material.

Registered

in relation to a vehicle, means registered under the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Rental service

means the letting of a motor vehicle on hire for the carriage of passengers (including the driver) or of goods, or both, to a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle.

Rental service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a rental service.

Rental service vehicle

means a vehicle used or available for use in a rental service for letting on hire for the carriage of passengers or goods, or both, to a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle.

Repair

means to restore a damaged or worn motor vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment, and includes the replacement of damaged or worn structures, systems, components or equipment with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Retarder

means a device permanently fitted to a vehicle to provide, when applied, a continuous braking effort not generated by a brake.

Retractable axle

means an axle that has a convenient adjustment to allow the axle load distribution of the axle set to be varied substantially. An axle that is retracted is not considered to be part of the axle set.

Retractor

means a device to accommodate parts, or all, of the webbing of a seatbelt.

Retrofit

in relation to a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a motor vehicle, means to fit a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a location where a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage has not been fitted before.

Reversing lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the area behind a vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

Rigid vehicle

means a vehicle that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the chassis of the vehicle to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the chassis of the vehicle, and includes an articulated bus and a pivot steer vehicle.

Rim

means that part of the wheel on which the tyre is mounted and supported.

Rule

means Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.

Safe tolerance

means the tolerance within which the safe performance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment is not compromised, having regard to any manufacturer’s operating limits.

Scene lamp

means a work lamp designed to provide a fixed or moveable beam of light to illuminate the area around a vehicle, or the vehicle itself.

Seat

means an assembly, or part of an assembly, intended to seat at least one person, which may or may not be integral to the structure of the vehicle.

Seat anchorage

means the parts of the vehicle structure to which a seat is attached.

Seatbelt

means an assembly of straps made of webbing or metal with a securing buckle, adjusting devices and attachments, including any device for absorbing energy or for retracting the webbing, that:

(a) is able to be anchored to the interior of a vehicle, and

(b) is designed to diminish the risk of injury to its wearer in the event of a collision or abrupt deceleration of the vehicle by limiting the mobility of the wearer’s body.

Seatbelt anchorage

means the parts of the vehicle structure, seat structure or any other part of the vehicle to which a seatbelt assembly is attached.

Seating position

means a seat or part of a seat that is of a suitable size and shape for one person.

Semi-trailer

means a trailer with only one axle set where the point of attachment to the towing vehicle or leading trailer:

(a) is no further rearward than the rearmost axle of the towing vehicle or rearmost axle of the leading trailer, or

(b) if the towing vehicle is a rigid vehicle and has more than one axle in its rear axle set, is no more than 300mm rearward of the rear axis of the towing vehicle.

Service brake

means a brake for intermittent use that is normally used to slow down and stop a vehicle.

Shuttle service

means a passenger service carried on by means of a shuttle or shuttles.

Side-marker lamp

means a position lamp designed to be fitted to the side of a vehicle or its load.

Sideboard

means the substantially vertical part of the side of a flat deck body of a vehicle.

Simple trailer

means a trailer (other than a semi-trailer) that has only one axle set.

Single-axle set

means either one axle or two axles having their centres spaced less than 1m apart.

Single large-tyred axle

means a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is 355mm or more but less than 444mm.

Single mega-tyres axlemeans a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is 444mm or more.

Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor

means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, does not restrict the freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length adjusting components that automatically adjust the seatbelt to the wearer, and that comprises a locking mechanism activated in an emergency by deceleration of the vehicle.

Single standard-tyred axle

means a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is less than 355mm.

Single-tyred axle

means any axle fitted with two or more wheels, but which is neither an oscillating axle nor a twin-tyred axle.

Skid plate

means the plate stucture forming part of the semi-trailer that houses the kingpin and that mounts on the coupler plate to form the connection between the towing vehicle and the semi-trailer.

Small PSVmeans a passenger service vehicle, used or available for use in a passenger service for the carriage of passengers, that is designed or adapted to carry 12 or fewer persons (including the driver).

Specialist inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a specific aspect of a vehicle.

Specialist seatbelt

means a seatbelt that is designed for specialist purposes, and includes a full harness seatbelt used for motor sport activities.

Specific purpose

in relation to the modification of a motor vehicle, includes, but is not limited to, a modification for motor sport activities and for a person with a disability.

Speedometer

means an instrument in a motor vehicle that continuously indicates to the driver the forward speed of the vehicle in either kilometres per hour or miles per hour.

Static Roll Threshold (SRT)

means the maximum level of steady turning lateral acceleration a vehicle can tolerate without rolling over, which is expressed as a proportion of ‘g’ where ‘g’ is the acceleration constant due to gravity (9.81 m/s/s).

Steering axle

means the axle of a vehicle where the wheels can turn at an angle to the centreline of the vehicle.

Steering system

means those components, parts and systems that connect the driver’s controls to the vehicle’s wheels or tracks by means of which the direction of motion of a vehicle is controlled.

Sticker

in relation to glazing, means a self-adhesive or clinging film, with or without print on it, that is applied for purposes such as, but not limited to, advertising, identification, information, or for aesthetic or legal reasons.

Stinger lift truck

means a vehicle recovery service vehicle with an arm that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Stockcrate

means a container designed for transporting livestock, which can be secured to a vehicle.

Stockcrate retention device

means one or more restraining devices or lashings designed to facilitate the attachment of the stockcrate to the deck or chassis of a vehicle.

Stoneguard overlay

means a clear overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the bottom edge of the windscreen for the purpose of preventing damage to the windscreen from stones and other debris thrown up by other vehicles.

Straddle truck

means a powered vehicle that transports a load beneath its chassis and between its wheels.

Stretch limousine

means a saloon-type motor vehicle that has been modified to increase the standard wheelbase by the insertion of a structure of a significant length whose cross-section conforms to that of the passenger compartment.

Sun visor

means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.

Supply line

means the part of a brake circuit that supplies energy in the form of compressed air or in any other suitable form from the towing vehicle to the towed vehicle.

Suspension system

means a system that allows controlled and limited movement of an axle relative to the chassis or body of a vehicle, and includes a spring and damping system and any associated controls.

Swept path

means the maximum road width required by a vehicle when it negotiates a turn.

Symmetric dipped-beam headlamp

means a dipped-beam headlamp that is not an asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp.

Tailboard

means the substantially vertical part of the rear end of a flat deck or curtain-sided body of a vehicle.

Tandem axle set

means an axle set of two axles having their centres spaced not less than 1m and not more than 2m apart.

Temporary permit (or 28-day permit)

means inspection and certification document that confirms that a determination has been made that the vehicle is safe to be operated under specified conditions. This permit may be used only for CoF vehicles.

Temporary-use spare tyre

means a combination tyre and wheel designed and constructed solely for temporary use under restricted driving conditions, and not intended for use under normal driving conditions. (Commonly known as a ‘space-saver tyre’.)

Three-point linkage

means, for a tractor or agricultural trailer, a towing connection that has three points of attachment.

Threshold pressure

for an axle of an air-braked vehicle, means the pressure measured at the control line of the brake coupling when a braking effect on the axle begins.

Towbar

means the part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling for a light trailer is connected.

Towing connection

means the combination of components that enables one vehicle to tow or be towed by another vehicle, and includes a towbar, drawbar, drawbeam and coupling.

Towing vehicle

means a rigid vehicle that tows a trailer or other motor vehicle.

Tractor

means a motor vehicle (not being a traction engine) designed exclusively for traction at speeds not exceeding 50km/h (Note: See also definition for agricultural tractor).

Trailer

means a vehicle without motive power that is capable of being drawn or propelled by a motor vehicle from which it is readily detachable, but does not include

(a) a sidecar attached to a motorcycle, or

(b) a vehicle normally propelled by mechanical power while it is being temporarily towed without the use of its own power.

Trailer brake hand control

means a hand-operated control capable of applying the service brake of the trailer or trailers.

Transmission

in relation to a motor vehicle, means the gearing system and related components, including a driveshaft, by which power is transmitted from the flywheel or the engine output shaft to the input shafts of the powered axles.

Transport Agencymeans the NZ Transport Agency

Transport service licence

means any of the following licences granted by the NZTA:

(a) a goods service licence

(b) a passenger service licence

(c) a rental service licence

(d) a vehicle recovery service licence.

TRC

means the Transport Registry Centre of the NZTA.

Tri-axle set

means a set of three axles, where

(a) the centres of the first and third axles are spaced not less than 2m and not more than 3m apart, and

(b) all axles contain an equal number of tyres, and

(c) none of the axles is a single standard-tyred axle.

Tube

means an inflatable elastic liner, in the form of a hollow ring fitted with an inflation valve assembly, designed for insertion into certain tyre assemblies to provide a cushion of air or gas, that, when inflated, supports the wheel. (Also known as an ‘inner tube’.)

Twin-steer axle set

means an axle set of two axles with single tyres, where both axles are connected to the same mechanism in order to steer similarly.

Twin-tyred axle

means any axle, not being an oscillating axle, that has a wheel track of 1.3m or more and is equipped with four or more tyres.

Two-point linkage

means, for an agricultural trailer, a towing connection that has two points of attachment.

Tyre carcass

means that structural part of a pneumatic tyre other than the tread and outermost rubber of the sidewalls that, when inflated, contains the gas that supports the load.

Tyre load rating

means the maximum load a tyre can carry at the corresponding cold inflation pressure prescribed by the tyre manufacturer and the speed indicated by its speed category symbol.

Tyre pressure control system

means a system designed to maintain, monitor or vary tyre pressure while the vehicle is in operation.

Tyre rolling radius

means the distance from the centre of the wheel to the road.

Tyre tread

means the portion of a tyre that contacts the road.

Unclassified (motor) vehicle

In relation to lighting, means a motor vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction.

Unladen mass (or tare weight)

in relation to a vehicle, means the mass of the vehicle together with the fuel in its fuel system (if any) and the equipment and accessories on it that are necessary for its operation for the purpose for which it was designed.

Valid

in relation to a VIN, means capable of being decoded to provide information about the vehicle, from a unique number that has been assigned to the vehicle in the vehicle’s country of origin or by a person appointed by the NZTA.

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)

means a group of letters and numbers, consisting of 17 characters, that is affixed to the vehicle and that complies with the requirements of one of the following

(a) ISO 3779, or

(b) Australian Design Rule 61/01, or

(c) Chapter 565 of the Code of Federal Regulations 49.

The VIN can be decoded to provide identifying information about the vehicle.

Vehicle inspector

means an individual appointed by the NZTA to carry out inspection and certification activities in accordance with requirements and conditions imposed by the NZTA.

Vehicle recovery service

means the towing or carrying on any road of a motor vehicle, irrespective of the size or design of the towing or carrying vehicle, and whether or not the towing or carrying of the vehicle is carried out by a person intending to carry out repairs on the vehicle.

Vehicle recovery service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a vehicle recovery service.

Vehicle recovery service vehicle

means a vehicle used or available for use in a vehicle recovery service for towing or carrying on a road any motor vehicle.

VIN issuing agentmeans an inspecting organisation approved to issue VIN numbers (VTNZ, VINZ, AA and some other independent inspecting organisations also approved to carry out entry inspections).
VIRMmeans vehicle inspection requirements manual

Visible light transmittance (VLT)

is the proportion of visible light that passes through glazing, measured perpendicular to the glazing.

Warrant of fitness (WoF)

means evidence of vehicle inspection issued to a vehicle listed under 3.3.2 of the Introduction.

Warrant of fitness inspection and certification

means periodic in-service inspection and certification of a vehicle listed under 3.3.2 of the Introduction.

Wheel

means a rotating load-carrying member between the tyre and the hub, which usually consists of two major parts, the rim and the wheel disc, and which may be manufactured as one part, or permanently attached to each other or detachable from each other and, where relevant, includes the tyre fitted to the rim.

Wheel centre-disc

means that part of the wheel that is the supporting member between the hub and the rim.

Wheel spacer

means an additional component used for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to the hub, or in multiple wheel sets, for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to another wheel.

Wheel track

means the distance between the centres of the left-side and right-side wheels of a pair of wheels.

Wheelbase

means the distance from a vehicle’s rear axis to its front axis.

Windscreen

means all glazing extending across the front of a vehicle that is not parallel to the vehicle’s longitudinal centreline, but does not include a wind deflector.

Wire glass

means glass that incorporates reinforcing wire mesh. This glass is sometimes fitted to dangerous goods vehicles and is not usually marked.

Work lamp

means a high-intensity lamp, which is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate a work area or scene, and includes:

(a) a scene lamp, and

(b) a spot lamp, and

(c) an alley lamp.

Page amended 1 March 2016 (see amendment details).

Page amended 1 July 2015 (see amendment details).

8 Sample certification documents

  • Figure 8-1-1. LVV certification plates

  • Figure 8-1-2. Modification declaration

  • Figure 8-1-3. LVV Authority cards (can only be issued by MotorSport NZ and the NZ Hot Rod Association)

  • Figure 8-1-4. Vintage Car Club identity cards

  • Figure 8-1-5. Vehicle licence label

  • Figure 8-1-6. LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate
Figure 8-1-1. LVV certification plates

Figure 8-1-2. Modification declaration

  • Other formats are available, and an invoice from the company carrying out the modification is acceptable.

Note: Modification declarations were phased out in the early 1990s and totally replaced by LVV plates or authority cards in 1995.

Figure 8-1-3. LVV Authority cards (can only be issued by MotorSport NZ and the NZ Hot Rod Association)

5

Figure 8-1-4. Vintage Car Club identity card

5

The Vintage Car Club of New Zealand (Inc.) is recognised by the NZTA as the historic motor vehicle authority in New Zealand. They issue a vehicle identity card that can be used to confirm:)>

b) that the vehicle is a genuine historic motor vehicle and not a replica.

Historic vehicles that do not meet normal requirements for lighting equipment must present a vehicle identity card with a lighting endorsement at an in-service inspection. To pass the inspection the vehicle must meet the conditions of the endorsement. A historic vehicle may also have an endorsement for not meeting the normal requirements for visible smoke emissions.

Vehicle owners who would like more details should contact:

The National Vehicle Registrar
Vintage Car Club of New Zealand Inc.
PO Box 2546
CHRISTCHURCH

Figure 8-1-5. Vehicle licence label

5

Figure 8-1-6. LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

LT400

1 HV specialist certifier categories

Certification category

Description

Required documentation

HVEC, HVMC,HMCD

Chassis, suspension, steering, PSV rollover strength, PSV stability

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

HVET, HVMT, HMTD

Towing connections

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

HVEA, HVMA, HMAD

Load anchorages

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

HVEL, HVML, HMLD

Log bolster attachment code

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

HVEK, HVMK, HMKD

Brake modification including New Zealand Heavy Vehicle Brake Specification (HVBNZ)

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

Heavy vehicle brake code (HVBC)

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate, and Statement of Compliance with the HVBC

HVS1, HVS2

Static roll threshold (SRT)

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate and SRT compliance certificate

HVP1

Swept path Certification

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

HVP2

Performance based standards

LT400 Heavy vehicle specialist certificate

Page amended 1 May 2017 (see amendment details).

General vehicles

1 Vehicle identification

1-1 VIN and chassis number

Important Ensure that the VIN or chassis number is recorded in full on the checksheet.

This number must be:

  • the VIN if fitted – not the chassis number (locally allocated VIN)
  • the stamped VIN on the VIN plate – not the VIN etched on the glazing.

Also refer to Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers, Figure 1-1-1.  Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency and Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN or chassis number (Note 1) (Note 3).

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN number (Note 1) (Note 3).

3. A VIN number is not valid (Note 1) (Note 2).

Condition

4. A VIN or chassis number has been (Note 1) (Note 3):

a) removed, or

b) erased, or

c) altered, or

d) defaced, or

e) obscured, or

f) destroyed, or

g) obliterated, or

h) affixed unlawfully or by unauthorised persons.

Note 1

The vehicle inspector must notify the Police and the NZTA using the vehicle report form if there is reason to believe that the VIN or chassis number has been tampered with in any way .

The vehicle inspector must not issue a WoF/CoF/permit until approved by NZTA. Approval will usually include the issue or re-issue of a new VIN plate .

Refer the vehicle to a VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA, Drivesure). They will inspect the vehicle and seek approval from NZTA to issue or re-issue a VIN plate .

Note 2

A valid VIN is a unique number that has been assigned to the vehicle in the vehicle’s country of origin or by a person appointed by the NZTA. It consists of 17 characters that never contain the letters I, O or Q, and that is capable of being decoded to provide identifying information about the vehicle.

Note 3

If the vehicle is failed because the VIN/chassis is missing or unreadable, then 'not found' must be recorded in place of the VIN number on the check sheet.

Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers

Vehicle

Permitted VIN locations

Vehicles that are not forward controlled (passenger cars and off-road passenger vehicles)

  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side of the firewall
  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side adjacent to the front suspension mounting point
  • In a location inside the engine compartment approved by the NZTA for a specified vehicle or vehicle model
  • On the firewall or inner guards so it is visible from the front of the vehicle.

Forward-controlled vehicles
(passenger vans and off-road vehicles)

  • In the passenger compartment, on the top of the right-hand side wheel arch adjacent to the seat cushion
  • In the passenger compartment, on the inner panel of the right-hand A-pillar, adjacent to where the floor meets the A-pillar
  • In the passenger compartment on the B-pillar.

Goods vehicles and light omnibuses

Vehicle with a separate chassis:

  • On the outside of the chassis adjacent to the right front wheel arch,

Vehicle without a separate chassis:

  • As specified for forward-controlled vehicles.

If the vehicle is unfamiliar, and the VIN or chassis number cannot be located, the vehicle inspector should contact the manufacturer’s agent or the local VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA).

Figure 1-1-1. Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency
Pre-29 November 2009

5

Post-29 November 2009

post 09.11.2009

 

Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer
  Car

manufacturer vin car

Truck

manufacturer vin truck

 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 must have a chassis number or VIN.

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 must have a VIN.

Condition

3. A VIN or chassis number must not have been removed, erased, altered, defaced, obscured, destroyed, obliterated or affixed unlawfully, or be unauthorised.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

2 Vehicle exterior

2-1 External projections

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The risk of a component (Note 5) hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, has not been minimised, eg a bonnet or bumper has been removed, exposing sharp, moving or hot components.

2. An ornamental object or fitting (Note 2) protrudes in such a way that it is likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose (Note 3) is not installed so that the risk of causing injury to a person is minimised, eg the object or fitting:

a) is of excessively heavy construction for the purpose for which it has been fitted, or

b) has sharp corners, or

c) slopes forward, unless this is necessary to fit the contours of the vehicle, or

d) has an unnecessarily wide gap between the object or fitting and the front of the vehicle, or

e) exceeds the vehicle’s width by more than 100mm on either side, other than side mounted glass sheet transport racks and collapsible side mirrors, or

f) is a glass sheet transport rack that is not fitted with a front flaring to minimise the risk of injury to a person.

4. A protruding component, object or fitting is not securely attached to the vehicle.

5. A protruding object or fitting adversely affects the driver’s vision or control.

Modifications

6. A modification (Note 4) affects an external projection – including a protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose and affects the driver’s vision or control of the vehicle, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid vehicle certification plate (eg low volume vehicle plate or heavy vehicle certification plate/label), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1

The external projections requirements relate to the design and maintenance of objects and fittings that protrude from the exterior of the motor vehicle with regard to the safety of other motor vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. The attachment of such objects and fittings to the vehicle is addressed in the Vehicle structure section of this manual.

Note 2

Ornamental object or fitting means an object or fitting that does not have a practical purpose, eg bonnet emblems.

Note 3

Functional object or fitting means an object or fitting that has a practical purpose, eg panniers, pack racks, spare wheel carriers, and so on.

Note 4

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 5

Components include damaged, corroded and exposed body panels.

Note 6

The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500kg or less must comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard:

  • Class MA motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 March 1999
  • Class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002
  • Class MB and MC motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 October 2003.
Note 7

Rear bumper removal must still meet external projection requirements.

Table 2-1-1. Modifications that do not require specialist certification

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is not required provided that:

Cosmetic body kits and components
(including utility canopies and plastic bumper skins)

  • the fitting system does not weaken the vehicle structure, and
  • no frontal impact components have been removed where the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)
  • the kit or components do not present any forward-facing external projections, and
  • the performance of any lamps are not affected as a result of the kit or components.

Auxiliary winches

  • the winch either:

– does not protrude forward of the front face of the bumper, or

– does project forward of the bumper line, but is fitted with ‘pedestrian-friendly’ shrouds to reduce trapping risk and present a larger forward-facing surface area.

Side racks (for glass or other sheet materials)

  • there is no doubt as to the rack’s load carrying capacity, and
  • no forward-facing pedestrian traps exist, and
  • the rack is designed and protected so that sharp or dangerous cargo cannot face directly forward projecting beyond the outside of the body.

Front bumper bar (removal and change) (Note 1) (Note 7)

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)

Auxiliary bars (including bull bars, nudge bars, external roll cages and A-frames [or similar])

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6), or
  • the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard and the auxiliary bar:

– is a vehicle manufacturer supplied component for that vehicle, or

– has been certified by the auxiliary bar manufacturer as frontal impact compliant (as may be indicated by a label), or

- is an A-frame that meets all of the following requirements:

- is attached to the chassis by means other than welding, and

- components are fit for purpose, and

- the brackets remaining on the vehicle when the A-frame is removed are recessed behind the forward surface of the bumper by no less than 20mm, and

- the brackets are fitted so that they do not bridge the vehicle’s crumple zones or significantly stiffen the front of the vehicle.

Note that an auxiliary bar that does not meet the above minimum requirements is unlikely to meet LVV requirements and so cannot be certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is never required:

Aerials

  • in-service requirements for conditions and performance must be met.

Engine hood emblems

Engine hood pins

Towbars

Trunk racks

Roof-mounted wheelchair winch

Roof racks (except heavy PSVs)

Additional or substituted rear-view mirrors

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with a protruding ornamental or functional object or fitting.

Condition and performance

2. A protruding ornamental object or fitting must not be likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose must be installed so that the risk of the object or fitting causing injury to a person is minimised.

4. Components of a motor vehicle, including damaged or corroded body panels, must be such that the risk of their hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, is minimised.

5. A protruding object or fitting must not adversely affect driver vision or driver control.

Modifications

6. A modification that affects an external projection must be inspected and certified by a specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

2-2 Dimensions

The vehicle inspector need only inspect dimensions in detail if there is doubt about the vehicle’s compliance.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A rigid vehicle (Note 1) with a GVM of 3500kg or less exceeds the dimension requirements set out in Table 2-2-1 and is not:

a) a specialist overdimension vehicle (Note 3), or

b) a vehicle designed primarily to transport an overdimension load, or

c) a vehicle operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

2. A rigid vehicle that exceeds the dimensions set out in Table 2-2-1 is not fitted with the appropriate hazard warning equipment set out in Table 2-2-2.

3. A required beacon cannot be activated and deactivated.

Note 1

A rigid vehicle means a vehicle with motive power, driver’s position and steering system, that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the vehicle chassis to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the vehicle chassis, but includes a pivot steer vehicle.

Note 2

The rear axis of a vehicle means:

  • if the vehicle is fitted with one rear axle:  that axle
  • if the vehicle is fitted with a set of two axles: midway between those two axles if each axle has an equal number of tyres on it, or two-thirds of the distance from the lesser-tyred axle towards the greater-tyred axle, if one axle has twice as many tyres on it as the other axle.
Note 3

Specialist overdimension vehicle means a vehicle of which the primary purpose is to carry out a specialist function that requires overdimension equipment, is not primarily designed to transport overdimension or overweight loads, and the dismantling of the equipment would make it unusable for its intended purpose, or it would take more than four hours to dismantle the equipment. Additional operational requirements may apply, eg if operated at night.

Table 2-2-1. Dimension requirements (see Figure 2-2-1)

Dimension

Maximum distance

Comments

Width

2.55m

1.275m from each side of the longitudinal centreline

Measurement does not include:

  • collapsible mirrors which extend no more than 240mm from the side and 1.49m when measured from the vehicle's longitudinal centre line
  • direction indicators and side-marker lamps
  • cab exterior grab rails that extend no more than 50mm from the side of the vehicle
  • the bulge towards the bottom of a tyre
  • cameras or close-proximity monitoring systems mounted on the side exterior of a vehicle that extends not more than 70mm from the side wall of the vehicle
  • devices for improving the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle that extend not more than 25mm from either side of a vehicle.

Overall length

12.6m (no tow coupling fitted)

11.5m (tow coupling fitted)

Measurement does not include collapsible mirrors.

Height

4.3m

 

Forward distance

9.5m (no tow coupling fitted)

8.5m (including tow coupling if fitted)

Forward distance is measured from the rear axis (Note 2) to the front of the vehicle or its load whichever is foremost.

Measurement does not include collapsible mirrors.

Rear overhang

4m

Rear overhang is measured from the rear axis (Note 2) to the rear of the vehicle or its load whichever is the greater.

Front overhang

3m

Front overhang is measured from the front edge of the driver’s seat in the rearmost position to the front of the vehicle.

Articulated vehicle point of attachment

No further rearward than the centre of the rear axle (where the rear axle consists of only one axle)

No further than 300mm rearward of the rear axis (where the rear axle set consists of more than one axle)

Example: Fifth wheel fitted to a truck to tow a semi-trailer caravan
Table 2-2-2. Hazard warning equipment requirements (see Figure 2-2-4 for vehicle category thresholds)

Vehicle category
(see Figure 2-2-4)

Dimension

Limits
(up to and including)

Required hazard warning equipment

Category 1

Width/forward distance

2.55m /11.4m, or

3.1m/10.5m, or

3.7m/8.5m, or

Flags1 or panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

Length 25m, or
Front overhang 7m, or
Rear overhang 7m

Category 2 (not including category 1)

Width/forward distance

2.55m /13.3m, or

4.5m/8.5m, or

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear if more than 3.1m wide

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Length 35m, or
Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m

Category 3 (not including category 2)

Width/forward distance

2.55m /20m

5m/20m

5m/8.5m

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m

Category 4A (not including category 3)

Width/forward distance

11m/20m

11m/8.5m

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m
Category 4BExceeding any limit in Category 4A

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

1 Flags:

  • must be fluorescent yellow
  • must be at least 400mm long x 300mm wide.

2 Hazard warning panels:

  • must be reflective yellow-green with a reflective orange diagonal stripe
  • comply with AS/NZS 1906.1:2007
  • be frangible for those portions which extend beyond the vehicle’s limits (frangible means breakable or readily deformable)
  • must be of at least the minimum dimensions and the colours specified in Figure 2-2-2.

3 OVERSIZE sign:

  • must be black lettering on a yellow-green background
  • must be at least 300mm x 1100mm in size
  • may be in two parts: OVER and SIZE.
Figure 2-2-1. Dimension requirements

(Note: Dimensions in red updated in VDAM 2016)

dimensions

Figure 2-2-6. Hazard panel details

Hazard panels

Figure 2-2-3. Hazard panel location and orientation

5

Figure 2-2-4. Vehicle categories and width/forward-distance thresholds

vehicle categories

Use this figure to determine vehicle category in Table 2-2-2.
For the purposes of this figure, vehicles with a width less than 2.55m are deemed to have a width of 2.55m and vehicles with a forward distance of less than 8.5m are deemed to have a forward distance of 8.5m.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A rigid vehicle, or an articulated bus, with a GVM of 3500kg or less that exceeds the dimensions in Table 2-2-1 must meet the requirements in Table 2-2-2.

2. A vehicle may exceed the dimensions in Table 2-2-3 only if it is:

a) a specialist overdimension vehicle (Note 3), or

b) a vehicle designed primarily to transport overdimension loads, or

c) a vehicle operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

Page amended 1 February 2017 (see amendment details).

3 Vehicle structure

3-1 Structure (incl. frontal impact)

Reasons for rejection

Condition

1. The structure of the vehicle (shaded areas of Figure 3-1-2) has visible:

a) deformation from the original shape that has affected the vehicle’s structural integrity (Note 1) (Note 3), or

b) cracking, or

c) fracture, or

d) corrosion damage (Note 2) that is individually larger than 50mm in diameter (Figure 3-1-1), or

e) corrosion damage within 150mm of the top of an A-pillar (Figure 3-1-2), or

f) any corrosion that the inspector considers has caused weakening of a load-bearing structure (Note 6), or

g) poor repairs that have not returned the structure to within a safe tolerance of when it was manufactured (Note 3) (Note 6), eg:

i. filler has been used in an attempt to conceal corrosion damage or deformation of a component

ii. a high strength steel component has been heated

iii. a component has been strengthened.

Modification (Note 5) (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

2. The performance of the frontal impact occupant protection system may have been affected by a modification, including an added or removed object, fitting or component, after the vehicle was manufactured if the vehicle has a GVM of 2500 kg or less and:

a) is:

i. a class MA motor vehicle manufactured from 1 March 1999, or

ii a class MA motor vehicle that was less than 20 years old when it was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002, or

iii a class MB or MC motor vehicle manufactured from 1 October 2003, and

b) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 3-1-1).

3. A modification affects the vehicle structure – including an object or fitting affixed after manufacture that is welded to the chassis, sub-frame, cross-member or body of a monocoque structure (Note 7), and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 3-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV vehicle certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1

The structure of a vehicle may incorporate crumple zones that form part of a frontal impact occupant protection system.

Note 2

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward sign of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Bumper bar means either the structural part inside a plastic bumper or a complete metal bumper as used on older vehicles. The bumper fascia (bumper cover) is not part of the bumper structure. It is the bumper reinforcement (also known as the bumper beam) that is the actual bumper bar for inspection purposes (see Figure 3-1-3).

Note 3

The vehicle inspector may request additional relevant information from a repairer or other relevant person. The vehicle inspector should withhold the warrant of fitness if there is reason to believe that the vehicle has:

a) structural damage, or

b) inadequate structural repair(s), or

c) corrosion damage

to the extent that it could affect the vehicle’s structural strength or one of the vehicle’s safety requirements. If the owner questions the decision, the vehicle inspector should recommend the vehicle owner obtain further written assessment from a panel beater.

Note 4

The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500kg or less must comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard:

  • Class MA motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 March 1999
  • Class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002
  • Class MB and MC motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 October 2003.
Note 5 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 6

Where the inspector is presented with a Nissan Terrano or Nissan Mistral vehicle of the type that is fitted with a two-layer (double skin) floor panel, the inspection procedure in Technical bulletin 2 must be followed.

Note 7

A body lift on a body/chassis vehicle (commonly a 4x4) always requires LVV certification.

Note 8

Rear bumper removal must still meet external projection requirements.

Table 3-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Addition of side windows into a panel van or goods van

  • The modification was carried out before 1/3/1999, or
  • The modification was carried out on or after 1/3/1999, and the material removed for the side window installation does not contribute to the strength of the vehicle structure (for example, cutting into flat panels does not affect the structural strength, but cutting into bracing material does affect the structural strength of the vehicle).

Campervan conversions

  • The conversion was completed before 1/3/1999, or
  • The conversion was completed on or after 1/3/1999, and
    • no modifications were carried out to the vehicle roof or rear wall, and
    • no seats or seatbelt anchorages were retrofitted , or
  • There is evidence of certification of the modification from the company that carried out the modification, ie a secondary certification plate or label in the case of a motorhome conversion (see Technical bulletin 13).

Cosmetic body kits and components (including utility canopies and plastic bumper skins)

  • the fitting system does not weaken the vehicle structure, and
  • the kit or components do not present any forward-facing external projections, and
  • none of the frontal impact components have been removed where the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 4), and
  • the performance of any lamps is not affected as a result of the kit or components.

Front bumper bar (removal and change) (Note 2) (Note 8)

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 4)

Fibreglass replacement panels (that are substituted for OE panels)

  • the OE panels being replaced do not contribute to the strength of the vehicle structure, including side impact resistance, and
  • the replacement panels use OE attachment points.

Seatbelt anchorages retrofitted after 1 January 1992 in vehicles of classes MA, MB, MC or after 1 March 1999, in vehicles of other classes

  • the anchorage is a top tether anchorage for a child seat or child harness, and
  • the installation is carried out in accordance with the instructions of the seat or harness manufacturer.

Suspension braces (strut tower braces)

  • there are no structural changes to the body or suspension mounting points.

Auxiliary bars (including bull bars, nudge bars, external roll cages and A-frames [or similar])

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 4), or
  • the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard and the auxiliary bar:

– is a vehicle manufacturer supplied component for that vehicle, or

– has been certified by the auxiliary bar manufacturer as frontal impact compliant (as may be indicated by a label)or

- is an A-frame that meets all of the following requirements:

- is attached to the chassis by means other than welding, and

- components are fit for purpose, and

- the brackets remaining on the vehicle when the A-frame is removed are recessed behind the forward surface of the bumper by no less than 20mm, and

- the brackets are fitted so that they do not bridge the vehicle’s crumple zones or significantly stiffen the front of the vehicle.

Note that an auxiliary bar that does not meet the above minimum requirements is unlikely to meet LVV requirements and so cannot be certified.

Front-mounted intercooler

  • the front structure of the vehicle has not been modified, and
  • the front bumper structure is unaltered (cosmetic changes are permitted) (Note 2), and
  • the components do not present any forward-facing external projections, and
  • none of the frontal impact components have been removed where the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 4).

Cargo hoist/ cargo lift platform

  • the vehicle structure has not been weakened.

Stereo equipment and speakers

  • any modification or fitting carried out before 1/1/1992

If fitted to the rear parcel shelf :

  • no upper seatbelt anchorage is attached to the shelf or any shelf support bracket, and
  • if upper seatbelt anchorage is fitted, the removal of any material from the rear shelf is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure to which a seatbelt anchorage is attached, and
  • in the case of a top tether point for a child seat attached to the rear shelf, the top tether point is not located within 150mm of a modification to a rear parcel shelf.

If fitted to a part of the vehicle other than the rear parcel shelf:

  • no structural material has been removed from within 300mm of a seatbelt anchorage, and
  • any material removed is minimal and is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure (including a seatbelt anchorage structure).
Ute trays

In-service requirements for performance and condition are met.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Aftermarket sunroof or roof vent/hatch

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Towbars

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Roof racks

Figure 3-1-1. Corrosion damage 50mm diameter limit

Corrosion damage 50mm diameter limit

Figure 3-1-2. Corrosion damage as referred to in Condition above

Figure 3-1-2 Corrosion damage

These include chassis, cross-members and sub-frames, load-bearing monocoque body structures, body mounts and the body on a vehicle with a separate chassis. Other sections also contain Reasons for rejection and diagrams relating to specific vehicle components. See figures for corrosion limits to hinge and latch anchorages (section 6-1), seatbelt anchorages (section 7-5), and front or rear suspension anchorages (section 9-1).

Note that the diagram has been updated to take into account the more modern vehicle structures of common vehicles.

Figure 3-1-3. Bumper structure

The bumper fascia (bumper cover) is not part of the bumper structure. It is the bumper reinforcement (also known as the bumper beam) that is the actual bumper bar for inspection purposes.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition

1. The vehicle must be safe to be operated.

2. The components and materials must be fit for their purpose and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

3. The performance of a motor vehicle in relation to protecting occupants in a frontal impact collision must not be reduced below a safe tolerance by any factors, including corrosion, structural damage, material degradation, inadequate repair, the fitting of additional equipment, or the removal of equipment, taking into account:

a) the function of the additional equipment fitted to the motor vehicle after manufacture, and the measures taken to minimise the risk of injury from the equipment;

b) evidence that the motor vehicle is within the manufacturer’s operating limits.

Modification

4. A modification that affects the integrity of the vehicle structure must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 3-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4 Lighting

4-1 Headlamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is not fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with more than:

a) one pair of dipped-beam headlamps (Note 10) , or

b) two pairs of dipped-beam headlamps if the vehicle was first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

c) two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with a headlamp that is not in a pair.

4. A vehicle of class LE is not fitted with one dipped-beam headlamp.

5. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than:

a) two dipped-beam headlamps, or

b) two main-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard headlamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

7. A device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately is fitted to a vehicle that is not an emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle.

8. A vehicle is fitted with a dipped-beam headlamp where the maximum intensity of the beam is projected to the right.

Condition (Note 5)

9. A lamp is insecure, obscured, or contains dirt or moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

10. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

11. A lens or reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

12. A main-beam headlamp warning device is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

13. When switched on, a headlamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 8) or other incorrect light source.

14. When the dipped-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on dipped beam, or

c) more than four lamps operate on dipped beam on a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

d) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused, or is reduced or altered, or

e) the centreline of the light beam is too far to the left or slopes down too far so that the headlamp is no longer capable of illuminating the road at least 50m ahead (Figure 4-1-2), or

f) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or projects from the lamp at an angle other than:

i. as specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or

ii. as specified in Table 4-1-1.

15. When the main-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on main beam on a class LE vehicle, or

c) more than four lamps operate on main beam on a vehicle of group M or N, or

d) a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 has a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that continue to operate, or

e) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline or up from the horizontal, or

f) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused or is reduced or altered, or

g) the lamps are not capable of being switched to dipped beam or turned off from the driver’s seating position, or

h) a main-beam headlamp warning device does not indicate to the driver that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

16. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash alternately:

a) does not indicate to the driver that the device is activated, or

b) flashes:

i. faster than two flashes per second, or

ii. slower than one flash per second, or

iii. at a varying frequency.

17. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs) fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

18. A headlamp is retrofitted with a type of light source other than that specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer (eg a headlamp designed for a halogen bulb is fitted with any other type of light source such as an HID or LED bulb, or any other light source such as LED strips or non-OEM angel eyes) (Note 8).

19. Retrofitted headlamps are not fitted:

a) as a pair, or

b) symmetrically, or

c) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

20. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less is positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m from the ground (Note 9).

Note 1

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 2

If the dipped-beam headlamps are able to be adjusted from the driver’s seating position, the alignment must be checked with the adjustment at its highest position.

Note 3

If the vehicle is fitted with self-levelling suspension, the alignment must be checked with the suspension at its normal level.

Note 4 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Headlamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is a:

a) dipped-beam headlamp (single lamp), or

b) main-beam (high-beam) headlamp (single lamp), and includes a driving lamp, or

c) combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp (dual-lamp unit).

Dipped-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to emit a dipped beam, which is a beam of light that is angled downwards in such a way that it prevents undue dazzle or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.

Main-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of the vehicle.

Note 5

If a headlamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the headlamp.

Note 6

A vehicle originally manufactured with a headlamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original headlamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 7

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 8

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing.

It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified.

It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID or LED headlamp unit. If the vehicle is required to meet an approved safety standard for headlamps, only approved headlamps can be retrofitted (see Figure 4-1-1).

Note 9

The dipped-beam headlamps may be positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m if a road maintenance implement (eg, snowplough or roadsweeper) fitted to the front of the vehicle would obscure headlamps placed at a height of 1.2m or less.

Note 10

It is acceptable for a pair of dipped-beam headlamps to consist of one symmetric and one asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp. However, in some cases this may result in one lamp being noticeably brighter than the other lamp in the pair. In that case, the vehicle inspector may determine that the dipped beams differ noticeably in light intensity, and the lamps fail the inspection. Note that a beamsetter’s luxmeter cannot measure the light intensity of a dipped beam headlamp.

Table 4-1-1. Allowable dipped-beam headlamp alignment

Headlamp type

Distance from ground to centre of light source

Dip rate of beam centre:
lower and upper limits

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

EITHER

Any headlamp dipped beam

N/A

That specified by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer

OR

Headlamp with symmetric dipped-beam pattern

N/A

3.0–3.5

90–105

1.7–2.0

OR

Headlamp with asymmetric dipped-beam pattern and distance from ground to centre of light source

less than 0.8 m

1.0–1.5

30–45

0.57–0.85

0.8–1.2 m

1.0–2.0

30–60

0.57–1.15

more than 1.2 m

2.0–2.5

60–75

1.15–1.43

Table 4-1-2. Dipped-beam angle conversions

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

1.0

30

0.6

2.3

69

1.3

1.1

33

0.6

2.4

72

1.4

1.2

36

0.7

2.5

75

1.4

1.3

39

0.7

2.6

78

1.5

1.4

42

0.8

2.7

81

1.5

1.5

45

0.9

2.8

84

1.6

1.6

48

0.9

2.9

87

1.7

1.7

51

1.0

3.0

90

1.7

1.8

54

1.0

3.1

93

1.8

1.9

57

1.1

3.2

96

1.8

2.0

60

1.1

3.3

99

1.9

2.1

63

1.2

3.4

102

1.9

2.2

66

1.3

3.5

105

2.0

Figure 4-1-1. Approved headlamp standard markings

The following standard markings may assist in determining compliance with approved standards.

Vehicles required to comply with an approved headlamp standard are:

  • vehicles of class MA and NA manufactured on or after 1 January 1992
  • vehicles of class MB, MC, MD1, MD2, MD3, MD4, ME, NB and NC manufactured on or after 1 January 1996.
Figure 4-1-2. Minimum illuminated area

dipped beam angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one or two dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 may be fitted with a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that:

a) do not operate when the main-beam headlamps are switched on, and

b) may operate independently of the first pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

4. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

5. A vehicle required to meet an approved safety standard for lighting must continue to meet an approved safety standard for lighting.

6. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less must be fitted at a height not exceeding 1.2 m from the ground (Note 9).

7. A warning device may be fitted that indicates that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

8. An emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle may be fitted with a device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately, provided it is also fitted with equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

9. A retrofitted pair of headlamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Prohibited equipment

10. A dipped-beam headlamp designed solely for a left-hand drive vehicle, where the maximum intensity of the beam is dispersed to the right, must not be fitted.

Condition (Note 5)

11. A headlamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured.

Performance

12. A headlamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

13. A headlamp must emit a steady light.

14. A headlamp must provide sufficient illumination and light output to illuminate the road ahead.

15. If fitted with a device that allows headlamps to flash alternately, the lamps must flash at a fixed frequency.

16. A pair of headlamps must emit light that is approximately of equal colour and intensity when switched on.

17. A headlamp must emit a beam that is substantially white or amber.

18. A main-beam headlamp must be capable of being dipped or turned off from the driver’s position.

19. A warning device that indicates that the main-beam lamps are in operation must be in good working order.

20. When the headlamps are switched on and the vehicle’s front wheels are pointing in the straight-ahead position:

a) the centre of a headlamp beam must be either parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle, and

b) the centre of a main-beam headlamp beam must be either parallel to or dipping down from the horizontal, and

c) the centre of a dipped-beam headlamp beam must dip at an angle specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or:

i. 3–3.5% for a symmetric beam pattern, or

ii. 1–1.5% for an asymmetic beam pattern where the centre of the light source is less than 0.8 m from the ground, or

iii. 1–2% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is 0.8–1.2 m from the ground, or

iv. 2–2.5% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is above 1.2 m from the ground.

21. The dipped-beam headlamps must illuminate the road ahead for 50 m in normal darkness.

22. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

23. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash must:

a) make the headlamps flash alternately at a frequency of 1–2 Hertz, and

b) incorporate equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

24. A headlamp must be fitted with a light source that is specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer.

Modifications (Note 4)

25. A headlamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-2 Front and rear fog lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one front fog lamp, or

b) more than one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two front fog lamps.

3. A vehicle is fitted with more than two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps is not fitted:

a) symmetrically, or

b) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable, or

c) positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

Condition (Note 3)

5. A lamp is insecure or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles .

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

8. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

9. When switched on, a front fog lamp does not operate (Note 5).

10. When switched on, a front fog lamp emits light that:

a) is not projected to the front, or

b) produces an incorrect beam pattern (Figure 4-2-1), or

c) is not substantially white or amber to the front, or

d) is not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

e) is not steady, or

f) is not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

g) is too bright, and could dazzle other road users, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 6) or an incorrect , or

h) is altered, eg due to damage or modification, or

i) has a beam centre to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or

j) has a beam that is not permanently dipped, or

k) has a beam centre that dips at an angle of less than 3% (Figure 4-2-1).

11. When switched on, a rear fog lamp emits light that is:

a) not projected to the rear, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not substantially red, or

d) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) of variable intensity, or

f) not bright enough to indicate the presence of the vehicle from the rear in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

12. A fog lamp cannot be switched off from the driver’s seating position.

13. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

14. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, does not operate.

Note 1

Fog lamp means a high-intensity front or rear lamp designed to aid the driver or other road users in conditions of severely reduced visibility, including fog or snow, but not including clear atmospheric conditions under the hours of darkness.

Note 2

A rear fog lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

If a front fog lamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the fog lamp.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a front- or rear-fog-lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original front or rear fog lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 5

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply, be removed from the vehicle, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 6

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing. It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified. It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID headlamp unit.

Figure 4-2-1. Front fog lamp characteristics

front fog lamp characteristics

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE: one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE: one or two front fog lamps.

3. One or two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far as is practicable towards each side of the vehicle.

5. A retrofitted front fog lamp must not be positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle may be fitted with a warning device that indicates that a front or rear fog lamp is in operation.

Condition

7. A front fog lamp must be in sound condition.

8. A rear fog lamp must be in sound condition if it emits a light.

Performance

9. A fog lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

10. A fog lamp must emit a steady light.

11. A front fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

12. A rear fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate the presence of the vehicle on the road in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

13. The light emitted from a front fog lamp must be substantially white or amber.

14. The light emitted from a rear fog lamp must be diffuse and substantially red in colour.

15. A pair of fog lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

16. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle.

17. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be permanently dipped at an angle of at least 3%.

18. A fog lamp must be able to be turned off from the driver’s seating position.

19. A front or rear fog lamp warning device must be in good working order.

20. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

22. A fog lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-3 Cornering lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps, or

c) a lamp that either:

i. was not originally fitted by the vehicle manufacturer, or

ii. is not fitted in the original position.

Condition

2. A lamp is insecure.

3. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

4. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

5. When activated by switching on the direction indicator lamp or by turning the steering wheel, a cornering lamp:

a) does not operate, or

b) does not project in the direction of the turn.

6. A cornering lamp emits light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright causing dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source or misalignment, or

f) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

7. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1

Cornering lamp means a lamp designed to emit light at the front of a vehicle to supplement the vehicle’s headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

Note 2

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a cornering lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original cornering lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 4

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One pair of cornering lamps fitted as OE.

Condition

2. A cornering lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

3. A cornering lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A cornering lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

5. A pair of cornering lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

6. A cornering lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A cornering lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

8. A cornering lamp must be correctly aligned.

9. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. A cornering lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-4 Daytime running lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two lamps.

3. A lamp is fitted in a position other than at the front of the vehicle.

4. A retrofitted lamp is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

5. A lamp is insecure.

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

8. When switched on, a daytime running lamp does not operate (Note 4).

9. When switched on, a daytime running lamp emits light that is:

a) projected in a direction other than to the front, or

b) not substantially white or amber, or

c) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

d) not steady, or

e) not bright enough to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

f) too bright, causing significant dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

10. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources, fewer than 75% of these operate.

11. A daytime running lamp continues to operate when the headlamps or fog lamps are switched on.

Note 1

Daytime running lamp means a lamp designed to emit a low-intensity light forward of a vehicle to make it more easily seen in the daytime.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a daytime running lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original daytime running lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 3

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 4

Some vehicles are equipped with OE or after-market daytime running lamps (DRLs) that also incorporate position lamp and direction indicator lamp functions. When the DRLs are on (when headlamps are off), and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding DRL is temporarily extinguished or dimmed. When the position lamps are on and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding position lamp may remain lit.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE may have: one pair of daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

2. A vehicle of class LE may have one or two daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

3. A retrofitted lamp must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

4. A daytime running lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

5. A daytime running lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A daytime running lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

7. A pair of daytime running lamps must emit light that is of approximately equal colour and intensity.

8. A daytime running lamp must emit a steady light.

9. A daytime running lamp must provide sufficient light output to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime.

10. A daytime running lamp must be correctly aligned.

11. A daytime running lamp must not operate when a front fog lamp or a headlamp is in use.

12. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A daytime running lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-5 Direction indicator lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle of class LE first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 is not fitted with one pair of lamps to the front and one pair of lamps to the rear.

2. A vehicle of class LE first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 is fitted with more than one pair of lamps to the front or more than one pair of lamps to the rear.

3. A vehicle other than class LE first registered anywhere on or after 1 July 1967 is not fitted with one pair of lamps to the front and one pair of lamps to the rear.

4. A vehicle is fitted with more than:

a) two pairs of lamps to the front, or

b) two pairs of lamps to the rear, or

c) three pairs of lamps (including top-mounted lamps) to the rear if the vehicle is an emergency vehicle.

5. An emergency vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

b) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

6. A vehicle is fitted with more than two side-facing lamps on each side of the vehicle.

7. A vehicle is fitted with a lamp that is not in a pair.

8. A vehicle is not fitted with a visual lamp indicator device that indicates to the driver that a lamp has failed ( only where one was fitted as original equipment).

9. A retrofitted lamp is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

10. A retrofitted lamp, other than a top-mounted lamp on an emergency vehicle, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

11. A vehicle (eg avintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard direction indicator lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Condition

12. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

13. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

14. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

15. A visual lamp-failure warning device is obscured from the driver in the driver’s seating position.

Performance

16. When switched on, a direction indicator lamp:

a) does not operate, or

b) does not begin flashing within one second of switching on, or

c) flashes:

i. faster than two flashes per second, or

ii. slower than one flash per second, or

iii. at a different rate from other lamps on the same side.

17. When switched on, a direction indicator lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber to the front, or

b) not substantially amber or red to the rear, or

c) not substantially amber to the side, or

d)  not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) not bright enough to be visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

f) too bright causing significant dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source , or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

18. A non-OE mandatory lamp mounted outside the original position emits a light that is not visible within (Figure 4-5-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

19. A modification to the vehicle has reduced the visibility angles of a mandatory lamp to less than (Figure 4-5-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

20. On a vehicle of American origin fitted with combined stop and indicator lamps, the stop lamp function is not overridden by the indicator function.

21. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

22. A visual lamp indicator device does not operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Direction indicator lamp means a lamp designed to emit a flashing light to signal the intention of the driver to change the direction of the vehicle to the right or to the left.

Note 2

A permitted (ie non-mandatory) rear or a non-OE side-facing direction indicator lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 may have rear direction indicator lamps that also function as reversing lamps.

Note 5

A vehicle originally manufactured with a direction indicator lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original direction indicator lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 6

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 7

Some vehicles are equipped with OE or after-market daytime running lamps (DRLs) that also incorporate position lamp and direction indicator lamp functions. When the DRLs are on (when headlamps are off), and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding DRL is temporarily extinguished or dimmed. When the position lamps are on and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding position lamp may remain lit.

Figure 4-5-1. Direction indicator beam angles

direction indicator beam angles 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE first registered anywhere before 1 July 1967 may be fitted with one or two pairs of lamps to the front and one or two pairs of lamps to the rear of the vehicle.

2. A vehicle other than class LE first registered anywhere on or after 1 July 1967 must be fitted with one or two pairs of lamps to the front and one or two pairs of lamps to the rear of the vehicle.

3. A vehicle of class LE first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 may be fitted with one pair of lamps to the front and one pair of lamps to the rear of the vehicle.

4. A vehicle of class LE first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 must be fitted with one or two pairs of lamps to the front and one or two pairs of lamps to the rear of the vehicle.

5. An emergency vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of indicator lamps at the rear of the vehicle that must be symmetrically mounted as near to the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

6. A vehicle may be fitted with one or two side-facing lamps on each side.

7. A suitable device must be fitted that indicates to the driver the failure of a mandatory lamp.

8. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

9. A retrofitted pair of lamps, other than top-mounted lamps, must be mounted:

a) symmetrically as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable, and

b) at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5 m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1 m.

10. On vehicles of American origin, the stop lamp and direction indicator lamp function may be combined in one lamp.

Condition

11. A direction indicator lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

12. A direction indicator lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

13. A direction indicator lamp must emit a light that is substantially:

a) white or amber to the front, and

b) red or amber to the rear, and

c) amber to the side.

14. A lamp must flash at a fixed frequency in the range of 1–2 Hertz.

15. Each lamp in a pair must, when operated, emit a light of approximately equal intensity, colour and frequency.

16. The lamp-failure indicating device must function.

17. A lamp must emit a light that is visible from 100m during normal daylight and 200m in normal darkness.

18. A retrofitted mandatory lamp must emit a light that is visible within angles of

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, and

b) 45˚ inboard, and

c) 80˚ outboard.

19. If a vehicle of American origin is fitted with combined stop and indicator lamps, the indicator lamps must override the stop lamps so that the stop lamps operate as direction indicators.

20. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications (Note 1)

21. A direction indicator lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 28 April 2014 (see amendment details).

4-6 Forward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. One pair of lamps is not fitted to:

a) a vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 1.5m in width, or

b) a vehicle that exceeds 2m in width.

2. A vehicle is fitted with more than:

a) one pair of lamps, or

b) two single lamps.

3. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard forward-facing position lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

4. A retrofitted lamp is mounted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

5. A retrofitted pair of lamps is:

a) not symmetrically mounted, or

b) not mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

6. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

7. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

8. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

9. When switched on, a forward-facing position lamp does not operate (Note 5).

10. When switched on, a forward-facing position lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not projected to the front, or

d)  not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) not steady, or

f) not bright enough to be visible from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

g) is altered, eg due to damage or modification.

11. A non-OE mandatory lamp mounted outside the original position emits a light that is not visible within (Figure 4-6-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

12. A modification to the vehicle has reduced the visibility angles of a mandatory lamp to less than (Figure 4-6-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

13. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a forward-facing position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original forward-facing position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 4

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 5

Some vehicles are equipped with OE or after-market daytime running lamps (DRLs) that also incorporate position lamp and direction indicator lamp functions. When the DRLs are on (when headlamps are off), and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding DRL is temporarily extinguished or dimmed. When the position lamps are on and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding position lamp may remain lit.

Figure 4-6-1. Forward-facing position lamp beam angles

forward-facing position lmap beam angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. One pair of lamps must be fitted to:

a) a vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 1.5m in width

b) a vehicle that exceeds 2m in width.

2. One or two lamps may be fitted to:

a) a vehicle that does not exceed 1.5m in width

b) a vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 that does not exceed 2m in width.

3. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

4. A retrofitted pair of lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

5. A retrofitted lamp must be mounted at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

6. A forward-facing position lamp must:

a) be in sound condition

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

7. A forward-facing position lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

8. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber, and

c) steady, and

d) sufficient to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle, and

e) visible from 200m in normal darkness, and

f) of approximately equal intensity and colour to the other lamp of a pair.

9. A retrofitted mandatory lamp must be visible within angles of:

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, and

b) 45˚ inboard, and

c) 80˚ outboard.

10. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications (Note 1)

11. A forward-facing position lamp that is affected by a modification must meet the equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 28 April 2014 (see amendment details).

4-7 Rearward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 that is more than 1.5m wide:

a) is not fitted with one pair of lamps, or

b) is fitted with more than two pairs of lamps, or

c) is fitted with a lamp that is not in a pair, or

d) is an emergency vehicle and is fitted with more than three pairs of lamps, including top-mounted lamps.

2. A group M or N vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 or is less than 1.5m wide is:

a) not fitted with one single lamp or one pair of lamps, or

b) fitted with more than one single lamp, or

c) fitted with more than two pairs of lamps.

3. An emergency vehicle is fitted with:

a) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

b) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

4. A class LE vehicle that was first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 or that is less than 1.5m wide is not fitted with at least one lamp.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard rearward-facing position lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

6. A retrofitted lamp, other than a top-mounted lamp on an emergency vehicle, is mounted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

7. A retrofitted pair of lamps:

a) is not symmetrically mounted, or

b) is not mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

8. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

9. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

10. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

11. When switched on, a mandatory lamp does not operate.

12. When switched on, a lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially red, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not projected to the rear, or

d)  not approximately equal in colour or intensity from that of the other lamp in a pair, or

e) not steady, or

f) not bright enough to be visible from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

g) is altered, eg due to damage or modification.

13. A non-OE mandatory lamp mounted outside the original position emits a light that is not visible within (Figure 4-7-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

14. A modification to the vehicle has reduced the visibility angles of a mandatory lamp to less than (Figure 4-7-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard or 80˚ outboard.

15. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted rearward-facing position lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rearward-facing position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rearward-facing position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Figure 4-7-1. Rearward-facing position lamp beam angles

Rearward-facing position lamp beam angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 and that is more than 1.5m wide must be fitted with one or two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps.

2. A vehicle of group M or N that was first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 or that does not exceed 1.5m in width must be fitted with:

a) one single rearward-facing position lamp in the centre or to the right of the centre of the vehicle, or

b) one or two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps.

3. A vehicle of class LE that was first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 or that does not exceed 1.5m in width must be fitted with at least one rearward-facing position lamp.

4. An emergency vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

6. A retrofitted pair of lamps, other than top-mounted lamps, must be mounted:

a) symmetrically as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable, and

b) at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

7. A rearward-facing position lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

8. A rearward-facing position lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

9. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially red.

10. A lamp must emit a steady light.

11. A lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

12. A lamp must emit light that is visible from a distance of 200m in normal darkness.

13. A retrofitted mandatory lamp must be visible within angles of 15˚ above and below the horizontal, and within 45˚ inboard and 80˚ outboard.

14. Each lamp in a pair must, when operated, emit a light of approximately equal intensity and colour.

15. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications (Note 4)

16. A rearward-facing position lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 28 April 2014 (see amendment details).

4-8 Side-marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A side-marker lamp is not positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

2. A vehicle less than 6m in length is fitted with a side-marker lamp, unless the vehicle is a production vehicle and the lamp is fitted as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer.

3. A vehicle manufactured before 1 January 2006 has a forward-facing side-marker lamp that emits light that is not substantially white or amber.

4. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 2006 has a forward-facing side-marker lamp that emits light that is not substantially amber.

Condition

5. A lamp is insecure.

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

8. When switched on, a side-marker lamp emits a light that:

a) is not substantially white or amber to the front, or

b) is not substantially red or amber to the rear, or

c) is not diffuse, or

d) is not approximately of the same colour and intensity on each side of the vehicle, or

e) does not remain steadily illuminated, or

f) is not bright enough to produce light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

9. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Note 1 Definitions

Side-marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted to the side of a vehicle or its load.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted side-marker lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Figure 4-8-1. Visibility angles for side marker lamps

visibility angles for side marker lamps

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A light vehicle 6m or more in length may be fitted with one or more side-marker lamps.

2. A side-marker lamp must be positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

3. A light vehicle less than 6m in length must not be fitted with a side-marker lamp, unless the vehicle is a production vehicle and the lamp is fitted as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer.

4. The light emitted from a forward-facing side-marker lamp on a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 2006 is not substantially white or amber.

5. The light emitted from a forward-facing side-marker lamp on a vehicle manufactured on or after1 January 2006 is not substantially amber.

Condition

6. A side-marker lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

7. A side-marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

8. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front, and

c) substantially red or amber to the rear.

7. A lamp must emit a steady light.

9. A side-marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

10. A side-marker lamp must emit a light that is visible from a distance of 100m in daylight and 200m during the hours of darkness.

11. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

12. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-9 End-outline marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A light vehicle with an overall width of 1.8m or more is fitted with:

a) more than four forward-facing lamps, or

b) more than two rearward-facing lamps.

2. A light vehicle with an overall width of less than 1.8m is fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

3. The lamps are not positioned in such a way that they give an indication of the vehicles dimensions.

Condition

4. A lamp is insecure.

5. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

6. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

7. When switched on, a forward-facing end-outline marker lamp does not operate (Note 2).

8. When switched on, an end-outline marker lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber to the front, or

b) not substantially red to the rear, or

c) not diffuse, or

d) not projected to the front or rear, or

e) not approximately of the same colour or intensity as the other lamp if fitted in a pair, or

f) not steady, or

g) not bright enough to indicate the presence and dimensions of the vehicle to other road users.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

End-outline marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of the vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps, and includes a cab roof lamp.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate the presence and dimensions of a vehicle to other road users, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side or park lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A rearward-facing end-outline marker lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements, must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. A non-complying forward-facing end-outline marker lamp must be made to comply or be fully removed from the vehicle.

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with an end-outline marker lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original end-outline marker lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. Lamps visible from the front and from the rear on the same side of the vehicle may be combined into one device.

Note 4

Vehicle manufacturer means the original vehicle manufacturer and the final stage manufacturer in the case of certain modified vehicles (see Technical bulletin 13:  Acceptable overseas proof of modification).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A light vehicle that has an overall width of 1.8m or more may be fitted with a maximum of:

a) four forward-facing lamps, and

b) two rearward-facing lamps.

2. The position of the lamps must be such that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

3. A light vehicle with an overall width of less than 1.8m must not be fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

Condition

4. An end-outline marker lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

5. An end-outline marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front, and

c) substantially red to the rear.

7. A lamp must emit a steady light.

8. An end-outline marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. An end-outline marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-10 Stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class LE vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 is not fitted with one stop lamp.

2. A class LE vehicle is fitted with more than two stop lamps.

3. A group M or N vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978:

a) is not fitted with one stop lamp if the vehicle is so constructed that the driver’s arm signals cannot be seen from behind the vehicle, or

b) is fitted with more than four stop lamps.

4. A group M or N vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 is:

a) not fitted with one pair of stop lamps, or

b) fitted with more than two pairs of stop lamps, or

c) fitted with a stop lamp that is not in a pair, or

d) an emergency vehicle and is fitted with more than three pairs of lamps, including top-mounted lamps.

5. An emergency vehicle is fitted with:

a) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

b) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

6. A vehicle (eg vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard stop lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

7. A retrofitted stop lamp, other than a top-mounted lamp on an emergency vehicle, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

8. A retrofitted pair of lamps is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

9. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

10. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

11. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

12. When the service brake is activated:

a) a mandatory lamp does not operate, or

b) a lamp does not remain steadily illuminated.

13. A lamp operates when the service brake is not applied.

14. A lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially red, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not projected to the rear, or

d)  not approximately equal in intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) not bright enough to produce a light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

f) is altered, eg due to damage or modification.

15. A non-OE mandatory lamp mounted outside the original position emits a light that is not visible within (Figure 4-10-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard and outboard.

16. A modification to the vehicle has reduced the visibility angles of a mandatory lamp to less than (Figure 4-10-1):

a) 15˚ above and below the horizontal, or

b) 45˚ inboard and outboard.

17. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

18. On a vehicle of American origin fitted with combined stop and direction indicator lamps, the stop lamp function is not overridden by the indicator function.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is activated.

Note 2

A permitted stop lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Figure 4-10-1. Stop-lamp visibility angles

Stop-lamp visibility angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class LE vehicle:

a) first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978 may be fitted with one or two stop lamps.

b) first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 must be fitted with one or two stop lamps

2. A group M or N vehicle:

a) first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1978:

i. may be fitted with one, two or four stop lamps, or

ii. must be fitted with one, two or four stop lamps if its construction, equipment or loading prevents an arm signal given by the driver from being seen from behind the vehicle.

b) first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 must be fitted with one or two pairs of stop lamps that emit a light that is visible from 100m.

3. An emergency vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

4. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

5. A retrofitted pair of stop lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

6. A retrofitted stop lamp, other than a top-mounted lamp, must be fitted at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

7. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Condition

8. A stop lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

9. A stop lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

10. The light emitted from a stop lamp must be diffuse light that is substantially red.

11. A required stop lamp must operate when a service brake is activated.

12. A required stop lamp must provide sufficient light output to fulfil its intended purpose.

13. A stop lamp must emit a steady light.

14. A retrofitted mandatory stop lamp must emit a light that is visible within the angles of 15˚ above and below the horizontal, and 45˚ inboard and outboard.

15. If a vehicle of American origin is fitted with combined stop and direction indicator lamps, the indicator lamps must override the stop lamps so that the stop lamps will operate as direction indicators.

16. Where a stop lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications (Note 1)

17. A stop lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 28 April 2014 (see amendment details).

4-11 High-mounted stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 is not fitted with one high-mounted stop lamp.

2. A vehicle is fitted with more than two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp is not fitted in a central high-mounted position.

4. A lamp fitted to a group M or N vehicle, except one that does not have a rear window, or that does not have a rear window visible from the rear, has an illuminated surface that is lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard stop lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Condition

6. A lamp is insecure.

7. A mandatory lamp (Note 2) is obscured, or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

8. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

9. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

10. When the service brake is activated:

a) a mandatory (Note 2) lamp does not operate, or

b) a lamp does not remain steadily illuminated.

11. A lamp operates when the service brake is not activated.

12. A lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially red, or

b) diffuse, or

c) projected to the rear, or

d) bright enough to be visible from 100m in normal daylight, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source

13. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

High-mounted stop lamp means a stop lamp that is designed to be fitted in a central, high-mounted position at the rear of a vehicle.

Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is activated.

Note 2

Mandatory lamp – the vehicle must have one high-mounted stop lamp that meets the equipment, condition and performance requirements. Any other high-mounted stop lamp is a permitted lamp. The permitted lamp is not required to operate, but if it does operate, it must meet the equipment, condition and performance requirements, although it may be obscured.

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a high-mounted stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original high-mounted stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 must be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

2. Any other vehicle may be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp on a group M or N vehicle must be fitted in a central high-mounted position at the rear of the vehicle.

4. No part of a lamp’s illuminated surface must be lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window, except where there is no rear window fitted or visible from behind the vehicle.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Condition

6. A high-mounted stop lamp must be in good condition.

7. At least one high-mounted stop lamp must not be obscured.

Performance

8. A high-mounted stop lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

9. The light emitted from a high-mounted stop lamp must be diffuse light that is substantially red.

10. A high-mounted stop lamp must emit a steady light.

11. At least one unobscured lamp must operate when the vehicle’s service brakes are activated.

12. Where a high-mounted stop lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A high-mounted stop lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-12 Rear-reg.-plate illumination lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle is not fitted with at least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard rear-registration-plate illumination lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Performance

3. The lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially white, or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse.

4. The lamps are not bright enough to show up the registration plate text from 20m in normal darkness.

5. The light source of a lamp is visible from the rear of the vehicle.

Note 1 Definitions

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the rear registration plate of a vehicle.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rear-registration-plate illumination lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rear-registration-plate illumination lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. At least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Performance

3. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A lamp must emit a diffuse light that is substantially white.

5. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must emit a steady light.

6. The light source of the lamp must not be visible from the rear of the vehicle.

7. A lamp must illuminate the figures and letters of the plate so that they are visible from 20m during normal darkness.

8. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

4-13 Rear-reflectors

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle:

a) is not fitted with at least one red rearward-facing reflector on each side, or

b) is fitted with a red rearward-facing reflector that is not in a pair.

2. A class LE vehicle is not fitted with at least one red rearward-facing reflector.

3. A reflector is not positioned to the rear of the vehicle.

4. A retrofitted reflector is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

5. A retrofitted pair of reflectors is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

6. A mandatory reflector’s ability to reflect light is affected by excessive:

a) fading, or

b) scratching or other damage.

7. A mandatory reflector is obscured.

Performance

8. The reflected light from a mandatory reflector is not visible from 100m.

9. A rearward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than red light (this does not apply to reflective material such as conspicuity/reflective tape).

10. The reflected light from a reflector is not red.

Figure 4-13-1. Reflector vs reflective material

Note 1 Definitions

Reflector means a distinct item of lighting equipment that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source, but does not include reflective material (such as reflective tape).

Reflective material means any material that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source and includes reflective tape, but does not include a reflector.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rear reflector arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rear reflectors provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle must be fitted with at least one pair of rearward-facing reflectors at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

2. A class LE vehicle must be fitted with at least one rearward-facing reflector that reflects light that is visible from 100m.

3. A rearward-facing reflector must be positioned to the rear of the vehicle.

4. A reflector must be of an area that allows it to reflect light to improve the visibility of the vehicle to other road users, but it must not cause them undue dazzle or discomfort.

5. A retrofitted pair of reflectors must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

6. A mandatory reflector must be in good condition and not be obscured.

Performance

7. A reflector must operate in a way that is appropriate for the reflector and the vehicle.

8. A reflector must reflect white light as substantially red light.

9. A reflector must provide sufficient light reflection to fulfil its intended purpose.

Modifications

10. A rear reflector that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-14 Reversing lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment (Note 2)

1. A vehicle is fitted with more than two reversing lamps at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition (Note 2)

3. A lamp is insecure.

4. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

5. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance (Note 2)

6. A lamp controlled by gear engagement continues to display a light to the rear when the reverse gear is disengaged.

7. A lamp controlled by a manual switch continues to display a light to the rear while the headlamps are switched on.

8. When engaged, a lamp emits light that is not:

a) substantially white (Note 3), or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse or a dipped beam.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Reversing lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the area behind the vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

Note 2

A reversing lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 were allowed to use rear indicator lamps as reversing lamps. Although the light emitted is amber rather than white, this arrangement is still permitted for these vehicles.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a reversing lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original reversing lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One or two reversing lamps fitted at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

3. A reversing lamp must be in good condition.

Performance

4. A reversing lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

5. A reversing lamp, when operated, must emit a diffuse light or a dipped beam of light that is substantially white (Note 3).

6. A reversing lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A reversing lamp may operate only when the reverse gear is engaged or the headlamps are turned off.

8. Where a reversing lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A reversing lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

4-15 Other lighting

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A cosmetic lamp (ie one not listed in Table 4-15-1) that is fitted to a vehicle:

a) has a part of its light-emitting surface positioned within 250mm of any mandatory lamp, or

b) is not mounted in a fixed position, or

c) is positioned so that its light-emitting surface is visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

Performance

3. When switched on, a cosmetic lamp with a light-emitting surface not visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1 emits a light that:

a) is not diffuse, or

b) flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, or

c) revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, or

d) is too bright and likely to dazzle other road users, or

e) is likely to cause confusion about the orientation of the vehicle, or

f) is red when seen directly from the front, or

g) is not red or amber when seen directly from the rear.

4. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

5. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

Note 1

A rear or side cosmetic lamp that does not comply with requirements for condition or performance must be made to comply, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 2 Definitions

Lamp means a device designed to emit light, and includes an array of separate light sources that appear as a continuous illuminated surface.

Work lamp means a high-intensity lamp that is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate the area or scene and include scene lamps, spot lamps and alley lamps.

Scene lamp means a work lamp designed to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to illuminate the area around the vehicle or the vehicle itself.

Alley lamp means a work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of the vehicle it is fitted to.

Reflective material (or retroreflective material) means any material that is designed to reflect incident light back towards a light source or in a specific direction; but does not include a reflector.

Cosmetic lamp means any lamp that is not listed in Table 4-15-1.

Note 3

A forward-facing cosmetic lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Table 4-15-1. Lamps that are not cosmetic lamps

Lamps covered in the VIRM

Other lighting equipment not requiring inspection

Headlamps

Stop lamps

High-mounted stop lamps

Direction indicator lamps

Position lamps
(includes side-marker lamps and end-outline marker lamps)

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamps

Rear reflectors

Fog lamps

Daytime running lamps

Cornering lamps

Reversing lamps

PSV interior lamps

Work lamps

Interior lamps
Designed to illuminate the interior of the vehicle for the convenience of passengers

Flashing or revolving beacons

Illuminated vehicle-mounted signs
Includes PSV destination signs, taxi signs and variable message signs operated by enforcement officers, under a traffic management plan or permitted by other legislation

A light source that is a necessary part of equipment required or permitted by any enactment to be fitted to a vehicle
Includes LEDs that indicate status on eRUC labels

Figure 4-15-1. Visibility angles for cosmetic lamps

visibility angles for cosmetic lamps

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle may be fitted with one or more lamps not specified in Table 4-15-1, provided they are fitted so that light sources are not visible in those regions specified in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A cosmetic lamp must be fitted in a fixed position on the vehicle and positioned so that no part of the light source is situated within 250mm of a mandatory lamp.

3. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

4. A vehicle may be fitted with reflective material to improve the visibility of the vehicle to other drivers and other road users, but the material must not dazzle, confuse or otherwise endanger their safety.

Performance

5. A cosmetic lamp must:

a) only emit light that is diffuse, and

b) not emit light that flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, and

c) be fitted in a way, and be of a luminance that ensures, that it does not dazzle, confuse or distract other road users, and

d) not emit a light that revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, and

e) not cause confusion as to the orientation of the vehicle, and

f) not emit a red light that is directly visible from the front of the vehicle, and

g) not emit a light other than red or amber if the light is directly visible from the rear of the vehicle.

6. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

7. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

5 Vision

5-1 Glazing

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Glazing markings – visual inspection

1. A glazing marking is not permanent, except for:

a) glazing marked by a vendor or installer, and fitted in a vehicle before 1 January 1997, which may be marked by means of a self-adhesive label.

2. A glazing marking required in Table 5-1-1 or Table 5-1-2 is missing, except for:

a) plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a soft-top convertible, or

b) hard plastic material behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991, or

c) wire glass fitted to a window behind the driver’s seat of a dangerous goods vehicle.

3. The glazing has an incorrect marking for the location in which it is fitted.

4. Glazing that is marked by a vendor or installer does not contain (Table 5-1-3 and Figure 5-1-3):

a) wording, characters or symbols that indicate the approved vehicle standard, and

b) the type of glazing, and

c) the thickness of the glazing in millimetres, or, in the case of laminated glass only, the thickness of the intervening layer of plastic, and

d) the identity of the vendor or installer of the glazing.

Glazing condition

5. A piece of glazing is not mechanically sound, or is not securely affixed to the vehicle.

6. A windscreen or front side window is so dirty or obstructed that the driver’s vision is impaired.

7. A windscreen has damage that prevents the wiper blades from working properly.

8. A windscreen has scratches, discolouration or other defects that unreasonably impair the driver’s vision or compromise the strength of the windscreen.

Condition within the critical vision area (CVA)

9. The critical vision area (CVA) of a windscreen (Figure 5-1-4) is damaged (apart from scratching and surface pitting that does not affect the driver’s vision, such as small stone marks).

Condition outside the CVA

10. A windscreen has damage (Note 2) of the types and exceeding the dimensions in Table 5-1-5.

11. Any damage that extends through more than one layer of glass.

Glazing performance

12. The overall visible light transmittance (VLT) (Note 3) of a windscreen is less than 70%.

13. The overall VLT of a front side window is less than 35% (see also Figure 5-1-6 for minimum VLT limits for modified glazing (tinted overlays) for different vehicle classes).

14. Glazing has a mirrored effect sufficient to dazzle other road users (unless it is OE and has an approved standard marking).

Permitted modifications

15. A modification that affects glazing is not within the limits in Table 5-1-6.

Glazing removal

16. OE glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle (eg bonded glazing) has been permanently removed but the vehicle has not been certified to the LVV Code and is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Condition of modified glazing

17. Glazing has scratches or other defects that unreasonably impair vision or compromise the strength of the glazing.

Performance of modified glazing

18. A modification:

a) unreasonably impairs the driver’s vision through the windscreen or a front side window, or

b) adversely affects the strength or mechanical performance of the glazing or the vehicle.

Windscreen repair

19. A windscreen that has been rejected for a WoF or CoF has been repaired and re-presented without the required documentation (Note 6).

Note 1 - Definitions

Windscreen means all glazing extending across the front of a vehicle that is not parallel to the vehicle’s longitudinal centreline, but does not include a wind deflector. No fitting of overlays or stickers are permitted to the windscreen except those previously mentioned.

Laminated glass means glazing consisting of two or more pieces of sheet glass, plate glass or float glass bonded together by one or more intervening layers of plastic material.

Overlay means a transparent, translucent or opaque self-adhesive or clinging film that is applied to large areas, or the whole, of a piece of glazing, including anti-glare band overlays, stoneguard overlays.

Sticker means a self-adhesive or clinging film, with or without print on it, that is applied for purposes such as, but not limited to, advertising, identification, information, or for aesthetic or legal reasons.

Anti-glare band overlay means a tinted overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the top edge of the windscreen for the purpose of reducing glare from the sun.

Stoneguard overlay means a clear overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the bottom edge of the windscreen for the purpose of preventing damage to the windscreen from stones and other debris thrown up by other vehicles.

Note 2

Damage includes any unrepaired damage and attempted visible repairs.

Note 3

Visible light transmittance (VLT) is the proportion of visible light that passes through glazing, measured perpendicular to the glazing. Overall VLT is the VLT of the glazing together with any overlays.

Note 4

Any OE opaque edging (usually black) is not considered part of the windscreen when determining the boundaries of the CVA, or the areas permitted for stickers, print on an anti-glare band, or radio antennae.

Note 5

Perforated overlays are usually made from printed-on materials. They are therefore not transparent and may be fitted only where stickers are allowed.

Note 6

When a windscreen has been rejected for a WoF or CoF, repaired, and then re-presented for inspection, the repair must be certified to AS/NZS 2366: 1999, AS 2366-1990 or NZS 5470: 1993. Proof of certification is the receipt issued in accordance with the relevant standard by the repairer. For AS/NZS 2366: 1999, the windscreen repair invoice must include:

a) invoice number

b) date of repair

c) date of invoice (if different from date of repair)

d) trading name and address of repairer

e) name or identification of person performing the repair

f) make of vehicle

g) registration number of vehicle, or if registration number is unavailable then the vehicle identification number (VIN) or chassis number

h) details of work carried out

i) type and location of repaired damage on the windscreen (it is recommended that this be marked on a schematic windscreen on the invoice form)

j) in the case of repairs performed to this standard, a statement that the repairs have been made in accordance with and comply with AS/NZS 2366.1 using a repair system that complies with AS/NZS 2366.2

k) any guarantees or warranties given.

Table 5-1-1. Required markings for windscreens (Note 1)
Date of manufacture
Vehicle classbefore 1/1/601/1/60–1/7/861/7/86–1/1/911/1/91–1/7/97from 1/7/97
MA, MB, MC, NASafety glass with approved trade name or approved standardLaminated glass with approved standardLaminated glass with approved standardLaminated glass with approved standard
MD1, MD2Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standardSafety glass with approved standardSafety glass with approved standardLaminated glass with approved standard
Low volume vehiclesLVV CodeLVV Code
Table 5-1-2. Required markings for other glazing
Date of manufacture
Vehicle classbefore 1/2/771/2/77–1/1/91from 1/1/91
MA, MB, MC, NA, MD11, MD21Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standardSafety glass with approved standard
Low volume vehiclesLVV Code

1 Curved scenic skylights above the cant rail, curved windows at front and rear corners, skylights, louvres and interior partitions may be made of a transparent material of a kind that does not shatter. This material is not usually marked.

Table 5-1-3. Approved trade names for glazing
Armourfloat
Armourplate
Blindex
Duolite Safety
Duplate Safety
Flolite
Ford Indestructo
Ford Safety Glass
Ford Silver Arrow
Glacetex
Hankuk Glass Safety Heat
Line
HMC Glass Safety Hankuk
TF5
HMC Glass Safety Hankuk
TV5
Indestructo
Nippon Safety
NM Laminated Safety Glass
FHP
Peerless
Plexite
Safetyflex
Safety MGB (Meloplate)
Safety MGB (Melite Safety
Plate)
Sekurit
Sigla
Spectrofloat Splintex
Sunmat
Suntex Safety Glass
Temperlite
Temperlite Santa Marina
Thorex Connex
Triplex
Triplex Plate
Tuflite
Tyneside
Veracetex
Table 5-1-4. Glossary of codes for safety glass (including laminated glass) (Note 1) (Note 4) (Figure 5-1-1)

L

laminated glass

F

float glass

P

plate glass

LF

laminated float

LP

laminated plate

V

toughened, VLT <70%, when near the UN/ECE mark

/

toughened, when near the UN/ECE mark

// or ///

laminated, when near the UN/ECE mark

TS

toughened glass

TP

toughened plate

T

toughened or tempered

Z

zone tempered

HP

high performance laminated safety glass

WHP

complies with impact test (windscreen high performance laminated safety glass)

DOT

Department of Transport (USA)

AS down-arrow 1 or

AS up-arrow 2

the glass, in the direction of the arrow, complies with the 70% light transmission requirement

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

FMVSS codes

AS1

for use anywhere in the vehicle

AS2

for use anywhere in the vehicle other than windscreen

AS3

for rear and rear side windows only

AS4 and AS5

for glazing not used for driver’s vision (eg the rear window of heavy truck cabs or convertible tops, windows/doors in motorhome bodies, ute canopies, rear windows on buses, roof glazing etc)

Glazing cut from mother sheet

L.76WHP

laminated, 0.76 mm interlayer, suitable for all locations

L.38

laminated, 0.38 mm interlayer, must not be used for windscreens

PCZ26.1

polycarbonate, meets requirements of ANSI Z26, must not be used for windscreens

Table 5-1-5. Types and maximum sizes of windscreen damage (outside the CVA) (Note 2).

(see also Figure 5-1-5)

Types and maximum sizes of windscreen damage

Table 5-1-6. Permitted modifications

Fitting of or modification to:

Modification permitted provided that:

Overlays (Note 1):

See below for overlays on windscreens, front side windows, rear and rear side windows, and sun roofs

  • overlays do not:

– have any bubbling or other defect that could unreasonably impair vision, or

– have a mirrored effect that is sufficient to dazzle other road users, or

– affect the performance of any high-mounted stop lamp fitted to the vehicle.

Windscreens:

Stickers (Note 1)

  • stickers are wholly within 100mm of the top or bottom edge, or 50mm of the side edges (Note 4), unless required or permitted by legislation, eg:

– a licence label

– a road user licence label

– a WoF label

– an alternative fuel sticker

– a current parking permit or other document issued by the local authority

– learner L-plates (in sticker format) provided the driver’s vision is not unreasonably affected.

Anti-glare band overlay
(Note 1)

  • the overlay is transparent, and
  • the overlay does not extend below the bottom edge of the vehicle’s OE sun visors when they are folded down as far as possible towards the windscreen, and
  • the overlay does not contain print below a line that is 100 mm below and parallel to the top edge of the windscreen (Note 4).

Clear or transparent stoneguard overlay (Note 1)

  • the vehicle is not of class MA or MC, and
  • the overlay is applied only to the bottom edge of the windscreen, and
  • the top edge of the overlay does not extend any higher than the highest point of the steering wheel.

Radio antennae

  • antennae are wholly within 100mm of any edge (Note 4).

Front side windows:

Transparent overlays (Note 5)

  • the overall visible light transmittance (VLT) is not reduced to below 35%.

Stickers

  • stickers are wholly within 100mm of the bottom edge, or 50 mm of any other edge, unless required or permitted by legislation.

Radio antennae

  • antennae are wholly within 100mm of any edge.

Rear and rear-side windows (behind the driver’s seat) –
class MA vehicles except stretch limousines and body transfer vehicles:

Transparent overlays (Note 5)

  • the overall visible light transmittance (VLT) is not reduced to below 35%, and
  • the vehicle is equipped on both sides with external rear-view mirrors.

Stickers

  • the stickers are wholly within 100mm of any edge unless they are:
    • required or permitted by legislation
    • required for motorsport purposes (such as competition numbers or competitor names), and the vehicle has a valid motorsport authority card .

Radio antennae

  • antennae are wholly within 100mm of any edge.

Rear and rear-side windows (behind the driver’s seat) –
any vehicle class except MA, but including stretch limousines and body transfer vehicles:

Overlays and other modifications

  • the vehicle is equipped on both sides with external rear-view mirrors.

Stickers

  • stickers may be applied anywhere on the glazing but, if not wholly within 100mm of any edge (Note 4), the vehicle must be equipped on both sides with external rear-view mirrors.

Radio antennae

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance are met.

Fitting of or modification to:

Modification always permitted:

Monsoon shields

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Electric demisters

Sunroofs (overlays and stickers applied anywhere on the glazing, radio antennae, and electric demisters)

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Figure 5-1-1 Approved standards markings

Figure 5-1-1 Approved standards markings

v symbol

Figure 5-1-2. Typical laminated glazing markings (Note 1)

typical laminated glazing markings

Figure 5-1-3. Typical markings required on glazing cut from mother sheet

Typical markings required on glazing cut from mother sheet

Figure 5-1-4. Windscreen critical vision area (CVA)

glazing critical vision

Figure 5-1-5. Actual maximum sizes of types of windscreen damage

actual glazing marking sizes

Note Due to different screen resolutions and sizes the above image may not be shown at actual size.

Figure 5-1-6. Minimum VLT limits for modified glazing (tinted overlays) for different vehicle classes

Minimum VLT

Note The minimum VLT for any windscreen is 70% but no overlays may be fitted.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Glazing markings

1. Windscreens and other glazing must be permanently and indelibly marked as complying with an approved trade name or approved vehicle standard as shown in Table 5-1-1 and Table 5-1-2 unless excluded as below:

a) glazing marked by a vendor or installer, and fitted in a vehicle before 1 January 1997, may be marked by means of a self-adhesive label

b) plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a soft-top convertible need not be marked

c) hard plastic material behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991 need not be marked.

2. Glazing marked by the vendor or installer must contain wording, characters or symbols that indicate the approved vehicle standard, and the:

a) type of glazing, and

b) thickness of the glazing in millimetres or, in the case of laminated glass only, the thickness of the intervening layer of plastic, and

c) identity of the vendor or installer of the glazing.

Permitted glazing

3. Wire glass may be used in any window behind the driver’s seat, if required or allowed under any legislation.

4. Vehicles of class MD1 or MD2 may be fitted with the following, which may be made of a transparent material of a kind that does not shatter:

a) curved scenic skylights above the cant rail

b) curved windows at the front and rear corners

c) skylights

d) louvres

e) interior partitions.

Glazing condition

5. Glazing must be mechanically sound, strong, and securely affixed to the vehicle.

6. A windscreen and front side windows must be clean and free of obstruction to ensure the driver has sufficient vision through the glazing to operate the vehicle safely.

7. A windscreen must not have scratches and other defects that:

a) unreasonably impair vision, or

b) compromise its strength.

8. A laminated windscreen must not show signs of discolouration that could unreasonably impair the driver’s vision.

9. Glazing in roof panels may be tinted.

Glazing performance

10. A windscreen visible light transmittance (VLT) must be at least 70%.

11. Front side windows VLT must be at least 35%.

12. Glazing must not have a mirrored effect sufficient to dazzle other road users.

Permitted modifications

13. A modification that affects glazing is permitted if within the limits in Table 5-1-6.

Glazing removal

14. Permanent removal of OE-specified glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle (eg bonded glazing) must be certified in accordance with the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

Condition of modified glazing

15. Overlays must not have any bubbling or other defects that could unreasonably impair vision.

16. Glazing must not have any scratches or other defects that unreasonably impair vision or compromise the strength of the glazing.

Performance of modified glazing

17. Modifications must not:

a) unreasonably impair vision through a windscreen or a front side window, or a rear or rear side window in the case of MA vehicles other than stretch limousines or body transfer vehicles, or

b) adversely affect the strength or mechanical performance of the glazing or the vehicle.

Windscreen repair

18. Windscreens: a repair to a windscreen carried out on or after 1 January 1997 must comply with whichever of the following standards is applicable at the date of repair:

a) New Zealand standard 5470: 1993, Code of Practice for Automotive Windscreen Repair (superseded by Australian Standard/New Zealand standard 2366: 1999, Windscreen Repairs), or

b) Australian standard 2366-1990, Repair of Laminated Glass Windscreens fitted to Road Vehicles (superseded by Australian Standard/New Zealand standard 2366: 1999, Windscreen Repairs).

Page amended 1 November 2017 (see amendment details).

5-2 Sun visors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A sun visor for the driver’s use is not fitted to a vehicle (other than of class LE) which can practicably be fitted with a sun visor (Note 1).

Condition

2. A sun visor:

a) is insecurely mounted, or

b) for the driver, cannot be adjusted from the normal driving position, or

c) cannot maintain its adjusted position, or

d) has been modified or has deteriorated, and the likelihood of injury to vehicle occupants has not been minimised.

Performance

3. A driver’s sun visor does not effectively aid the driver’s vision by intercepting the glare from the sun.

Note 1 Definitions

Sun visor means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE must be fitted with a sun visor for the driver’s use if it is reasonable and practicable to do so (Note 1).

Permitted equipment

2. A vehicle of class LE may be fitted with a sun visor.

3. Additional sun visors may be fitted in other positions.

Condition

4. The condition of a sun visor must be such that the likelihood of injury to occupants is minimised.

Performance

5. A driver’s sun visor must be effective.

Modification

6. A sun visor that is not OE or that has been affected by a modification (Note 1):

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

5-3 Windscreen wipe and wash

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle that has a windscreen is not fitted with a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 is not fitted with a windscreen wash system.

3. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1960 is fitted with wipers that are not power driven.

Condition
Windscreen wipe system

4. The wiper operating device is missing.

5. A wiper arm or wiper blade is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

6. The wiper operating mechanism is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

Windscreen wash system

7. A wash system component is missing or insecure.

8. The wash operating device is missing.

Performance
Windscreen wipe system

9. A windscreen wiper does not wipe the windscreen effectively, preventing adequate forward vision by the driver.

10. The wipe operating device is unable to activate the wipe system.

Windscreen wash system

11. A windscreen wash nozzle does not discharge washer liquid directly onto the windscreen.

12. The wash operating device is unable to activate the wash system.

Modifications

13. A modification affects a windscreen wipe system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Table 5-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Removal of a windscreen wash system from a vehicle manufactured before 1/1/1992

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe and wash system.

3. Windscreen wipers must be power driven, unless they follow OE specifications in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1960.

Permitted equipment

4. A vehicle may be fitted with a wash system when this is not required.

Condition

5. A vehicle’s windscreen wipe system must be efficient and within the vehicle manufacturer’s operating limits.

Performance

6. The equipment fitted must be capable of keeping an adequate area of the windscreen clean and clear so that the vehicle may be operated safely under all reasonably foreseeable conditions.

Modifications

7. An OE windscreen washing system may be removed from a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992.

8. A modification to the windscreen wipe system must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition, and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

5-4 Rear-view mirrors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A mandatory rear-view mirror identified in Table 5-4-1 is missing.

Condition

2. A rear-view mirror:

a) is not mounted securely, or

b) cannot be adjusted, or

c) cannot maintain its adjusted position, or

d) is corroded or dirty, or

e) is damaged so that it increases the risk of injury to vehicle occupants.

Performance

3. A rear-view mirror:

a) does not provide a clear view to the rear of the vehicle, or

b) is not sufficiently isolated from vibrations.

Modifications

4. A modification affects rear-view mirrors, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-4-2), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

A vehicle with overlays on the rear side windows and rear screen must be fitted with a left-hand and a right-hand exterior mirror.

Table 5-4-1. Mandatory requirements for rear-view mirrors

For left-hand drive vehicles, read R/H side instead of L/H side, and L/H side instead of R/H side.

Vehicle class

Year of manufacture

Before 1 January 2000

From 1 January 2000

MA, MB, MC

External R/H side or interior

External R/H side and interior

NA

External R/H side or interior

External R/H side and interior or external L/H side

MD1, MD2

External R/H side and external L/H side

External R/H side and external L/H side

Table 5-4-2. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Additional or substituted rear-view mirrors , or removal of a non-mandatory mirror

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle must be fitted with one or more of the rear-view mirrors listed in Table 5-4-1.

Permitted equipment

2. Additional rear-view mirrors may be fitted.

Condition

3. A rear-view mirror must be:

a) securely attached so that the risk of injury is minimised, and

b) mounted so that vibration does not inhibit the driver’s required clear view to the rear, and

c) sufficiently adjustable, and able to maintain its position.

Performance

4. A rear-view mirror must provide a clear view to the rear of:

a) the motor vehicle itself, and

b) the vehicle’s load, and

c) any towed trailer and its load.

5. A rear-view mirror must be sufficiently isolated from vibrations.

Modifications

6. The fitting of additional rear-view mirrors, or a modification that affects rear-view mirrors, must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-4-2), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

6 Entrance and exit

6-1 Door and hinged panel retention systems

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle does not have a door retention system.

2. A vehicle for transporting prisoners which does not have doors in the prison compartment that can be opened from the inside, has no alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

3. A hinge for a door or other hinged panel is not securely attached to both the vehicle body and to the door or other hinged panel due to loose connections, corrosion or other damage (Note 1).

4. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers cannot be opened from the inside, unless the vehicle is designed or adapted to transport prisoners and the door is inoperable from the inside of the prison compartment.

5. A child safety lock or similar safety device cannot be deactivated.

6. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the hinge of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

7. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the latch of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

Equipment performance

8. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers does not open or close easily.

9. A door or other hinged panel does not remain secure in a closed or locked position.

Modifications

10. A modification (Note 2) affects door or hinged panel retention systems, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 2 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Child safety lock (also known as a kiddi-lock) means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from the inside of the vehicle.

Tables and images

Table 6-1-1 Modifications that do not require LVV certification
Fitting of or modification to:LVV certification is not required provided that:
Exterior door handles (on doors normally used for entry and exit of occupants)
  • the modification is minor (eg removal of key locks), and
  • door handles remain fitted and in serviceable condition.

Note
The fitting of a door opening/closing mechanism (which may include the removal of exterior door handles) that differs from original must be LVV certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:
Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
Figure 6-1-1 Hinge and latch anchorages

Figure 6-1-1

No corrosion damage is allowed within 150mm of a circle around the outside of hinge or latch components.

See also figures for corrosion limits to structure (section 3-1), seatbelt anchorages (section 7-5), and front or rear suspension anchorages (section 9-1).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle must have a door retention system.

Permitted equipment

2. The door retention system on doors to the rear of the driver’s seat may incorporate safety devices installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from the inside of the vehicle (eg child safety locks).

3. A vehicle designed or adapted to transport prisoners is not required to be fitted with a mechanism for opening a door from the inside if the prison compartment has an alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

4. A door retention system and its mountings must be safe and structurally sound.

5. A door used for the entrance and exit of the driver or passengers must be operable by any occupant seated by the door from inside the motor vehicle, unless it is permitted equipment designed or adapted to operate otherwise.

6. The vehicle must be designed and constructed using components and materials that are fit for their purpose, and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Equipment performance

7. A door retention system must be in good working order.

8. A door used for entrance and exit must open and close easily.

9. A door used for entrance and exit must remain secure in a closed position during the operation of the motor vehicle.

Modifications

10. A modification that affects door or hinged panel retention systems must be inspected and certified by a low volume vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7 Vehicle interior

7-1 Seats and seat anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. The vehicle is not fitted with a driver’s seat.

2. A seat is not attached to the vehicle structure by seat anchorages.

Condition and performance

3. A seat frame or seat structure has been weakened, eg due to damage, corrosion or excessive wear.

4. The adjustment mechanism of a driver’s seat:

a) does not operate, or

b) is worn, causing excessive movement of the seat.

5. The attachment of the seat to the seat anchorage is loose or weakened by damage.

6. The attachment of the seat anchorage to the vehicle structure is loose or weakened by damage.

7. There is corrosion damage within 150mm of a seat anchorage (Note 4).

8. There is corrosion damage within 300mm of the anchorage of a seat with integrated seatbelt anchorages (Note 4).

9. A driver’s seat is in such a condition that it does not allow the driver to have proper control of the vehicle.

Modification

10. A modification (Note 3) carried out after 1 March 1999 affects a seat or seat anchorage, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1

A seat may be able to be rotated or placed to face in different directions.

Note 2

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward sign of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 3 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Seat means an assembly, or part of an assembly, intended to seat at least one person, which may or may not be integral to the structure of the vehicle, and includes components, such as rails and runners, that attach to the seat anchorages.

Seat anchorages means the parts of the vehicle structure to which a seat is attached.

Note 4

Where the inspector is presented with a Nissan Terrano or Nissan Mistral vehicle of the type that is fitted with a two-layer (double skin) floor panel, the inspection procedure in Technical bulletin 2 must be followed.

Note 5

Where a seat with an integrated airbag is fitted with a seat cover that is not airbag compatible, this modification is allowed (a pass), but the inspector should advise the operator, for example by putting a note on the checksheet , that the seat airbag may not work properly in a crash. Airbag compatible seat covers are now readily available.

Note 6

Where a seat has been removed, a seatbelt is not required for that position, and any remaining seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage components are not required to be inspected. Where seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage components remain fitted, and the vehicle is such that the removed seats can be readily re-fitted and used with the seatbelts, the vehicle inspector must:

  • Identify which seats were missing when the vehicle was presented for inspection, and
  • Advise the vehicle operator that the remaining seatbelt components have not been checked, and that if the missing seats are re-fitted at a later stage, it is the vehicle operators' responsibility to ensure that these seats and seatbelts are compliant prior to using them.

If the inspector chooses to inspect any remaining seatbelt components, then they should identify that to the vehicle operator. Any defects should be noted on the checksheet, but must not be failed. The same information as noted above must be recorded on the checksheet to make it clear that the responsibility lies with the vehicle operator if seats are re-fitted.

Table 7-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Aftermarket ‘Retro’ brand child seats designed for children 5–12 years old (up to 38kg)

  • the seat is identified as complying with the Australian Federal Code of Practice VSB-5A (category 2 and 3) and installed by Auckland Auto Trimmers or their agents before 1 June 2012.

Seats – modification or replacement or installation of a seat anchorage after 1 March 1999

  • the seat is either an unmodified OE seat from another vehicle or of a known and reputable aftermarket brand, and

– the seat is fitted to unmodified OE seat anchorages, and

– the seatbelt anchorage or operation is not affected, and

– the seat components (including brackets, runners and rails) are compatible with each other, ie they are either OE components from a production vehicle or of a known and reputable aftermarket brand, and are not fitted together by welding, and

– the relationship between seat, seat occupant, front airbag and location of the seatbelt anchorages is not affected.

Note LVV certification is not required where the only modification is the removal of seats and/or seatbelts. However, a class change and a new load rating may be required in some cases.

 Campervan conversions
  • The conversion was completed before 1/3/1999, or
  • The conversion was completed on or after 1/3/1999, and
  • No modifications were carried out to the vehicle roof or rear wall, and
  • No seats or seatbelt anchorages were retrofitted.

Note This means that a campervan conversion completed on or after 1/3/1999, other than a camper box fitted to an unmodified cab and chassis, always requires LVV certification.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Seat pads or covers (see (Note 5) for seats with integrated airbags)

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle must be fitted with a driver’s seat.

2. A seat in a motor vehicle must be fitted to the vehicle structure by means of seat anchorages.

Condition and performance

3. Seats and seat anchorages must be safe, strong, in sound condition and compatible in strength with each other and with the vehicle structure.

4. The driver’s seat and its anchorages must be designed, constructed and maintained to enable the driver to have proper control of the vehicle.

5. Seats and seat anchorages must be securely attached to the vehicle structure.

6. When a seatbelt or any part of the seatbelt is integral to a seat, the seat and seat anchorages must be compatible in strength with the seatbelt or with that part of the seatbelt attached to the seat.

Modification

7. A modification, on or after 1 March 1999 to a seat or seat anchorage must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

7-3 Head restraints

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint have deteriorated to the extent that they are likely to injure a vehicle occupant.

2. An adjustable head restraint is unable to remain locked in its adjusted position.

Modification

3. A modification (Note 1) affects a head restraint, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Table 7-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Head restraint removal

  • A front-seat head restraint must not be removed from a vehicle required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard. These vehicles are the following with a GVM of 2500 kg or less:

– a class MA motor vehicle manufactured from 1 March 1999

– a class MA motor vehicle that was less than 20 years old when it was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002,

– a class MB or MC motor vehicle manufactured from 1 October 2003.

Fitting of aftermarket LCD screens to head restraints

  • the performance of the head restraint is not affected, eg the head restraint still provides sufficient padding for the seat occupant, and
  • the screen is fitted in a suitable manner, eg it appears similar to OE fitments in other vehicles, or
  • the screen can be easily attached or removed.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

  • Removal of a rear head restraint
  • Any modification for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
       
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with head restraints.

Condition and performance

2. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint must not have deteriorated to the extent that the likelihood of injury to an occupant of the vehicle is increased.

3. An adjustable head restraint must remain able to be adjusted and locked into position.

Modification

4. A modification that affects a head restraint must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7-5 Seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment (Note 20) (Note 21)

1. A seatbelt (Note 1) of the type specified in Table 7-5-1 (first registered in NZ before 1/1/1991), Table 7-5-2 (first registered in NZ between 1/1/1991 and 31/3/2002)and Table 7-5-3 (first registered in NZ from 1/4/2002) has not been fitted for the relevant seating position (see (Note 18) for permitted specialist seatbelts), and

a) the requirements for specific motor vehicles in Table 7-5-4 are not met, or

b) the requirements for modification in Table 7-5-5 are not met.

2. A seat that can be rotated or reversed to face in different directions, for which seatbelts are not provided for all directions, has no notice easily visible by the seat occupant that indicates the direction the seat must (or must not) face when the vehicle is moving.

3. A three-point seatbelt imported and distributed by BVL (Business Ventures Limited) and manufactured by Changzhou BWD, China or Jiang Su Jiu Jiu Traffic Facilities Co. Ltd. is installed (see Figure 7-5-6 for samples to help identify the seatbelts).

Condition (Note 20)
Seatbelts

4. The seatbelt assembly is not securely fixed to a seatbelt anchorage.

5. A seatbelt component (eg protective plastic cover on buckle, tongue or retractor system) is damaged so that foreign objects may enter the interior components, or that they may cause damage to the interior components, mechanisms or webbing.

6. The seatbelt webbing (including webbing attached to the buckle) has:

a) a cut, including a cut on the surface, or

b) a rip or tear, or

c) fraying, or

d) stretching (eg the belt has unusual web patterns or the webbing is deformed, will not lie flat, or is curled or rippled), or

e) fading so that most of the colour has been bleached, and:

i. shows signs of chalking, or a powdery residue is evident on the webbing, or

ii. it has become stiff

f) been dyed to conceal fading, or

g) contamination from grease, paint, solvents or similar products.

h) been replaced or shows other signs of repair (Note 14) and there is no evidence of approval from the seatbelt manufacturer.

Note Such approval is very unlikely.

7. The seatbelt stitching:

a) is damaged or insecure, or

b) shows signs of home repair, eg gluing, stitching by hand or home sewing machine, staples, bolts, or rivets, or

c) indicates that the 'rip stitch' system has been activated, ie the stitching is broken and a 'REPLACE BELT' label has been exposed near the lower seatbelt anchorage, or this label has been cut off.

8. A buckle and tongue:

a) are mismatched, or

b) do not lock, or

c) do not remain locked, or

d) do not release easily, or

e) are insecure when coupled.

9. A component is missing (Note 19), or is cracked, distorted, damaged or deteriorated in such a way that:

a) its strength or integrity is reduced, or

b) it may damage another component or the webbing, or

c) foreign matter may enter the interior of the mechanism, or

d) the seatbelt or a seatbelt component cannot function as intended .

10. A seatbelt stalk:

a) (wire-cable type) shows broken wires, or

b) (plastic-covered webbing type) webbing has deteriorated, or is frayed, cut or faded, or

c) (solid metal type) is corroded, cracked or buckled, or

d) is not the correct type for the vehicle or the seating position.

11. A seatbelt pretensioning system has not been replaced after activation.

Seatbelt anchorages

12. A seatbelt anchorage (Note 12):

a) is not securely fixed to the vehicle structure, or

b) is not securely fixed to the seat if the seatbelt is an integral part of the seat, or

c) is corroded, damaged or shows signs of tampering, or

d) has evidence of corrosion damage (Note 13) (Note 17) or structural damage within 150mm of a lower seatbelt anchorage mounted in a wheel arch, or within 300mm of any other seatbelt anchorage.

Performance (Note 19)

13. The seatbelt webbing of a retractor-type seatbelt does not easily pull out from the retractor.

14. The seatbelt webbing of a retractor-type seatbelt has difficulty retracting, eg is slow or intermittent, or does not fully retract.

15. A static seatbelt cannot be adjusted to fit a variety of persons.

16. The seatbelt is not of sufficient length to fit a variety of persons.

17. A seatbelt is located so that it cannot be readily fastened or released by the wearer.

18. The web and/or vehicle sensitivity of a dual-sensitive retractor type seatbelt fitted in a front seating position does not function correctly.

19. The vehicle sensitivity of a single-sensitive retractor type seatbelt fitted in a front seating position does not function correctly.

20. The web sensitivity of a dual-sensitive retractor type seatbelt fitted in a rear seating position does not function correctly.

21. The vehicle sensitivity of a single-sensitive retractor type seatbelt fitted in a rear seating position does not function correctly.

Modification

22. A modification affects a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage – including fitting of an alternative type of seatbelt, or a modification (since 1 January 1992) that affects a seatbelt anchorage, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7–5–5), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

23. The seatbelt assembly has been removed after it was rejected for one or more reasons for rejection due to Condition or Performance (above), whether or not the seatbelt is required to be fitted.

Note 1

Seatbelt means an assembly of straps made of webbing or metal with a securing buckle, adjusting devices and attachments, including any device for absorbing energy or for retracting the webbing, that is:

a) able to be anchored to the interior of a vehicle, and

b) designed to diminish the risk of injury to its wearer in the event of a collision or abrupt deceleration of the vehicle by
limiting the mobility of the wearer’s body.

Note 2

Retractor means a device to accommodate parts, or all, of the webbing of a seatbelt.

Note 3

Single-sensitive means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the seatbelt to the wearer, and that comprises a locking mechanism activated in an emergency by deceleration of the vehicle (ie the seatbelt is vehicle sensitive).

Note 4

Dual-sensitive means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the strap to the wearer, and that is activated by two or more of the following:

a) deceleration of the vehicle, or

b) acceleration of the strap from the retractor, or

c) other means of activation.

Note 5

Seating position means a seat or part of a seat that is of a suitable size and shape for one person.

Note 6

Outer seating position means a seating position next to a side wall of a vehicle where there is no more than 500mm between the longitudinal centre of the seat and the side wall.

Note 7

Middle seating position means a seating position in a vehicle that is not an outer seating position.

Note 8

Rear seating position means a seating position in a vehicle behind the driver.

Note 9

Monocoque, in relation to a motor vehicle, means that the chassis of the vehicle is integral to the body.

Note 10

Retrofit, in relation to a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a motor vehicle, means to fit a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a location where a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage has not been fitted before.

Note 11

Motorhome means a motor vehicle, other than a trailer, that is permanently equipped with features intended to make the vehicle suitable as a dwelling place, and must include at least one sleeping berth and one table, both of which may be of a design that allows them to be retracted or folded away.

  • For the purposes of this section, motorhomes and campervans are interchangeable terms.

Note 12

Seatbelt anchorage means the parts of a vehicle structure, seat structure or any other part of the vehicle to which a seatbelt assembly is attached.

Note 13

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 14

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

  • Any repairs, such as webbing or retractor replacement, must be approved by the seatbelt manufacturer. Any modification, such as fitting a different type of seatbelt or a seatbelt extension, must be approved by the seatbelt or vehicle manufacturer. It is very unlikely that a repair or modification will be approved by the vehicle or seatbelt manufacturer. Where such approval is claimed, the inspector must request appropriate evidence.
Note 15

Specialist seatbelt means a seatbelt that is designed for specialist purposes, and includes a full harness seatbelt used for motorsport activities.

Note 16

Permanent structure means a non-removable structure capable of sustaining loads associated with seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages.

Note 17

Where the inspector is presented with a Nissan Terrano or Nissan Mistral vehicle of the type that is fitted with a two-layer (double skin) floor panel, the inspection procedure in Technical bulletin 2 must be followed.

Note 18

A vehicle may be fitted with seatbelts other than of type L, S, R1 or R2 only if the seatbelts are of a specialist type (eg full harness seatbelts), and:

a) the specialist seatbelts are the vehicle manufacturer’s original equipment specification, or

b) the specialist seatbelts have been fitted for a specific purpose (eg motorsport), and the operator produces a valid LVV authority card, or

c) the vehicle is scratchbuilt and the specialist seatbelts are noted on the LVV plate.

Note 19

Some class MA vehicles must have a type R2 webbing clamp seatbelt in a front outer seating position when a type R1 or R2 seatbelt in that position failed an in-service inspection because of its condition or performance. Refer to Technical bulletin 5 for requirements and exceptions.

Note 20

Where a seat has been removed, a seatbelt is not required for that position, and any remaining seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage components are not required to be inspected. Where seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage components remain fitted, and the vehicle is such that the removed seats can be readily re-fitted and used with the seatbelts, the vehicle inspector must:

  • Identify which seats were missing when the vehicle was presented for inspection, and
  • Advise the vehicle operator that the remaining seatbelt components have not been checked, and that if the missing seats are re-fitted at a later stage, it is the vehicle operators' responsibility to ensure that these seats and seatbelts are compliant prior to using them.

If the inspector chooses to inspect any remaining seatbelt components, then they should identify that to the vehicle operator. Any defects should be noted on the checksheet, but must not be failed. The same information as noted above must be recorded on the checksheet to make it clear that the responsibility lies with the vehicle operator if seats are re-fitted.

Note 21

Except as provided by Table 7-5-5, any seatbelt fitted to a seating position of a vehicle—either having been entry certified (as originally manufactured or modified) or subsequently specialist certified—must remain and be restored when damaged. It cannot be removed on the grounds that Table 7-5-1, Table 7-5-2, or Table 7-5-3 doesn’t require the seatbelt.

Key to Table 7-5-1, Table 7-5-2 and Table 7-5-3: Types of seatbelts1

No seatbelt required

L

Lap seatbelt

S

Static lap-and-diagonal seatbelt without a retractor (Note 2)

R1

Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor (ELR) lap and diagonal seatbelt (Note 3)

R2

Multiple- (dual-) sensitive emergency-locking retractor lap-and-diagonal seatbelt (Note 4)

1 A requirement for a specified type of seatbelt may be met by the type specified or another type below it in the key.

Table 7-5-1. Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1991

Vehicle class

Seating position (Note 5)

First registered anywhere

1/1/1955–31/10/1979

1/11/1979–31/12/1990

MA, MB, MC
LE (without motorcycle controls)
(tare <2000 kg)

Front outer and driver’s (Note 6)

S2

R21, 3

Front middle (Note 7)

L

Rear outer (Note 8)

R2 or R1 or S

Rear middle

L

NA (tare <2000 kg)

Front outer and driver’s

S2

R21

Front middle

L

1 A four-wheel-drive vehicle may be fitted with type S or type R1 seatbelts in the front outer seating position.

2 May retain OE seatbelts, but replacement seatbelts must be of type S, R1 or R2.

3 A class MA vehicle must have a type R2 webbing clamp seatbelt in a front outer seating position, when a type R1 or R2 seatbelt in that position failed an in-service inspection because of its condition or performance.
Refer to Technical bulletin 5 for requirements and exceptions.

Key to Table 7-5-1, Table 7-5-2 and Table 7-5-3: Types of seatbelts1

No seatbelt required

L

Lap seatbelt

S

Static lap-and-diagonal seatbelt without a retractor (Note 2)

R1

Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor (ELR) lap and diagonal seatbelt (Note 3)

R2

Multiple- (dual-) sensitive emergency-locking retractor lap-and-diagonal seatbelt (Note 4)

1 A requirement for a specified type of seatbelt may be met by the type specified or another type below it in the key.

Table 7-5-2. Vehicles first registered in New Zealand 1 January 1991 to 31 March 2002

Vehicle class

Seating position

First registered anywhere

1/1/1955–31/12/1960

1/1/1961–31/3/2002

MA, MB, MC
LE (without motorcycle controls)

Front outer and driver’s

S1, 2

R25, 6

Front middle

L

Rear outer

R2 or R1 or S1

Rear middle

L or S or R1 or R2

NA

Front outer and driver’s

S1, 2

R25

Front middle

L

MD1, MD2

Front outer and driver’s

R23, 4, 5

 

Front middle

L4

1 Tare weight less than 2000 kg.

2 May retain OE belts, but replacement belts must be of type S, R1 or R2.

3 Applies to MD2 only if of monocoque construction (Note 9).

4 If seatbelts are not fitted, but anchorages are fitted, must have seatbelts fitted from 1 October 2002. If anchorages are not fitted, seatbelts must be retrofitted from 1 October 2003.

5 Front type R1 seatbelts may remain fitted if they were fitted as OE and have a declaration issued by an entry certifier, or a plate affixed to the vehicle in a position approved by the Transport Agency (see Figure 7-5-2, Figure 7-5-3, Figure 7-5-4, Figure 7-5-5 and Figure 7-5-6). If missing, refer the vehicle to an entry certifier.

6 A class MA vehicle must have a type R2 webbing clamp seatbelt in a front outer seating position, when a type R1 or R2 seatbelt in that position failed an in-service inspection because of its condition or performance. Refer to Technical bulletin 5 for requirements and exceptions.

Key to Table 7-5-1, Table 7-5-2 and Table 7-5-3: Types of seatbelts1

No seatbelt required

L

Lap seatbelt

S

Static lap-and-diagonal seatbelt without a retractor (Note 2)

R1

Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor (ELR) lap and diagonal seatbelt (Note 3)

R2

Multiple- (dual-) sensitive emergency-locking retractor lap-and-diagonal seatbelt (Note 4)

1 A requirement for a specified type of seatbelt may be met by the type specified or another type below it in the key.

Table 7-5-3. Vehicles first registered in New Zealand from 1 April 2002

Vehicle class

Seating position

Manufactured

1/1/1955–31/10/1979

1/11/1979–30/9/2003

1/10/2003–

MA, MB, MC
LE (without motorcycle controls)

Front outer and driver’s

S1, 2

R25, 6

R25, 6

Front middle

L

L

Rear outer

R2 or R1 or S1

L8 or R2 or R1

Rear middle

L or S or R1 or R2

L or S or R1 or R2

NA (excluding motorhomes manufactured from 1 October 2003, refer to Table 7-5-4)

Front outer and driver’s

S1, 2

R25

R25

Front middle

L

L

Rear outer

R2 or R1

Rear middle

L or S or R1 or R2

MD1, MD27

Front outer and driver’s

R23, 4, 5

R25

Front middle

L3, 4

L

Rear outer

L8 or R2 or R1

Rear middle

L or S or R1 or R2

1 Tare weight less than 2000 kg.

2 May retain OE belts, but replacement belts must be of type S, R1 or R2.

3 Applies to MD2 only if of monocoque construction (Note 9).

4 If seatbelts are not fitted, but anchorages are fitted, must have seatbelts fitted from 1 October 2002. If anchorages are not fitted, seatbelts must be retrofitted from 1 October 2003 (Note 10).

5 Front type R1 seatbelts may remain fitted if they were fitted as OE and have a declaration issued by an entry certifier, or a plate affixed to the vehicle in a position approved by the Transport Agency (see Figures 7-5-2 to 7-5-6). If missing, refer the vehicle to an entry certifier.

6 A class MA vehicle must have a type R2 webbing clamp seatbelt in a front outer seating position, when a type R1 or R2 seatbelt in that position failed an in-service inspection because of its condition or performance. Refer to Technical bulletin 5 for requirements and exceptions.

7MD2 vehicles must be issued with a CoF, please refer the vehicle to the nearest CoF testing station.

8 For motorhomes only.

Table 7-5-4. Requirements for specific motor vehicles

Specific vehicles

Mandatory equipment

Sideways-facing seating positions

1. A Land Rover manufactured before 1 January 1991 does not require a seatbelt to be fitted.

2. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 October 2002 must have a seatbelt of any type fitted.

3. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 October 2002 must have a lap seatbelt fitted.

Vehicles without a structure to fit required seatbelts

4. A vehicle manufactured before 1 October 2003 may be fitted with lap belts in any seating position if the vehicle has a permanent structure that ends less than 500mm above the top of the uncompressed seat cushion (measured from a point 150mm forward of the lowest part of the back cushion), and OE upper seatbelt anchorages are not fitted.

5. A class MA or MC vehicle manufactured before 1 October 2003 may be fitted with static lap-and-diagonal seatbelts in outer seating positions instead of R2 type seatbelts if the vehicle has a permanent structure that ends less than 500mm above the top of the uncompressed seat cushion (measured from a point 150mm forward of the lowest part of the back cushion).

6. A class MA or MC vehicle first registered outside New Zealand before 1 November 1979 that does not have B-pillars, and does not have seatbelts or seatbelt anchorages fitted for the front-outer seating positions, may be fitted with lap belts if the inspector has determined that it is not practicable to retrofit upper anchorages for static lap-and-diagonal seatbelts, and the lower anchorages have been certified to the LVV Code if retrofitted after 1 April 2002, or LVV code or ST120395 if retrofitted prior to 1 April 2002.

Note The vehicle inspector may accept documentation issued by the LVVTA (see Figure 7-5-5) that verifies that the vehicle does not have a suitable structure to fit required seatbelts.

Motorhomes
(Note 11)

7. Motorhomes manufactured prior to 1 October 2003 or motor vehicles converted to motorhomes prior to 1 October 2003 must have seatbelts fitted that are appropriate for the class of vehicle in which the vehicle was registered when it was registered as a motorhome.

8. Motorhomes manufactured from 1 October 2003 or motor vehicles converted to motorhomes from 1 October 2003 must be fitted with the following seatbelts and notice:

a) front seating positions: seatbelts must be fitted as specified for class MB vehicles in Table 7–5–3

b) rear seating positions: as many or more lap (type L) or lap-and-diagonal (type R1 or R2) seatbelts as there are sleeping berths minus the number of front seating positions.

c) a notice must be displayed in a prominent location that recommends, on safety grounds, that when the vehicle is travelling, passengers use seats that are fitted with seatbelts, and that advises passengers that it is compulsory to wear fitted seatbelts.

Motor vehicles that transport detained persons

9. A motor vehicle designed exclusively for transporting a person detained by the NZ Police or the Department of Corrections or a person acting on their behalf must comply with requirements for front seating positions, but does not have to comply with requirements for other seating positions.

Table 7-5-5. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Seatbelts

  • the modification is approved by the seatbelt or vehicle manufacturer (note that such approval is unlikely, but the inspector must ask for proof if approval is claimed) (Note 14), or
  • the modification is temporary for the accommodation of a child restraint, and does not:

– affect the performance of the child restraint, or

– cause injury to a vehicle occupant, or

– cause damage to the seatbelt.

Top-tether anchorage for a child seat or harness

  • the installation has been carried out in accordance with the instructions of the seat or harness manufacturer.

Stereo equipment and speakers

If fitted to the rear parcel shelf:

  • no upper seatbelt anchorage is attached to the shelf or any shelf support bracket, and
  • in the case of a top tether point for a child seat attached to the rear shelf, the top tether point is not located within 150 mm of a modification to a rear parcel shelf, and
  • the removal of any material from the rear shelf is minimal and is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure to which a seatbelt anchorage is attached.

If fitted to a part of the vehicle other than the rear parcel shelf:

  • no structural material has been removed from within 300 mm of a seatbelt anchorage, and
  • any material removed is minimal and is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure (including a seatbelt anchorage structure).
Campervan conversions
  • The conversion was completed before 1/3/1999, or
  • The conversion was completed on or after 1/3/1999, and
  • No modifications were carried out to the vehicle roof or rear wall, and
  • No seats or seatbelt anchorages were retrofitted.

Note This means that a campervan conversion completed on or after 1/3/1999, other than a camper box fitted to an unmodified cab and chassis, always requires LVV certification.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Retrofitted type-tested rear seatbelt anchorages

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Rear seatbelts fitted to class MD1, MD2 and NA vehicles before 1 March 1999

Removal of seatbelts (full or partial) where the seating position has been removed.

Replacing a type R1 or R2 seatbelt with a webclamp R1 or R2 seatbelt (eg where Technical bulletin 5 applies)

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Table 7-5-6. Specific seatbelt exemptions

Key to exemption codes

Front out-board seating positions

F1

Seatbelts may be static or single sensitive.

F2

Seatbelts may be single sensitive, that is web or vehicle sensitive.

F3

Seatbelts may be vehicle sensitive only.

F4

Seatbelts may be web sensitive only.

F5

Driver’s seatbelt may be approved lap belt.

Seating positions behind the driver

R1

All seatbelts may be approved lap belts.

R2

Forward-facing folding seats may be fitted with approved lap belts.

R3

Side-facing folding seats behind the driver are not required to have seatbelts fitted.

R4

Rear seats occupied by prisoners are not required to have seatbelts.

Note Exemptions (other than R4 and F5) are only available for vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1991.

The following exemptions are applicable only to vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 1 January 1991:

Bedford CF: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: 97360JZ7: 860638, 860640, 860641, 860643, 860644. 97560JZ7: 859025, 859026, 859027, 859029, 859031, 859032, 859035, 860581. 97370JZ7: 855826, 855827, 855835, 855836, 856133, 856769, 856733, 856775, 858021, 858026, 858027, 859127, 858593, 858594, 858596, 858599, 859200, 859469, 859471, 859473, 859474, 859475, 859477, 859479, 859529, 859531, 859533, 859535, 859536, 860163, 860837, 860848, 860938, 860939, 860941, 860944, 862061, 862067. 97G70JZ7: 856782, 860142, 860144, 860147, 860148, 860150, 860152, 861858, 861859, 861860, 861861, 861862, 861863, 861868, 862265, 862266, 862267, 862268, 862270, 862271, 862273, 862274, 862276. 97570JZ7: 853277, 855402, 855405, 855407, 855408, 855409, 855410, 855411, 855412, 856702, 856709, 856711, 856713, 858402, 858404, 858408, 858410, 858641, 858642, 858643, 858644, 859087, 859088, 859089, 959093, 859096, 861456, 861457, 861459, 861953, 861954. 97770JZ7: 851548. 97360JZ7: 800842, 860634, 860644, 861767. 97370JZ7: 851296, 853467, 854403, 854404, 854529, 854836, 855418, 855729, 855734, 855735, 855766, 855826, 856051, 856133, 856261, 856616, 856653, 856769, 856917, 857154, 857157, 858024, 858593, 858594, 859014, 859020, 859024, 859196, 859197, 859474, 859530, 860160, 860848, 860933, 860942, 862061, 862065, 862288, 862458, 862468, 862653, 863080, 863204, 863205, 863208, 863210, 863211, 863212, 864817. 97G70JZ7: 854097, 855062, 855063, 856783, 856790, 857907, 859349, 859350, 859358, 860141, 860142, 860144, 860148, 861858, 861860, 861867, 862265, 862276, 862271. 97560JZ7: 859035. 87570JZ7: 852305, 854309, 854310, 854314, 854319, 854463, 854544, 855774, 855780, 855783, 857463, 857714, 858406, 858412, 861460. 97670JZ7: 860145. 97770JZ7: 852373, 856250

Citroen 2CV: Exemption code R1

Chrysler Avenger: Exemption code R1: Vehicles with model prefix: BP

Daihatsu Charade: Exemption codes F1, R1: Serial numbers: XTE: G10-GMG: 830230, 830331, 830379, 830388, 830402, 830416, 830442, 830453, 830490, 830518, 830540, 830558, 830571, 830579, 830602, 830611, 830631, 830646, 830663, 830672, 830697, 830713, 830733, 830747, 830761, 830792, 830801, 830815, 823244, 823291, 823313, 823428, 831579, 831609, 831630, 831643, 831679, 831747, 831777, 831833, 831849, 831885, 831917, 831963, 831973, 832018, 832064, 854309. XG: G10-GMD: 830280, 830305, 830393, 830510, 830599, 830617, 830654, 830691, 830711, 830719, 830764, 830798, 830820. XG: G10-GKD: 830345, 830526, 830637, 830683, 830770

Daihatsu Delta: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: VT24T-C: 90990, 91015, 91016, 91028, 91029, 91032, 91033, 91054, 91091, 91094-91099, 91100-91128, 91165-91200. V24W-C: 91129, 91131, 91133-91138. S60P: 022366

Daihatsu Rocky: Exemption codes R2, R3: Models: F75RV-BG, F75RV-MBGT and F85-VBG

Datsun 180SX: Exemption code F4: Serial numbers: KHS110: 000074, 000124, 000580, 000583, 000585, 000589, 000591, 000594, 000597, 000603, 000607, 000611, 000615, 000618, 000621, 000624, 000630, 000640, 000644, 000645, 000649, 000651, 000655, 000658, 000660, 000663, 000680, 000687, 000689, 000695, 000697, 0006999

Datsun Cherry: Exemption code F1: Series: BF10

Fiat 128: Exemption code F2: FA289 to FA336

Ford Cortina wagon: Exemption code R1: Serial numbers: CLBNVJ: 35642, 38051, 38052, 38053. CLBNVL: 30889, 31516. CLBNVT: 32987, 32998, 35480, 35488, 35498, 35502, 35503, 35504, 35505, 35507, 35508, 35511, 35514, 35524, 35526, 35532, 35533, 35545, 35581, 36548. CLBNVY: 32881, 32885, 32909, 32925, 32926, 32969

Ford Cortina sedan: Exemption code R1: CLBFVE: 28977, 29656. CLBFVJ: 37727, 37745, 37758, 37761, 37798, 37799, 37808, 37818, 37855, 37890, 37906, 37957, 37958, 37984, 38354, 38373, 38374. CLBFVL: 29738, 30749, 30845, 31404, 31429, 31448, 32172, 32313, 32688. CLBFVY: 30320, 30815, 31448, 32629, 32374, 32391, 32680, 35024, 35030. CLBFVS: 32352, 32361, 32796, 32840, 32844, 32852, 32861, 34220, 34248, 34255, 34258, 34262, 34264, 34265, 34267, 34269, 34272, 34274, 34280, 34296, 34298, 34299, 34310, 34322, 34328, 34341, 34962, 34963, 34986, 35173, 35183, 35233, 35246, 35267, 35271, 35277, 35280, 35281, 35282, 35285, 35291, 35330, 35333, 35340, 35367, 35369, 35370, 35384, 35395, 35396, 35401, 35402, 35407, 35408, 35410, 35411, 35412, 35416, 35419, 35420, 35430, 35434, 35442, 35444, 35450, 35452, 35454, 35457, 35612, 35728, 36589, 36590, 36591, 36593, 36598, 36600, 36604, 36605, 36607, 36608, 36614, 36615, 36616, 36618, 36623, 36630, 36631, 36633, 36892, 36893, 36894, 36896, 36898, 36900, 36901, 36908, 36911, 36921, 37451, 37593, 37595, 37627, 37642. CLBFVT: 35534, 35566, 36539, 36541, 36546, 36547, 36549, 36553, 36554, 36555, 36556, 35564, 36565, 36569, 36571, 36577, 36923, 36925, 36926, 36927, 36929, 36941, 36946, 36950, 36951, 36952, 36953, 36956, 36960, 36964, 36965, 36966, 36972, 36975, 36979, 36980, 36981, 36982, 36983, 3685, 36990, 37641, 37642, 37644, 37645, 37649, 37651, 37652, 37653, 37656, 37657, 37659, 37660, 37661, 37664, 37666, 37670, 37674, 37675, 37676, 37677, 37679, 37680, 37686, 37692, 37694, 37697, 37698, 3799, 37700, 37701, 37702, 37704, 37705, 37706, 37707, 37708, 37710, 37711, 37714, 37716, 37733, 37736, 37737, 37775, 37992, 37994, 37996, 37997, 37999, 38000, 38001, 38002, 38004, 38007, 38008, 38011, 38012, 38013, 38018, 38022, 38024, 38028, 38030, 38032, 38035, 38037, 38038, 38039, 39648. BABFWD: 44439, 44444, 44446, 44449, 44450

Ford Escort wagon: Exemption code R1: Serial numbers: CLADVS: 30987, 30998, 31001, 31018, 31022, 31024, 31025, 31033, 39140. CLADVT: 37320

Holden HZ utility: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: 8N80TJZ7: 0048Z, 00049, 00053, 00059, 00065, 00904, 00907, 00913, 00918, 00923, 00929, 00931, 00934, 00941, 00949, 00950, 00951, 00953, 00954, 00956. 8N80DJZ7: 99950Z, 99956, 99959, 99966, 99969, 99977, 99981, 99984, 99985, 99987, 99991. 8N80JZ7: 00891, 00893, 00898, 00902, 00903, 00905, 00908, 00911, 00916, 00917, 00947, 00948, 00986, 00993, 00996, 01002, 01003, 01008, 01038, 01042, 01062, 01100, 01101, 01102, 01103, 01026, 01050, 01070, 01074, 01090, 01085, 01087, 01092, 01093, 01094, 01152, 99951, 99955. 8N80DJZ7: 98169Z. 8N80LJZ7: 0128Z, 01990Z, 97844Z, 97854Z, 98216Z, 99259Z, 99276Z. 8N80TJZ7: 00051Z, 00893Z, 00922Z, 00932Z, 00946Z, 00957Z, 97107Z

Holden One Ton chassis/cab: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: 8M60JZ7: 01113, 01117, 01121, 01123Z, 01124, 01125, 01136, 01138, 01141, 01142, 01145, 01146, 01169, 98821, 98833, 98846, 98851. 8M60LJZ7: 01105Z, 01124Z, 01136Z, 01141Z, 96554Z, 98725Z, 98801Z, 98857Z, 98861Z, 99902Z

Isuzu Gemini model PF50: Exemption code F3: Serial numbers: 6709544 to 548, 6709806 to 810, 6714557 to 576, 6715252 to 261, 6715835 to 844, 6720255 to 264, 6702417 to 436, 6720675 to 681, 6725925 to 934, 6726142 to 151, 6726286 to 295, 6726536 to 545, 6731789 to 791, 6732010 to 017, 6732219 to 227, 6732425 to 432, 6732635 to 642, 6732826 to 829, 6736172 to 181

Isuzu KAG51 light commercial: Exemption code F1

Isuzu Space cab TFR17HPRRML: Exemption code R1

Isuzu TLD23: Exemption code F1

Kawasaki KAP-300 Mule 500: Exemption code F5

Land Rover all models: Exemption code R3

Mitsubishi L300 all types (includes Delica): Exemption codes F1, R1

Mitsubishi Colt 1400 light commercial: Exemption code F1

Mitsubishi Galant Sigma Estate: Exemption code R1: Any chassis number less than GQ7445 1753

NZ Police prisoner vans: Exemption code R4

Renault Alpine V6 GT D50005: Exemption code R1

Renault Alpine V6 GT Turbo D50105: Exemption code R1

Subaru 1600 GFT: Exemption code R1: Serial numbers: 002019, 002121, 002122, 002123, 002124, 002127, 002128, 002129, 002130, 002131, 002132, 002133, 002134, 002135, 002136, 002137, 002138, 002139, 002140, 002144, 002149, 002150, 002151, 002153, 002158, 002161, 002162, 002163, 002164, 002169, 002172, 002173, 002174, 002175, 002176, 002177, 002178, 002180, 002182, 002183, 002184, 002185, 002186, 002187, 002188, 002191, 002192, 002197, 002201, 002202, 002430, 002431, 002432, 002433, 002436, 002443, 002444, 002446, 002447, 002448, 002449, 002453, 002454, 002455, 002456, 002457, 002458, 002459, 002460, 002461, 002465, 002469, 002470, 002476, 002478

Subaru Domingo van: Exemption code R1: 1986 and 1987 models

Subaru 700 van: Exemption code R1: 1986 and 1987 models

Suzuki ST80: Exemption code F1: ST80 KRA: 0003, 0010, 0034, 0036, 0044, 0049, 0050, 0079, 0096

Suzuki ST90: Exemption code F1: ST90 KRA: 0097 to 0132. ST90 VRA: 0133 to 0493

Toyota Corolla mode: Exemption code F4: Serial numbers: KE 35R-KSB: up to serial number 3681

Toyota Corona estate: Exemption code R1: Serial numbers: TT132RG-TWKDS: up to unit number 781. TT132RG-TWHDS: up to unit number 381

Toyota Dyna chassis/cab: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: RU20R-QRBT3 (petrol): up to serial number 171. RU30R-QRDHT3 (diesel): up to serial number 151

Toyota Hi-Ace van: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: RH20RV-JRE: up to serial number 1381

Toyota Hi-Ace chassis/cab: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: RH11R-JR3: up to serial number 391

Toyota Hilux chassis/cab: Exemption code F1: Serial numbers: RN40R-JRS3: up to serial number 401. RN41R-JR3 up to serial number 171

Toyota Hilux 850 double cab: Exemption code R1: Serial numbers: YN 65: 0002226, 0002916 to 0002925, 0002946 to 0002955, 0002993 to 0003002, 0003235 to 0003264, 0003306 to 0003335, 0003489 to 0003498, 0003733 to 0003742, 0003827 to 0003836, 0003951 to 0003960, 0003994 to 0004003, 0004075 to 0004084.

Toyota Lite Ace: Exemption code R1: Model: KM20RV-JRZ or YM20RV-MR

Figure 7-5-1. Corrosion limits around seatbelt anchorages

Figure 7-5-1. Corrosion limits around seatbelt anchorages >

See also figures for corrosion limits to structure (section 3-1), hinge and latch anchorages (section 6-1), and front or rear suspension anchorages (section 9-1).

Figure 7-5-2. Example of seatbelt declaration: Approved Certifier’s Declaration

Figure 7-5-2. Example of seatbelt declaration: Approved Certifier’s Declaration

Figure 7-5-3. Example of seatbelt declaration: TSD Agent’s Declaration

Figure 7-5-3. Example of seatbelt declaration: TSD Agent’s Declaration

Figure 7-5-4. Example of plate fitted to a vehicle that may retain single-sensitive front seatbelts

Figure 7-5-4. Example of plate fitted to a vehicle that may retain single-sensitive front seatbelts

Figure 7-5-5. FS012 Upper seatbelt anchorage request form

5

Figure 7-5-6. Identifying seatbelts by BVL (Business Ventures Limited) and manufactured by Changzhou BWD, China or Jiang Su Jiu Jiu Traffic Facilities Co. Ltd.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle must be fitted with seatbelts (for seating positions) as specified in Table 7-5-1, Table 7-5-2 and Table 7-5-3, or as specified for specific vehicles in Table 7-5-4, or as specified in requirement 2 below, unless an exemption in Table 7-5-5 applies.

2. A seat that can be rotated or reversed to face in different directions: if seatbelts are not provided for all directions, a notice easily visible by the seat occupant must be placed inside the vehicle, indicating the direction the seat must face so that a seatbelt may be worn while the vehicle is moving.

Permitted equipment

3. A vehicle fitted with a seatbelt and seatbelt anchorage in a position where these are not required must meet the condition and performance requirements for seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages.

Condition
Seatbelts

4. A seatbelt must be of a design suitable for the vehicle, and must be strong, secure and in sound condition.

5. Seatbelt webbing must not be cut, stretched, frayed or faded, or have otherwise deteriorated so as to reduce the performance of the seatbelt.

6. Seatbelt webbing must be securely attached to the tongue or the adjusting buckle and to any fittings that secure a seatbelt to the seatbelt anchorages.

7. The strands of the steel cables of a seatbelt stalk must not be damaged or have deteriorated, and the seatbelt stalk must not have any other weaknesses that could reduce its performance.

8. Seatbelt buckles, retractor mechanisms or any other fittings intended to ensure the safe use of the seatbelt must not have deteriorated below safe tolerance.

Seatbelt anchorages

9. A seatbelt anchorage and its mounting location:

a) must be of a strength appropriate to both the motor vehicle and the attached seatbelt

b) must be structurally sound and free of corrosion, and

c) must not be damaged or distorted.

10. When a seatbelt or part of a seatbelt is integral to a seat, the seat and seat anchorages must be compatible in strength with the seatbelt or with that part of the seatbelt attached to the seat.

Performance

11. A seatbelt must be in good working order.

12. A seatbelt must be able to be adjusted by the wearer.

13. A seatbelt must be able to be readily fastened and released by the wearer.

Modification

14. A seatbelt must not have been modified (Note 14) since 1 January 1992, except where:

a) the modification is approved by the seatbelt or vehicle manufacturer

b) the seatbelt has been modified temporarily to accommodate a child restraint, provided the modification:

i. does not affect the performance of the child restraint, and

ii. is not likely to cause injury to a vehicle occupant, and

iii. does not cause damage to the seatbelt.

15. The fitting of an alternative type of seatbelt (Note 15) or a modification that affects a seatbelt anchorage must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-5-5), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 27 November 2018 (see amendment details)

7-6 Frontal impact airbags

See also Technical bulletin 12: Used imported vehicles from Japan – disconnected airbags at WoF inspection

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A deployed frontal impact airbag has not been replaced.

2. An OE airbag warning light system has been removed from a vehicle fitted with airbags.

3. A motor vehicle has a sign, light or other device that indicates the vehicle is fitted with an airbag when it is not fitted with an airbag.

Condition and performance

4. An airbag cover:

a) is damaged, or

b) has deteriorated (does not include deterioration of the dash surface due to the effects of sunlight), or

c) shows signs of tampering or inadequate repair.

5. Additional equipment has been fitted that may affect the proper performance of the airbag.

6. The airbag warning light:

a) does not operate, or

b) indicates a fault in the system.

Modification

7. A modification (Note 2) affects an airbag system (eg an airbag has been removed, or made inoperable, including retrofitting a switch), and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-6-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

8. A motor vehicle that has had an airbag system removed or made inoperable and been certified as above does not:

a) have all OE signs, lights, or other devices that indicated the vehicle was fitted with an airbag removed, or

b) if the signs, lights, or other devices cannot be readily removed, have a label that indicates an airbag has been removed permanently attached in a prominent location where it is clearly visible to any occupant of the seating position that was previously protected by the airbag.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

Some modifications are permitted, but they must always be LVV certified. The only modifications permitted are:

1. fitting a switch to render an airbag temporarily inoperable, and

2. the removal or permanent deactivation of an airbag in a vehicle that:

  • is at least 14 years old, or
  • has been adapted for a person with a disability, or
  • has been extensively modified for motorsport use.
Table 7-6-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A frontal impact airbag and its operating system must remain operational if the vehicle was originally manufactured with a frontal impact airbag.

2. An airbag warning light system must remain operational if it was fitted by the vehicle manufacturer.

3. A motor vehicle must not have a sign, light, or other device that indicates the vehicle is fitted with an airbag if it is not fitted with an airbag.

4. A motor vehicle must not have a light or other device indicating an airbag operating system is operable if it is inoperable.

Permitted equipment

5. A switch may be installed as OE to render an airbag temporarily inoperable.

Condition and performance

6. An airbag and its operating system must be safe and in good condition.

7. An airbag warning light fitted by the manufacturer must remain operational.

Modification

8. A motor vehicle that has had an airbag removed or made inoperable must either:

a) have all OE signs lights, or other devices that indicated the vehicle was fitted with an airbag removed, or

b) if the signs, lights, or other devices cannot be readily removed, have a label that indicates an airbag has been removed permanently attached in a prominent location where it is clearly visible to any occupant of the seating position that was previously protected by the airbag.

9. A modification that affects an airbag system must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-6-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7-7 Interior impact

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Where an interior fitting, control or surface has been added, removed, substituted or has deteriorated, the likelihood of injury to occupants has not been minimised.

Modification

2. A modification (Note 1) affects an interior fitting, control or surface, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-7-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Table 7-7-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Cargo hoists and tail-lifters in goods vans
  • the vehicle is not adapted for the transportation of a person in a wheelchair, and the hoist or tail lifter is positioned to the rear of any vehicle occupants and adequately mounted.

Disability adaptive controls

For disability adaptive hand control systems:

  • the hand control operates the accelerator system only, and
  • the presence of the hand control system does not significantly increase the risk of injury to occupants in the event of a crash.

For an additional accelerator pedal fitted to the left of the brake pedal:

  • the vehicle is equipped with automatic transmission, and
  • the additional accelerator pedal does not affect the operation of the brake pedal or any other part of the brake system, and
  • the vehicle retains the original equipment accelerator pedal to the right of the brake pedal, and
  • adequate clearance is maintained between all pedals, and
  • the accelerator system is protected from accidental application, eg by shielding the right hand accelerator pedal or ability to fold away either accelerator pedal when not in use, and
  • there is a warning notice easily visible to the driver warning that the foot controls are not as provided by the vehicle manufacturer.

For a steering wheel spinner to assist in the operation of the steering wheel:

  • the spinner is contained within the outer circumference of the steering wheel.

Stereo equipment and speakers

If fitted to the rear parcel shelf:

  • no upper seatbelt anchorage is attached to the shelf or any shelf support bracket, and
  • in the case of a top tether point for a child seat attached to the rear shelf, the top tether point is not located within 150 mm of a modification to a rear parcel shelf, and
  • the removal of any material from the rear shelf is minimal and is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure to which a seatbelt anchorage is attached.

If fitted to a part of the vehicle other than the rear parcel shelf:

  • no structural material has been removed from within 300 mm of a seatbelt anchorage, and
  • any material removed is minimal and is unlikely to have weakened the vehicle structure (including a seatbelt anchorage structure).

Steering wheels

  • the vehicle does not have an airbag installed as OE, and
  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard1. The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500 kg or less are required to comply with such a standard:

– class MA motor vehicles manufactured from 1 March 1999, and

– class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002, and

– class MB or MC motor vehicles manufactured from 1 October 2003, and

  • the steering wheel is:

– a direct substitute without shaft modification, and

– a non-OE item of a reputable brand or an OE item from another vehicle.

Additional and substituted items such as instruments, switches, cellphone installations and navigation equipment or an OE item from another vehicle

  • the items are:

– mounted flush with, or protected by, the dashboard surface, or

– fitted forward of the steering wheel, or between the steering wheel and the nearest door, or

– fitted between and forward of the front seats (where no centre seat exists), and within 140 mm either side of the vehicle centreline.

Roll-bar or roll-cage structures (roll protection or cosmetic)

  • each seating position is fitted with an effective head restraint, and
  • the bars are positioned:

– behind, following a plane extending upward, parallel to the back of the backrest on the rear-most seat, and

– in such a way that the head restraint would provide protection from head contact with any bar section during a crash.

Gear shift lever relocation

  • no substantial modifications have occurred to the floor or gearbox tunnel area, other than provision for gear-shift mechanism.
Additional accelerator pedal (for driving school vehicles)
  • the operation of the primary accelerator pedal is not affected, and
  • no modifications to the primary accelerator pedal or any other part of the primary accelerator system has occurred, and
  • adequate clearance is maintained between all pedals.

1A vehicle that cannot comply with this clause cannot be LVV certified unless it has been issued with an LVV authority card or is at least 14 years old.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Modified accelerator pedal

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Roof and door lining replacement

Cargo barriers

Any modification for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. Interior fittings, controls and surfaces in the passenger compartments must be such that the likelihood of injury to occupants is minimised.

Modification

2. A modification that affects the interior fittings, controls or surfaces must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-7-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

7-12 Speedometer

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 December 1951 that is capable of a speed exceeding 50km/h is not fitted with a speedometer, and the vehicle operator cannot produce acceptable written evidence (Note 2) that:

a) the speedometer has been removed for repair, or

b) there are no undue delays by the vehicle owner in having the speedometer replaced.

Condition and performance

2. The speedometer:

a) does not operate as intended when the vehicle is moving forward, or

b) is obscured from the driver’s position, or

c) does not indicate the vehicle’s speed in km/h or mph.

3. Reason for rejection 2(a), 2(b) or 2(c) applies and the vehicle operator cannot produce acceptable written evidence (Note 2) that repair of the speedometer or associated equipment is impracticable or that a suitable replacement is not available.

Note 1

Speedometer means an instrument in a motor vehicle that continuously indicates to the driver the forward speed of the vehicle in either kilometres per hour (km/h) or miles per hour (mph). For clarification: This definition does not include the speed provided by a GPS system.

Note 2

Acceptable written evidence is documentation provided by the speedometer repairer or supplier. A copy of the documentation must be kept on file with the checksheet.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 December 1951 that is capable of a speed exceeding 50km/h must be fitted with a speedometer (Note 1).

2. A vehicle is not required to have a speedometer if the speedometer or associated equipment:

a) has been removed for repair and there are no undue delays by the vehicle owner in having it replaced, or

b) is out of repair, repair is impracticable and a suitable replacement is not available.

Condition and performance

3. The speedometer must be in good working order and operate while the vehicle is moving forward.

Modification

4. A speedometer that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

7-13 Audible warning devices

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle is:

a) not fitted with a horn, or

b) fitted with a bell or whistle (Note 2), or

c) not an emergency vehicle (Note 1) and is fitted with a siren (Note 2).

2. A horn cannot be easily operated from the driver’s seating position.

Performance

3. The horn does not operate when activated.

4. The horn operates when not activated.

5. The sound from the horn is not steady and continuous, eg the horn plays a tune.

6. The horn is not audible at a distance of 100 m.

7. A siren fitted to an emergency vehicle operates when not activated.

Note 1

Emergency vehicle means a vehicle used for the attendance of emergencies and operated:

a) by an enforcement officer, or

b) by an ambulance service, or

c) as a fire service vehicle, or

d) as a civil defence emergency vehicle, or

e) as a New Zealand Defence Force emergency vehicle.

Note 2

A vehicle may be fitted with a bell, whistle or siren that is part of an anti-theft car alarm, personal security alarm or reversing warning device.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle must be fitted with a device (horn) that is audible to other road users.

Permitted equipment

2. A vehicle may be fitted with a bell, whistle or siren only as follows:

a) a siren fitted to an emergency vehicle (Note 1), or

b) a siren, bell or whistle that is part of an anti-theft car alarm, personal security alarm or a reversing warning device.

Performance

3. The device must be in good working order.

4. The device must be capable of giving a warning that is audible under normal traffic conditions from a distance of at least 100 m.

Modification

5. An audible warning device that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

8 Brakes

8-1 Service brake and parking brake

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Service brake (Note 1)

1. A vehicle does not have a service brake.

2. A vehicle first registered anywhere on or after 1 February 1977 does not have a service brake that is designed to act on each wheel.

3. A vehicle first registered anywhere before 1 February 1977 does not have a service brake that is designed to act on at least two wheels.

4. A vehicle of class LE first registered anywhere before 1 February 1977 does not have a service brake that is designed to act on at least one wheel.

5. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA first registered in New Zealand after 1 November 1990 that does not have a dual-circuit service brake does not have a parking brake that is capable of bringing the vehicle to a controlled stop.

Parking brake (Note 1)

6. A vehicle does not have a parking brake.

7. A parking brake on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA does not act on at least one complete axle.

8. A parking brake on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA does not act on at least one axle that has dual wheels fitted.

Condition
Service brake

9. There is corrosion damage (Note 1) within 150mm of a brake component mounting point.

10. The service brake pedal:

a) is insecure, or

b) is spongy (indicating air in the system), or

c) creeps, or

d) has a non-slip surface which has deteriorated to such an extent that the brake cannot be safely applied, or

e) has excessive travel (pedal travel reduces after one or two applications).

11. A vacuum hose or pipe (including connections) is:

a) insecure, or

b) leaking, or

c) damaged (cracked, chafed, twisted, stretched or corroded, eg showing signs of pitting or a noticeable decrease in the pipe’s outside diameter).

12. The brake vacuum servo (brake booster) is:

a) not functioning fully or adequately, or

b) leaking, or

c) insecure.

13. The brake vacuum pump:

a) is not functioning fully or adequately, or

b) is insecure, or

c) drive belt is in poor condition.

14. The brake master cylinder is:

a) leaking brake fluid, or

b) insecure, or

c) excessively corroded, or

d) reservoir fluid level is below the minimum indicator where this is visible externally.

15. A brake valve is:

a) not operating (eg has a seized load-sensing valve), or

b) leaking brake fluid, or

c) insecure, or

d) excessively corroded.

16. A brake pipe (including connections) is:

a) leaking brake fluid, or

b) insecure, or

c) deformed from its original shape, or

d) chafed, or

e) corrosion damaged, eg there are signs of pitting or a noticeable increase in the pipe’s outside diameter.

17. A flexible hydraulic brake hose (including connections):

a) is leaking brake fluid, or

b) is insecure, or

c) bulges under pressure, or

d) is twisted, stretched or chafed, or

e) has external sheathing which is cracked to the extent that the reinforcing cords are exposed, or

f) has metal connections which are excessively corroded, or

g) has an end fitting which is not attached to the hose by means of swaging, machine crimping or a similar process (Note 3).

18. A brake calliper:

a) shows visible signs of leaking, or

b) is insecure.

19. A brake backing plate is:

a) insecure, or

b) severely corroded, or

c) deformed from its original shape, or

d) cracked, or

e) contaminated by brake fluid, oil or grease.

20. A wheel cylinder:

a) shows visible signs of leaking, or

b) is insecure, or

c) is seized.

21. An ABS system component is damaged, insecure or missing.

22. A brake disc or drum is:

a) worn beyond manufacturer’s specifications (where visible without removing vehicle components) (Note 2), or

b) fractured or otherwise damaged (where visible without removing components) (Note 2), or

c) contaminated by brake fluid, oil or grease.

23. Brake friction material (where visible without removing vehicle components) (Note 2) is:

a) worn below manufacturer’s specifications, or

b) separating from the brake pad backing plate or brake shoe, or

c) contaminated by brake fluid, oil or grease.

24. A gap between the brake shoe and the brake drum exceeds manufacturer’s specifications (where visible without removing vehicle components) (Note 2).

25. A service brake component shows signs of heating or welding after original manufacture.

Parking brake

26. The parking brake lever:

a) has excessive travel, or

b) is insecure, or

c) mounting is damaged, corroded, distorted or fractured within 150 mm of the lever mounting, or

d) mechanism or lever pivot bearing is worn or damaged so that the parking brake could be easily released by accident.

27. The parking brake cable:

a) is knotted, frayed or excessively corroded, or

b) has an auxiliary tensioner fitted, or

c) has otherwise deteriorated so that it may affect the parking brake performance.

28. A parking brake actuating rod or guide:

a) is excessively corroded, or

b) is excessively worn, or

c) has otherwise deteriorated so that it may affect the parking brake performance.

29. A parking brake component shows signs of heating or welding after original manufacture.

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems

30. Where the vehicle is fitted with an ESC system (if determined by the vehicle inspector – see Technical Bulletin 11), the warning light indicates a fault.

31. Where the vehicle is fitted with an ESC system (if determined by the vehicle inspector – see Technical Bulletin 11), the system has been removed from the vehicle.

Performance (Note 4)
Service brake

32. The service brake cannot be applied in a controlled and progressive manner.

33. When the service brake is applied and without assistance from the engine:

a) the vehicle does not stop within 7m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 50%), or

b) the vehicle does not stop within 9m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 40%) for a vehicle which has a service brake designed to act on fewer than four wheels, or

c) the vehicle does not stop within 20m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 18%) for a vehicle which has been manufactured before 31 December 1918.

34. When the service brake is applied:

a) the vehicle vibrates under braking to the extent that the control of the vehicle is adversely affected, or

b) the brake fails to release immediately after the brake pedal has been released, or

c) the directional control is affected (eg there is swerving to one side, or the brakes on one side apply more slowly than on the other side), or

d) the brake balance, at any time during the brake application, varies by more than 20% between wheels on a common axle.

35. The ABS or brake system warning lamp or self-check system, if fitted, indicates a defect in the ABS or brake system (does not apply to brake pad wear warning systems).

Parking brake

36. When the parking brake is applied:

a) the vehicle does not stop within 18m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 20%), or

b) it does not hold the vehicle at rest on a slope of 1 in 5, or

c) it does not hold all the wheels on a common axle stationary against attempts to drive the vehicle away.

37. The directional control of the vehicle is affected when the parking brake is being applied on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 that does not have a dual-circuit service brake.

38. The parking brake is unusually difficult to apply or release.

Modification (Note 1)

39. A modification affects a brake or braking performance, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 8-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Service brake means a brake for intermittent use that is normally used to slow down and stop a vehicle.

Parking brake means a brake readily applicable and capable of remaining applied for an indefinite period without further attention.

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

If a brake is fitted with an inspection port plug, this must be removed for inspection of the brake components.

Note 3

Hose end fittings that can be undone using hand tools are unacceptable.

Note 4

Refer to Technical bulletin 10 for specific service and parking brake test procedures for specific vehicles (such as electro-mechanical parking brakes on BMW vehicles), especially when testing these vehicles on roller brake machines.

Table 8-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Aftermarket brake pedal pads or covers

  • the fitment of the pads or covers does not:

– necessitate any modification to the pedal arm, or

significantly affect the safe operation of the brake pedal or other pedals (eg a brake pad or cover significantly wider than the original brake pad may not be acceptable, depending on fitment).

Aftermarket or custom brake pedal extensions (for unusually short people)

  • The extension:

– does not exceed 100mm length when measured from the surface of the original brake pedal, and

– is securely clamped to the original pedal by mechanical means, and

– is sufficiently strong and rigid to withstand emergency brake loads, and

– does not involve any modification to, or compromise the strength of, the original brake pedal, and

– does not significantly change the sideways load or leverage against the pedal, and

– does not significantly increase the weight of the pedal.

Additional brake pedals
(for driving school vehicles)

  • the operation of the primary brake pedal is not affected, and
  • no modifications to the primary brake pedal or any other part of the primary brake system has occurred.

Removal of secondary accelerator and brake system (where driving school vehicle is converted to single primary system)

  • the vehicle was not originally manufactured as a dual-control vehicle (system was retrofitted after manufacture), and
  • the removal of the secondary system has reinstated the vehicle’s primary systems back to the vehicle’s exact original specification.

Aftermarket brake rotors

  • the substitute rotors are:

– the same size as the OE rotors, and

– catalogued aftermarket items for that make and model of vehicle (and can include cross-drilled and/or slotted types), and

– attached to unmodified OE parts.

Disability parking brake system

  • the system is a non-OE mechanical or electrical system for applying and releasing the OE parking brake, and:

– the parking brake performance is not compromised, and

– in the case of electrical failure, the parking brake does not release.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Aftermarket brake pads, linings and hoses (including stainless steel braided brake hoses)(Note 3)

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modifications for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Service brake

1. Vehicles must have a service brake that acts on each wheel, except in the following cases:

a) A vehicle first registered anywhere before 1 February 1977 may have a service brake that is designed to act on fewer than four wheels

b) A vehicle of class LE first registered anywhere before 1 February 1977 may have a service brake that is designed to act on fewer than three wheels.

2. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA first registered in New Zealand from 1 November 1990 that does not have a dual-circuit service brake must have a parking brake that is capable of bringing the vehicle to a controlled stop if the service brake fails.

Parking brake

3. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA must have a parking brake that:

a) acts on at least one complete axle, or

b) if the vehicle has dual wheels on an axle, acts on that axle.

4. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA first registered in New Zealand from 1 November 1990 without dual-circuit service brakes must have a parking brake that is capable of bringing the vehicle to a controlled stop if the service brake fails.

Permitted equipment

5. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA may be fitted with a warning system that is part of, or associated with, the use of a brake component or system.

Condition

6. A brake must be in good condition.

7. The brake friction surfaces on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA must be within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured, and must not be scored, weakened or damaged to the extent that the safety performance of the brake is adversely affected.

Performance

8. The service brake on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA must be able to be applied in a controlled and progressive manner.

9. When the brake on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA is applied:

a) the vehicle or its controls must not vibrate to the extent that control of the vehicle is adversely affected, and

b) the braking effort on each wheel must provide stable and efficient braking without adverse effect on the directional control of the vehicle, and

c) if the vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock braking system (ABS), the wheels must not lock, other than when the speed of the vehicle falls below the ABS activation parameters set by the vehicle manufacturer.

10. A brake warning system, if fitted on a vehicle of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA, must function correctly (does not apply to a brake pad wear system).

Service brake

11. The service brake of a vehicle or vehicle combination that is operated on a hard, dry, level surface that is free of loose material and without assistance from the compression of the engine or other retarders must operate in the following manner:

a) A service brake that acts on each wheel must stop the vehicle within a distance of 7m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 50%).

b) A service brake that is designed to act on fewer than four wheels on a vehicle first registered anywhere before 1 February 1977 must stop the vehicle within a distance of 9 m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 40%).

c) The service brake on a vehicle manufactured before 31 December 1918 not capable of exceeding 30km/h must stop the vehicle within a distance of 20m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 18%).

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems

12. An ESC system, including all components of that system fitted in a motor vehicle, must:

a) be maintained in good working order, and

b) not be removed from the vehicle.

Parking brake

13. A parking brake must:

a) stop the vehicle within 18m from a speed of 30km/h (average brake efficiency of 20%), or

b) hold the vehicle at rest on a slope of 1 in 5.

Modification

14. A modification to a brake or vehicle that affects the braking performance must be inspected and certified by an LVV Specialist Certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 8-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

9 Steering and suspension

9-1 Steering and suspension systems

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle capable of exceeding a speed of 50km/h and equipped with a steering system (Note 1) with no direct mechanical connection between the driver’s means of control and the wheels, or other means of changing the vehicle’s direction, does not have at least one additional means of steering.

2. A LHD vehicle is operated in a transport service, rental service or otherwise for commercial purposes or for hire or reward (Note 2).

Condition

3. The steering wheel:

a) is insecurely attached to the steering shaft, or

b) shows excessive movement indicating unacceptable wear or looseness in the steering box or rack or steering column bearings, or

c) has a rim covering which is insecure so that the directional control of the vehicle is affected.

4. The steering column is insecure.

5. The power steering:

a) has been disconnected, or

b) system does not operate correctly, requiring unreasonable force to steer the vehicle, or

c) has a hose, pump drive, drive belt or pump mounting that is insecure, damaged or has significantly deteriorated, or

d) has a significant fluid leak.

6. A linkage or joint between the steering column shaft and steering box or rack:

a) is insecure, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

d) has play beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

e) does not operate smoothly without roughness or stiffness, or

f) is fouling on the vehicle structure, wheel tyre or brake system component.

7. The steering box or rack:

a) is insecure, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

d) has play beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

e) does not operate smoothly without roughness or stiffness, or

f) has an excessive fluid leak.

8. A steering rack gaiter is missing, insecure or split.

9. A steering linkage or joint (Note 3):

a) is insecure, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

d) has play beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

e) does not operate smoothly without roughness or stiffness, or

f) is fouling on the vehicle structure, wheel tyre or brake system component, or

g) shows signs of plastic injection.

10. A steering arm or associated component:

a) is insecure, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture.

11. A king pin or suspension joint (Note 4):

a) is insecure, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

d) has play beyond the manufacturer’s specifications, or

e) does not operate smoothly without roughness or stiffness, or

f) shows signs of plastic injection.

12. A lock stop is loose or damaged.

13. A steering or suspension component mounting point:

a) is insecure, or

b) has corrosion damage, buckling or fractures within 150mm of a mounting point (Figure 9-1-1).

14. Any other suspension component (including air suspension):

a) is insecure or missing, or

b) is damaged, significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

c) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

d) has play beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

e) does not operate smoothly without roughness or stiffness, or

f) has excessive leakage of air or damping fluid (Technical bulletin 9), or

g) shows excessive play, roughness or stiffness in a strut upper support bearing, or

h) is a replacement urethane suspension bush that is not voided or shaped to allow for similar movement to an OE bush, or

i) is a flexible bush that is significantly cracked, damaged or perished.

15. Air bag bellows:

a) has obvious external damage - protruding, exposed or worn cords, or

b) is insecure, or

c) is damaged, mounts plates are significantly corroded, distorted, or

d) shows signs of welding heating after original manufacture

e) has play beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

f) has excessive leakage, or

g) shows excess misalignment.

Note: Assessment to be conducted:

  • At standard ride height (air bellows inflated)
  • Normal air pressure
  • Soap & water for leakage test is acceptable.

16. There is corrosion damage (Note 5) within 150mm of a suspension component mounting point.

Performance

17. During operation:

a) the vehicle veers significantly to one side, or

b) the vehicle requires unreasonable force to steer, or

c) the steering is unreasonably stiff, rough or light, or

d) the vehicle does not handle safely under normal conditions of road use, eg the suspension is excessively hard or soft, or there is excessive body roll, or

e) the vehicle does not self-centre.

Modifications (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

18. A modification affects a component or system that directly or indirectly affects the directional control of the vehicle, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 9-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification , ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Steering system means those components, parts and systems that connect the driver’s controls to a vehicle’s wheels or tracks by means of which the direction of motion of a vehicle is controlled.

Suspension system means a system that allows controlled and limited movement of an axle relative to the chassis or body of a vehicle; and includes a spring and damping system and any associated controls.

Note 2

The following LHD vehicles are not prohibited from operation in a transport service or otherwise for commercial purposes or for hire or reward:

a) a Category C1 - C5 specialist vehicle, or

b) a vehicle operated by a diplomat, or

c) a vehicle exempt from registration and licensing, or

d) a vehicle that was formerly owned by the Crown.

Note 3

A damaged boot on a steering joint is not a ground for rejection; however, the vehicle’s owner should be advised.

Note 4

A damaged boot on a suspension joint is not a ground for rejection; however, the vehicle’s owner should be advised.

Note 5

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 6

Where a vehicle has LVV certified modified suspension, the ride height is provided on the LVV plate. The ride height is measured from the centre of the wheel to the underside of the wheel arch when the vehicle is unladen.

Table 9-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Steering wheel spinner to assist in the operation of the steering wheel

  • The spinner is contained within the outer circumference of the steering wheel.

Right-hand drive steering conversions

  • the conversion can be proven via documented evidence to have been carried out prior to 1 August 1990, or
  • the conversion was carried out between 1 August 1990 and 1 March 1999 and an approved conversion agent’s individually numbered plate is attached to the vehicle structure.

Steering wheels

  • the vehicle does not have an airbag installed as OE, and
  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard1. The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500kg or less are required to comply with such a standard:

– class MA motor vehicles manufactured from 1 March 1999, and

– class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002, and

– class MB or MC motor vehicles manufactured from 1 October 2003, and

  • the steering wheel is:

– a direct substitute without shaft modification, and

– a non-OE item of a reputable brand or an OE item from another vehicle.

1 A vehicle that cannot comply with this clause cannot be LVV certified unless it has been issued with an LVV authority card, or is at least 14 years old.

Springs and shock absorbers

  • the springs or shock absorbers are direct replacements, and
  • replacement springs are contained within unmodified OE seats throughout full suspension travel, and
  • replacement springs are self-retaining in their seats at full extension, without the use of non-standard devices such as wire-ties, straps, or external spring locators, and
  • replacement springs have not been heated or cut, and
  • springs and spring seats are not height adjustable by any means (unless OE), and
  • replacement shock absorbers, including air-adjustable units, fit unmodified OE mountings, and
  • suspension maintains sufficient travel for safe operation when fully laden, and
  • suspension components maintain sufficient clearance from unmodified bumpstops when fully laden, and
  • a minimum of 100mm ground clearance (unladen and without driver) exists below any part of the vehicle structure, or any steering, braking or suspension component2, and
  • the normal relationship between front and rear suspension height is not unduly affected.

2 Does not include such items as exhaust pipes and exterior body panels that do not contribute to the structural strength of the vehicle.

Blocks for leaf springs to adjust their ride height (up or down)

  • the suspension has not been raised by any other means, and
  • the blocks are:

– securely fitted, and

– constructed from metal, and

– designed for the purpose, and

– firmly seated over not less than the OE seat area, and

– not more than 50mm in height.

Larger diameter anti-sway bar

  • the bar is attached to unmodified OE mounting points.

Addition of anti-sway bar

  • no cutting, heating or welding to the vehicle structure or suspension components is involved in attachment of the bar.

Suspension braces (strut tower braces)

  • there are no structural changes to the body or suspension mounting points.

Eccentric bolts/bushes for adjustability of wheel alignment (eg for camber correction in association with lowered suspensions)

  • the bolts/bushes are:

– designed as a means of correcting or improving wheel alignment; and

– catalogued aftermarket items for that make and model of vehicle.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Urethane suspension bushes

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Figure 9-1-1. Corrosion limits around front or rear suspension anchorages.

corrosion limits around suspension anchorages

See also figures for corrosion limits to structure (section 3-1), hinge and latch anchorages (section 6-1), and seatbelt anchorages (section 7-5).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
  • Land Transport Rule: Steering Systems 2001
  • Traffic Regulations 1976, regulation 70
  • New Zealand Gazette, 19 March 1998, issue 42, page 978, notice 1851 and amendment
  • New Zealand Gazette, 25 February 1999, issue 23, page 575, notice 1478.
Mandatory equipment

1. The steering column of a motor vehicle shall be to the right of the longitudinal centreline of the body of the vehicle except as permitted below.

2. A motor vehicle capable of a speed of more than 50km/h and equipped with a steering system with no direct mechanical connection between the driver’s means of control and the wheels or other means of changing the vehicle’s direction must have at least one additional means of steering.

Permitted equipment

3. A registered vehicle may be in left-hand drive or dual-steer configuration. Such a vehicle is not required to carry a Left-Hand Drive Permit, as the LHD requirements are enforced at the time of first registration in New Zealand. Such a vehicle is not permitted to be operated in a transport service or otherwise for commercial purposes or for hire or reward.

Condition

4. The steering system and associated systems and components that directly or indirectly affect the directional control of the vehicle must be:

a) sound and in good condition, and

b) strong, durable and fit for their purpose, taking into account whether adverse effects have resulted from a loss of integrity of any protective system used by a relevant component.

Performance

5. The steering system and associated systems and components that directly or indirectly affect the directional control of the vehicle must provide the vehicle with safe, efficient, convenient and sensitive control.

Modifications

6. A modification that affects the steering system must be inspected and certified by an LVV Specialist Certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 9-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2017 (see amendment details).

10 Tyres, wheels and hubs

10-1 Tyres and wheels

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Tyres

1. Tyres on the same axle are not of the same:

a) size designation (see Table 10-1-3), or

b) carcass type (ie mixed steel ply, fabric radial ply, bias/cross ply, run-flat), or

c) tread pattern type (mixed asymmetric, directional, normal highway, traction , winter tyre tread (Figure 10-1-3)).

2. All the tyres on a vehicle class MA, MB, MD1 or NA that was first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 October 2002, other than vehicles that are incapable of exceeding 30km/h or are 30 years old or more, are not of the same carcass type (ie mixed steel ply, fabric radial ply, bias/cross ply, run-flat).

3. A class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA vehicle fitted with a winter tyre (Note 3) is not fitted with winter tyres on all road wheels.

4. The tyres on an axle of a light vehicle do not meet at least one of the following:

  • the tyre ply ratings are the same
  • the tyre load indices differ by no more than 2 (Note 4).

5. An asymmetric tyre is fitted to a vehicle with the ‘inside’ tyre wall facing outwards.

6. A directional tyre is fitted contrary to its correct direction of rotation.

7. A tyre has a speed category that is less than the speed limit for the vehicle or less than the vehicle’s maximum speed if this is less than the speed limit (Note 4) (Note 5).

8. The vehicle has one or more of the following types of tyre fitted:

a) a space-saver tyre, or

b) a non-pneumatic tyre, or

c) a tyre with studs, cleats, lugs or other gripping devices, or

d) a tyre that is not compatible with the vehicle to which it is fitted, eg a tyre is marked with any of the following:

i. ‘NOT FOR HIGHWAY USE’

ii. ‘NHS’ (Not for Highway Service)

iii. ‘FOR TRAILER USE ONLY’

iv. ‘ADV’ (Agricultural Drawn Vehicle)

v. ‘RACING PURPOSES ONLY’.

9. A tyre has had any of the following information removed or concealed so that the tyre can no longer be identified (Figure 10-1-4):

  • manufacturer
  • brand
  • model
  • load rating
  • speed rating
  • standards markings (where applicable)
  • direction of rotation (where applicable).
Wheels (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

9. A wheel is not compatible with the tyre fitted to it for rim profile, flange height or valve fitment (Note 6).

10. A wheel is:

a) not compatible with the vehicle to which it is fitted, or

b) not correctly attached to the vehicle.

Condition
Tyres (excluding spare tyres)

11. There are signs that a tyre is fouling on another part of the vehicle.

12. A tyre shows damage that is likely to compromise its ability to operate in a safe manner or lead to premature tyre failure, such as:

a) a lump or bulge that is likely to be caused by separation or partial failure of the tyre structure, or

b) a cut or crack in a sidewall or tread more than 25mm long that reaches the cords, or

c) exposed or cut cords, or

d) the tread of a retreaded tyre shows signs of separation, or

e) nails or other sharp objects embedded in the tyre, or

f) significant perishing, eg due to age, moisture or exposure.

13. A tyre has a string-type repair visible from the outside.

14. A tyre, other than a winter tyre (Note 3), fitted to a vehicle capable of exceeding 30km/h, does not have a tread pattern depth (Technical bulletin 7) of at least 1.5mm (excluding any tie-bar or tread-depth indicator strip) around the whole circumference of the tyre:

a) within all the principal grooves that normally contain moulded tread depth indicators, or

b) if the tyre does not normally have moulded tread-depth indicators (such as some retreaded or vintage tyres), across at least three-quarters of the tread width.

15. A winter tyre (Note 3) does not have a tread depth of at least 4mm (excluding any tie-bar or tread-depth indicator strip) within all principal grooves that normally contain moulded tread-depth indicators and around the whole circumference of the tyre.

16. A tyre not identified as designed for regrooving has had its tread depth increased by regrooving.

17. A tyre is noticeably under- or over-inflated.

Spare tyres

18. A spare tyre, if carried is not:

a) securely attached by a device that is in good condition and correctly applied, or

b) stowed in a closed compartment separate from the occupant space (eg if the manufacturer’s attachment device is missing or faulty).

Wheels

19. There are signs that a wheel is fouling on another part of the vehicle.

20. A wheel is:

a) cracked, or

b) significantly damaged, distorted or has deteriorated, or

c) not securely attached to the hub.

21. An alloy wheel has poor visible repairs.

22. A wheel nut is:

a) missing, or

b) loose, or

c) has deteriorated, or

d) is of the incorrect type, or

e) has insufficient thread engagement to the wheel stud, or

f) is an aftermarket wheel nut made from aluminium .

Modifications (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

23. A modification affects the wheels or tyres, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Tread pattern and tread depth requirements do not apply to vehicles that are not capable of exceeding 30 km/h.

Note 2 Definitions:

Asymmetric tyre means a tyre which, through tread pattern or construction, is required to be fitted to a vehicle so that one particular side wall faces outwards.

Construction in relation to a tyre means:

a) for a pneumatic tyre, the type of tyre carcass (including ply orientation and ply rating or load index, but not including tyre tread), or

b) for any other tyre, characteristics relating to size, shape and material.

Cross-ply means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords in the tyre carcass extend to the beads and are laid at alternate angles, which are substantially less than 90 degrees, to the centreline of the tread. This tyre structure is also referred to as ‘bias ply’ or ‘diagonal ply’.

Directional tyre, also known as unidirectional tyre, means a tyre with a tread pattern that is designed to run in only one direction. A directional tyre usually has an arrow marked on the side wall indicating the direction it is designed to run.

Load index is an assigned number ranging from 0 to 279 that corresponds with the maximum load-carrying capacity of the tyre. Most passenger car tyre load indices range from 62 (= 265kg) to 126 (= 1700kg).

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Ply rating is an index of tyre strength used to identify a given tyre with its recommended maximum permitted load when used for a specific service. It does not necessarily represent the actual number of plies in a tyre. Common ply ratings are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Commercial (eg truck) tyres often have a ply rating rather than a load index.

Pneumatic tyre means a tyre that, when in use, is inflated by air or gas introduced from time to time under pressure so as to enclose under normal inflation a cushion of air or gas forming altogether at least half of the total area of an average cross-section of a tyre so inflated.

Principal grooves means the wide grooves in the tyre tread which have the tread-wear indicators located inside them. Any other grooves are secondary grooves which may wear out during the service life of the tyre.

Radial-ply means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords, which extend from bead to bead, are laid at approximately 90 degrees to the centreline of the tread, the carcass being stabilised by an essentially inextensible circumferential belt.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Rim means that part of the wheel on which the tyre is mounted and supported.

Run-flat tyre (also known as self-supporting tyre) means a tyre that is so constructed that in case of a puncture the basic tyre functions are still provided for a short distance (at least 80km) and at a reduced speed (usually 80km/h), allowing the vehicle to be safely driven to a place of repair. Some run-flat tyres are identified by an ‘F’ within the size designation.

Size designation means the size description of the tyre, ie section width, aspect ratio and rim diameter. It does not include the speed rating, load index or tyre construction (eg ‘R’ for radial).

Space saver tyre (temporary-use spare tyre) means a combination tyre and wheel designed and constructed solely for temporary use under restricted driving conditions, and not intended for use under normal driving conditions.

Speed category means a code allocated to a tyre by a tyre manufacturer that indicates the maximum vehicle speed for which the use of the tyre is rated.

Tread means that part of a pneumatic tyre which comes into contact with the ground.

Tread-depth indicator (or tread-wear indicator) means the projections within the principal grooves designed to give a visual indication of the degree of wear of the tread. To help locate these on a tyre, inspectors should look for a ‘tread depth idicator’ or ‘TWI’ mark on the outer edge of the tyre side wall (most tyres have these marks).

Tube means an inflatable elastic liner, in the form of a hollow ring fitted with an inflation valve assembly, designed for insertion into certain tyre assemblies to provide a cushion of air or gas that, when inflated, supports the wheel (also known as an ‘inner tube’).

Tyre carcass means the structural part of a pneumatic tyre other than the tread and outermost rubber of the sidewalls that, when inflated, contains the gas that supports the load. Carcass type refers to steel ply, fabric radial ply, bias/cross ply, run-flat.

Tyre load rating means the maximum load a tyre can carry at the corresponding cold inflation pressure prescribed by the tyre manufacturer and the speed indicated by its speed category symbol. It is usually indicated by the load index or ply rating.

Wheel means a rotating load-carrying member between the tyre and the hub, which usually consists of two major parts, the rim and the wheel disc, and which may be manufactured as one part, or permanently attached to each other, or detachable from each other.

Wheel centre-disc means the part of the wheel that is the supporting member between the hub and the rim.

Wheel spacer means an additional component used for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to the hub or, in multiple wheel sets, for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to another wheel.

Note 3

Winter tyre means a tyre which is principally designed to be operated at temperatures below 7 (degrees) C; and which may include a symbol depicting a snowflake and a mountain, or the word 'studless', marked in the sidewall, or both. Alternatively a winter tyre can be identified by its distinctive tyre tread pattern consisting of tread blocks with wavy sipes  (see Figure 10-1-3).

Note 4

The tyre load index and speed category are usually marked on the tyre. Where the tyre is not marked, the load and speed rating information must be obtained from the tyre manufacturer or a reference guide of tyre ratings before the tyre can be passed.

Note 5

Sometimes a retreaded or repaired tyre has had its speed rating removed. Where a tyre has been repaired or retreaded in accordance with standard NZS 5423 (Repairing and retreading car, truck and bus tyres), the tyre must be marked with NZS 5423 and, if a car tyre, have the speed rating removed. In such a case, a missing speed rating is acceptable for WoF/CoF (unless the inspector believes on reasonable grounds that the tyre would not have had the required minimum speed rating for the vehicle in the first place).

Note 6

If there is any doubt about the compatibility of a tyre/wheel combination, the vehicle inspector may request/ take into account relevant information provided by the tyre manufacturer.

Table 10-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Aftermarket wheel fitments1

  • the wheels:

– are of a known and reputable brand, and

– would be considered an appropriate fitment for the vehicle type by the wheel manufacturer, and

– are not modified, and

– do not have spacers or adaptors fitted.

  • the tyre tread:

– does not protrude beyond the unmodified original body panels (including unmodified factory-fitted mudguard extensions), or

– protrudes beyond the unmodified original body panels, but is covered by aftermarket or modified mudguard extensions or modified body panels, and the track width has increased by no more than 25mm from OE.

Tyre size changes

  • the tyres:

– have an outer circumference that is no more than 5% greater than OE, and

– are an appropriate selection for rim width, and

– have tread that does not extend beyond the original or modified body panels or guard extension (see Figure 10-1-1).

1 The vehicle inspector may refer the vehicle to an LVV certifier if the inspector has reasonable concerns that the safety of the vehicle has been affected by an aftermarket wheel fitment.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
Table 10-1-2. Tyre speed symbol categories

Speed symbol – speed category (km/h)

A1 – 5

A5 – 25

B – 50

F – 80

L – 120

Q – 160

U – 200

Y – 300

A2 – 10

A6 – 30

C – 60

G – 90

M – 130

R – 170

H – 210

ZR – over 240

A3 – 15

A7 – 35

D – 65

J – 100

N – 140

S – 180

V – 240

A4 – 20

A8 – 40

E – 70

K – 110

P – 150

T – 190

W – 270

Table 10-1-3. Tyre interchangeability – imperial and metric

Imperial sizing

Metric sizing

10/70R22.5

255/70R22.5

11/70R22.5

275/70R22.5

12/70R22.5

305/70R22.5

15R22.5

385/65R22.5

16.5R22.5

425/65R22.5

18R22.5445/65R22.5
Figure 10-1-1. Tyre and body panel position

Tyre and body panel positions

Figure 10-1-2. Tyre markings

tyre markings

Figure 10-1-3. How to identify a winter tyre

How to identify a winter tyre

Note: For WoF purposes, a tyre is considered to be a winter tyre only if it has a winter tyre tread and/or a studless marking and/or mountain/snowflake symbol.

Figure 10-1-4. Example of tyres with information removed/concealed/obscured

Example of tyre with manufacturer/brand/model information removed

The circled areas show where information has been removed so that the tyre can no longer be identified.

Example of tyre with information obscured

The white tape overlay on the tyre obscures all of the important information.

Example of tyre with information removed

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Tyres

1. Tyres must be compatible with the vehicle to which they are fitted.

2. Tyres on the same axle must be of the same size designation and construction, and of the same tread pattern type.

3. A vehicle of class MA, MB, MD1 or NA first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 October 2002, must have all tyres of the same construction unless the vehicle is incapable of exceeding 30km/h or is 30 years old or more.

4. Winter tyres (Note 3), if fitted to a class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA vehicle, must be fitted to all of the vehicle’s road wheels.

5. Asymmetric tyres must be fitted in axle sets in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

6. A directional tyre must be fitted to a wheel position corresponding to its direction of rotation.

7. The speed category of a tyre must be compatible with the maximum legal speed limit for the vehicle, or the vehicle’s maximum speed (Note 4) (Note 5).

8. A vehicle must not be fitted with a metal tyre or other non-pneumatic tyre, or with a tyre with studs, cleats, lugs or other gripping devices.

Wheels

9. A wheel must be:

a) sufficiently strong for the type of vehicle to which it is fitted, and

b) compatible with the vehicle to which it is fitted, and

c) compatible with the tyre rim profile, flange height and valve fitment (Note 6).

10. There must be adequate clearance for the brake, hub, suspension and steering mechanism, and body parts.

Permitted equipment

11. A vehicle may be fitted with retreaded tyres.

Condition
Tyres (excluding spare tyres and space-saver tyres)

12. A tyre must be of good quality and construction, fit for its purpose, and maintained in a safe condition.

13. A tyre must not have worn, damaged or visible cords apparent by external examination.

14. A tyre, other than a winter tyre, fitted to a vehicle capable of exceeding 30km/h, must have a tread pattern depth of not less than 1.5mm (excluding any tie-bar or tread-depth indicator strip) around the whole circumference of the tyre:

a) within all principal grooves that contain tread-depth indicators, or

b) if the tyre does not normally have tread-depth indicators, across at least three-quarters of the tyre tread width.

15. A winter tyre (Note 3) must have a tread pattern depth of not less than 4mm (excluding any tie-bar or tread-depth indicator strip) within all principal grooves that contain moulded tread-depth indicators and around the circumference of the tyre.

16. The regrooving of a tyre is permitted only if the tyre is identified as having been specifically designed for regrooving after manufacture.

17. A tyre that is fitted to a vehicle must be maintained at a safe inflation pressure.

Spare tyre

18. If the vehicle carries a spare tyre, the tyre must be securely attached on or in the vehicle.

Wheels

19. The components of the wheel assembly must be in good condition.

20. The wheel must be securely attached to the hub.

Modifications

21. A modification that affects the wheels or tyres must be inspected and certified by an LVV Specialist Certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-1-1), and has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance, or

b) fitted with a wheel spacer that is approved for the purpose by the vehicle, wheel or axle manufacturer, or

c) fitted with a hand-grooved tyre, provided the tyre was a blank tyre case manufactured for hand-grooving, and complies with the applicable listed requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

10-2 Hubs and axles

Reasons for rejection

Condition

1. A hub:

a) is not securely attached to the vehicle, or

b) has a visible crack, or

c) is significantly damaged, distorted or has deteriorated, or

d) has a broken or missing wheel stud.

2. A wheel bearing:

a) has play beyond the manufacturer’s specifications, or

b) is over-tight or sounds rough.

3. An axle:

a) is insecure, eg has loose U-bolts, or

b) is visibly cracked, or

c) is significantly damaged, distorted or has deteriorated, or

d) shows signs of welding or heating after original manufacture, or

e) shows signs of fouling the vehicle structure or a brake, suspension or steering component.

Performance

4. The geometry of a hub or axle causes:

a) the vehicle to veer significantly to one side, or

b) the wheels not to self centre.

Modification (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

5. A modification affects the hubs or axles, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-2-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1 Definitions

Hub means that part of a vehicle that is attached to the axle and rotates on, or with, the axle, and to which the wheel is attached, and includes any bearings.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Table 10-2-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Differential ratio changes

  • only the differential centre or gear-set is changed, and
  • the OE axle housing is retained.

Axle housing replacement

  • the axle housing fits the vehicle without adaptation, and
  • no change to the OE suspension geometry occurs, and
  • the OE drive-shafts(s) is unmodified, and
  • no changes are made to the OE brake system.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition

1. The components of the assembly must be in good condition.

2. The hub and axle must be sufficiently strong for the type of vehicle to which they are fitted.

3. The hub and axle must have a suitable and correctly adjusted geometry.

Modification

4. A modification that affects the hubs or axles must be inspected and certified by a Low Volume Vehicle Specialist Certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-2-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

10-3 Mudguards

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A mudguard over a road wheel is missing where it is reasonable and practicable to fit a mudguard, unless the vehicle is:

a) in an unfinished condition legally used under the authority of trade plates, or

b) not capable of exceeding a speed of 30km/h, or

c) has a valid mudguard exemption issued by the New Zealand Hot Rod Association (Figure 10-3-4).

2. A mudguard does not cover the full tread width (Note 2) of a tyre or tyres fitted to a road wheel (Figure 10-3-1 and Figure 10-3-2), except when the mudguard is fitted to a vehicle designed for industrial purposes and it is not practicable to fit a full mudguard due to the vehicle’s construction.

3. On a vehicle with twin or close-spaced multiple tyres a mudguard fitted over a wheel on the rear axle is more than one-third higher than the horizontal distance between the vertical lines of the lowest point of the mudguard and the centre of the wheel (Figure 10-3-3), except when:

a) the mudguard is fitted to a vehicle designed for industrial purposes and it is not practicable to fit a full mudguard due to the vehicle’s construction.

Mudguard condition

4. A mudguard is not securely fixed to the vehicle.

5. A mudguard is so constructed or damaged that it is likely to present a hazard to road users (Note 2).

Modification (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

6. A modification affects a mudguard, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1 Definitions

Mudguard means a fitting, inclusive of any portion of the vehicle and of any mudflaps attached, that serves to intercept material thrown up by a wheel more or less in the plane of the wheel.

Tyre tread means the portion of a tyre that contacts the road.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

Damage on full mudguards fitted to logging trucks is permissable if it is above a horizontal line on top of the tyre (Figure 10-3-5), and that damage is unlikely to result in the mudguard presenting a hazard to road users.

Table 10-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to

LVV certification is never required:

Modified mudguards, including flared wheel arches or the addition of mudguard extensions1

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
    (see also Table 10–1–1)

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

1 Some vehicles fitted with flared wheel arches or mudguard extensions will require LVV certification as a result of aftermarket wheel fitments and tyre size changes. See Table 10–1–1.

Figure 10-3-1. Position of individual mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Position of individual mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Figure 10-3-2. Position of body panel mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Position of body panel mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Figure 10-3-3. Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle fitted with dual wheels or close-spaced multiple wheels

Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle

Figure 10-3-4. LVV Authority Card: New Zealand Hot Rod Association

LVV Authority Card: New Zealand Hot Rod Association

Figure 10-3-5. Permissable damage area on logging truck mudguards (Note 2)

Permissable damage area on logging truck mudguards

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle must be fitted with a mudguard over each road wheel if it is reasonable and practicable to do so (Note 1).

2. A mudguard must cover no less than the width of the tyre tread on each road wheel (Figure 10-3-1 and Figure 10-3-2).

3. A vehicle fitted with twin tyres or close-spaced multiple tyres must be fitted with a mudguard over each wheel on the rear axle that provides continuous protection from a horizontal line tangent to the top of the tyre tread (Note 2) to a line with a slope of 1 in 3 rising rearward from the tyre’s contact point on the road (Figure 10-3-3).

4. A vehicle designed for industrial purposes may be fitted with partial mudguards if the vehicle’s construction makes it impracticable to fit full mudguards.

5. The following vehicles are not required to be fitted with mudguards:

a) a vehicle in an unfinished condition used under the authority of trade plates and operated in accordance with the Compliance Rule

b) a vehicle not capable of exceeding a speed of 30 km/h

c) a vehicle with a valid LVV authority card (Figure 10-3-4).

Mudguard condition

6. A mudguard must be securely fixed to the vehicle and must be constructed so that it does not present a hazard to road users.

Modification

7. A modification that affects a mudguard must be inspected and certified by a Low Volume Vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV certification (Table 10-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

11 Exhaust

11-1 Exhaust system

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle is not fitted with an exhaust system that includes a means of sound reduction (Note 1) (Note 6).

2. A light vehicle is presented for a WoF or CoF because it has been ordered off the road (pink- or green-stickered) by an enforcement officer for non-compliant exhaust noise, and there is no evidence that the vehicle has passed an LVVTA objective noise test since the vehicle was ordered off the road (Note 4), ie:

a) the owner cannot produce a valid objective exhaust noise emissions test certificate (Figure 11-1-1) issued after the vehicle was ordered off the road (Note 5), and

b) the exhaust system tail pipe is not fitted with a valid LVVTA noise test label (Figure 11-1-2).

Condition

3. An exhaust system is not securely mounted.

4. The exhaust system is so constructed or modified that its operation or effectiveness can be readily interfered with, eg the driver is able to interfere with the exhaust system by operating a manual switch, or the exhaust is fitted with a flame thrower kit.

5. The exhaust system is so constructed that emitted heat or fumes are not directed away from, and prevented from entering, the vehicle’s passenger compartment (Note 7). See also (Note 6) regarding screamer pipes

Performance

6. There is a leak of exhaust fumes from the exhaust system.

7. The exhaust noise output from a class LE, MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA vehicle (other than a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle with a valid motorsport authority card) is not less than or similar to the noise output the vehicle (or a vehicle of a similar type (Note 2)) would have had when it was manufactured with its original exhaust system, and:

a) the increased noise output exceeds the relevant noise limit in Table 11-1-1 when assessed by the vehicle inspector:

i. using their own experience, or

ii. using the Noise Quick Check specified in Technical bulletin 1, or

b) there is no evidence that the vehicle has passed an LVVTA objective noise test, ie:

i. the owner cannot produce a valid objective exhaust noise emission test certificate (Figure 11-1-1), and

ii. the exhaust system tailpipe is not fitted with a valid LVVTA noise test label (Figure 11-1-2).

Note 1

Exhaust system means a pipe assembly through which the engine exhaust gases pass to the atmosphere and includes some means of sound reduction such as a silencer or resonator.

Note 2

For the purpose of Reason for rejection, a vehicle of a similar type means a vehicle of similar age, vehicle size, body type, engine size and power output, and may be of a different make and model.

Note 3

The noise limits in Table 11-1-1 are lower than the noise limits specified in legislation, and considered to be ‘clearly below’ the legal noise limits. Vehicles with an exhaust noise output clearly below the legal limits do not require an Objective Noise Test.

Note 4

A new objective noise test is required every time the vehicle is ordered off the road for non-compliant exhaust noise, even if the vehicle is presented for WoF or CoF with a quieter or original exhaust system.

Note 5

Sight the ordering off the road notice or phone the NZ Police to find out when the ordering off the notice was issued.

Note 6

Externally venting wastegates (screamer pipes) are not permitted and cannot be certified as they are not adequately muffled and the exhaust gasses do not exit behind the passenger compartment. However, wastegates that feed gasses into their own muffled exhaust system exiting behind the passenger compartment, or feed gasses back into the vehicle’s exhaust system, are permitted.

Note 7

Exhaust systems that direct exhaust fumes away from the perimeter of the vehicle’s passenger compartment will comply with this requirement, and an OE fitment (or direct OE replacement) where the exhaust system terminates directly below the vehicle’s floorpan is also permissible.

Table 11-1-1. Noise limits for the Noise Quick Check (Note 3)
Vehicle

Noise limit (decibels) (Note 3)

Class LE with an engine capacity of 125 cc or less

93 dBA
Class LE with an engine capacity of more than 125 cc97 dBA
Class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2, NA first registered in New Zealand before 1 June 200892 dBA

Class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2, NA first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 June 2008 and:

– manufactured before 1 January 1985

– manufactured on or after 1 January 1985



92 dBA

87 dBA

Figure 11-1-1. Objective exhaust noise emission test certificate

Objective exhaust noise emission test certificate

Figure 11-1-2. Objective noise test label

Objective noise test label

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle with an internal combustion engine must be fitted with an exhaust system (Note 1) (Note 6).

2. A vehicle that is presented for a WoF or CoF because it has been ordered off the road by an enforcement officer for non-compliant exhaust noise must pass an LVVTA objective noise test before the vehicle may be issued with a WoF or CoF (Note 4).

Condition

3. An exhaust system must not be constructed or modified in a way that allows a person to interfere readily with its operation or reduce its effectiveness.

4. An exhaust system must be designed, constructed, positioned and maintained in a way that minimises the risk of heat or fumes emitted from the system harming the vehicle’s occupants.

Performance

5. An exhaust system must be effective and in good working order.

6. The noise output from the exhaust system of a class LE, MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA vehicle (other than a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle with a valid motorsport authority card):

a) must be less than or similar to the noise output from the vehicle’s original exhaust system at the time of the vehicle’s manufacture, or

b) must not, if the noise output of the vehicle’s original exhaust system at the time of the vehicle’s manufacture is not known, exceed the applicable maximum decibel level when tested and certified by an LVV specialist certifier in accordance with the LVVTA objective noise test.

Modification

7. A class LE, MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2 or NA vehicle that has been modified so as to increase its exhaust noise output must have the exhaust system inspected, tested and certified by an LVV specialist certifier as having passed the LVVTA objective noise test, unless:

a) the increased noise output is clearly below (Note 3) the applicable noise limits, and

b) the vehicle has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

8. When a vehicle has been certified by an LVV specialist certifier as having passed the LVVTA objective noise test:

a) the owner must produce a valid objective exhaust noise emissions test certificate (Figure 11-1-1), and

b) the exhaust system tailpipe must be fitted with a valid LVVTA noise test label (Figure 11-1-2).

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

11-2 Exhaust emissions

Reasons for rejection

Performance

1. A vehicle with the engine at normal operating temperature (Note 1) emits clearly visible smoke (Technical bulletin 8) from the exhaust tailpipe (Note 2):

a) for a continuous period of five seconds when the engine is idling and does not meet the additional requirements in Table 11-2-1, or

b) as the engine is being rapidly accelerated to approximately 2500rpm or approximately half the maximum engine speed (whichever is lower) and does not meet the additional requirements in Table 11-2-1.

2. A vehicle (other than group L vehicle or a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle with a valid motorsport authority card) that was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 May 2010 and manufactured from 1 January 1990 has a catalytic converter removed where there is evidence that one was originally fitted, and there is no written evidence issued by an entry certifier that the vehicle passed a prescribed metered emissions test in this condition (Note 5) (Note 6) (Figure 11-2-1).

Note 1 Test procedure:

a) Carry out the idling and acceleration tests in Reason for rejection 1. A vehicle that passes both tests with the engine below normal operating temperature is deemed to have passed with the engine at normal operating temperature.

b) If the vehicle has failed either test, ensure the engine is at normal operating temperature. Then purge the system by increasing the engine speed to 2500 rpm (or half the maximum engine speed if this is lower) and holding it there for about 5 seconds. Repeat the idling and acceleration tests in Reasons for rejection 1.

Note 2

Visible emissions caused by the condensation of water vapour do not count as smoke.

Note 3

Acceptable evidence is:

a) a letter on the letterhead of the manufacturer or manufacturer’s representative, or

b) a letter on the letterhead of an appropriate automobile club, or

c) evidence of equal authority to (a) or (b) above, eg from an appropriate expert.

Note 4

The vehicle inspector may need to take into account further information about unusual or older vehicles, eg from an appropriate expert such as an office holder in a vintage car club.

Note 5

This reason for rejection does not apply if the vehicle operator can provide evidence that the vehicle was first certified for entry before 1 May 2008.

Note 6

The metered emissions test can only be carried out at entry certifier sites (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA) where entry inspections are carried out. The entry certifiers will issue a document (Figure 11-2-1) that identifies the vehicle, whether or not the vehicle has passed the test, and whether or not the vehicle was tested with any OE catalytic converters removed. A metered emissions test is not required if a catalytic converter is refitted, or if there is evidence that the vehicle was not originally fitted with a catalytic converter.

Table 11-2-1. Additional requirements

Type of vehicle

Additional requirements

First registered on or after 1 January 1960 with four-stroke engine, or

First registered before 1 January 1960with four-stroke engine manufactured on or after 1 January 1960.

1. Document produced by the vehicle operator that proves that (Note 3):

a) the engine is original equipment for the vehicle, and

b) its design means that the vehicle cannot reasonably comply with the visible smoke emission requirements.

Note No evidence is required if, during the acceleration test, a diesel-powered vehicle emits moderate smoke caused by turbo lag.

2. The smoke produced is not noticeably and significantly more visible than it would have been when the vehicle was manufactured and supplied with the fuel recommended by the manufacturer.

First registered before 1 January 1960 with four-stroke engine manufactured before 1 January 1960, or

Vehicle with two-stroke engine or rotary engine.

The smoke produced is not noticeably and significantly more visible than it would have been when the vehicle was manufactured and supplied with the fuel recommended by the manufacturer (Note 4).

Figure 11-2-1. Exhaust emissions test certificate

 Exhaust emissions test certificate

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Performance

1. A motor vehicle must not emit clearly visible smoke (Note 2) when the vehicle’s engine is running at its normal operating temperature, under either of the following conditions:

a) for a continuous period of five seconds when the engine is idling

b) as the engine is being accelerated rapidly to approximately 2500 revolutions per minute or approximately half the maximum engine speed (whichever is lower).

2. Requirement 1 above does not apply if the driver of the vehicle produces documentation that proves that the engine is original equipment for the vehicle and the engine’s design means the vehicle cannot reasonably comply (Note 3).

3. The exhaust emissions system or exhaust control equipment of a vehicle (other than a group L vehicle or a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle) first certified for entry into service on or after 1 May 2008 and manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 must not be modified so as to prevent the vehicle from being able to pass a prescribed metered emissions test.

12 Towing connections

12-1 Light vehicle towbar and fifth wheel

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A towbar fitted to a vehicle does not have provision for securely fitting the safety chain (Note 1) from a trailer coupling, except for:

a) New Zealand Defence Force vehicles

b) fire-fighting vehicles.

Condition

2. The towbar or towbar mounting (or fifth wheel or fifth-wheel mounting):

a) is not securely attached, or

b) has a bolt or nut that is missing or significantly corroded, or

c) has corrosion damage (Note 2) within 150mm of the mounting points, or

d) is cracked or distorted, or

e) jaws are worn beyond manufacturer’s specifications or out of adjustment, or

f) pivot is seized, worn beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or insecure, or

g) has any other damage that the vehicle inspector considers has affected the structural integrity of the towbar or its attachment (Note 3) to the vehicle.

3. The towbar coupling (towball):

a) is not securely attached, or

b) is worn beyond the manufacturer’s specifications, or

c) is significantly corroded, distorted or cracked, or

d) has a nut that is missing or significantly corroded.

Note 1

For vehicles fitted with a towbar that has a removable ball mount, such as the one shown on the right-hand side Figure 12-1-1, if the safety chain attaches to the removable part, the security of the removable part should be verified (eg retention clip should be of sufficient strength and in good condition).

Note 2

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 3

A towbar attachment is a modification to the vehicle structure (which never requires LVV certification), refer to section 3-1 Structure for structure requirements around the towbar attachments.

Figure 12-1-1. Towbar and towbar coupling (Note 1)

Towbars

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A towbar, if fitted to a vehicle, must have provision for securing the safety chain (Note 1) or cable from a trailer coupling, except if the vehicle is likely to tow any of the following trailers:

a) a trailer designed for armament purposes by the New Zealand Defence Forces

b) a trailer pump for fire-fighting purposes.

Condition

2. A trailer must be securely attached to the towing vehicle by an adequate coupling.

3. A vehicle must:

a) be safe to be operated, and

b) have been constructed using components and materials that are fit for the purpose, and

c) be within safe tolerance of its state when manufactured or modified.

Page amended 1 November 2017 (see amendment details).

13 Miscellaneous items

13-1 Engine and transmission

Reasons for rejection

Condition

1. The engine or gearbox is insecurely mounted.

2. A driveshaft is bent or severely damaged.

3. A driveshaft flange:

a) is insecure, or

b) has a bolt or nut missing.

4. A driveshaft support bearing is:

a) insecure, or

b) worn beyond manufacturer’s specifications.

5. A driveshaft universal joint spider (cross) bearing:

a) is worn so that the movement in the joint is beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

b) caps have loose or missing cap bolts or circlips, or

c) is damaged, displaced or the seals between the spider journals and bearing caps are missing.

6. A rubber doughnut-type driveshaft coupling:

a) is worn or damaged beyond manufacturer’s specifications, or

b) is split or delaminated so that its mechanical integrity is affected, or

c) securing bolt is loose or missing.

7. A driveshaft slip joint (spline) is worn beyond manufacturer’s specifications.

8. The universals in the driveshaft are not fitted in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.

Modifications (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

9. A modification (Note 1) affects the engine and transmission (Note 2), and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 13-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate (Note 3), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

LVV certification is always required for the fitting of a supercharger or turbocharger as a modification, or the upgrading of a supercharger, turbo or wastegate, or the re-chipping of electronic engine control units on turbo vehicles.

Note 3

Where an LVV certification plate has the engine type as ‘MOD’ after the make (eg Nissan MOD), that certification can cover a wide range of modifications, including aftermarket or modified wastegates, larger or modified turbochargers, re-programed ECU’s, and many other performance enhancements commonly fitted to a wide range of vehicles.

If presented with a vehicle with an engine modification and ‘MOD’ on the certification plate, assuming all other certification plate details match and all WoF requirements have been met, a WoF can be issued.

Note 4

Externally venting wastegates (screamer pipes) are not permitted as they are not adequately muffled and the exhaust gasses passing through the wastegate are not directed through the vehicle’s exhaust system. However, wastegates that have their own exhaust system or exhaust pipe exiting behind the passenger compartment are permitted.

Table 13-1-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Substitution of engines

  • when compared with the OE engine, the replacement engine:

– is of the same or less cubic capacity, and

– has equal or less weight, and

– has the same or less power output, and

– uses the same fuel (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG), and

– uses the same unmodified attachment points and system (ie bolts-in), and

– uses the same family of block and cylinder head from the same vehicle manufacturer, and

– is of the same configuration.

Minor modifications to OE engine

  • the modifications result in not more than 20% more power than the OE engine, which may include the fitting of:

– extractor or free-flow exhaust manifolds, or big bore exhaust systems

– changed intake manifolds

– changed or multiple carburettors

– modified fuel injection systems

– changed ignition systems

– alternative cold air box induction systems.

  • See (Note 2).

Gearbox substitution

  • the OE gearbox cross-member has not been heated, cut or welded,
  • the OE gearbox cross-member mounting to the OE body or chassis members is unchanged,
  • no replacement gearbox cross-member is used,
  • the OE driveshaft(s) is unmodified,
  • no substantial modifications have occurred to the floor or gearbox tunnel area, other than provision for gear-shift mechanism,
  • the braking system is not modified or changed, including the brake pedal.

Change from 4WD to permanent 2WD (removal of drive train components in 4WD vehicles)

  • the vehicle was originally manufactured with selectable 4WD and a solid/live front axle.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
Figure 13-1-1. A typical driveshaft assembly

Figure 13-1-1. A typical driveshaft assembly

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. The vehicle must be safe to be operated.

2. The components and materials must be fit for their purpose and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Modifications

3. A modification that affects the engine and transmission must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 13-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2017 (see amendment details).

13-2 Fuel system

Reasons for rejection

Condition

1. There is a noticeable fuel leak from the fuel system.

2. There is corrosion damage (Note 1), cracking or other damage within 150mm of a tank mounting.

3. The security of the fuel tank is affected by:

a) corrosion damage (Note 1) insecure or loose tank mountings.

4. A fuel line is insecure or loose so that it is likely to be damaged during normal use of the vehicle.

5. A fuel pipe is severely damaged or excessively corroded.

6. A fuel hose is damaged or perished.

7. The fuel pump is insecure.

8. The fuel filler cap or capless fuel filler seal is missing, insecure or likely to allow fuel spillage when the vehicle is in normal use.

9. The fuel tank is fitted with a ‘temporary use’ fuel filler cap.

Modification

10. A modification affects the fuel system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 13-2-1), or

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Table 13-2-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Fuel system changes and modifications

  • no structural modifications have occurred to the vehicle during the installation or modification, and
  • the filling location remains the same as at original manufacture, and
  • the fuel type (petrol, diesel) has not changed (other than a change to LPG/CNG).

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. Fuel tanks, fuel lines and associated components must be:

a) securely mounted, and

b) made of suitable materials, and

c) in good condition, and

d) free from significant leaks, and

e) positioned so that the risk of mechanical damage or heat gain is minimised.

Modification

2. A modification that affects the fuel tank and fuel lines must be inspected and certified by a Low Volume Vehicle Specialist Certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV certification (Table 13-2-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

13-3 LPG/CNG fuel system

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle that is equipped with an LPG or CNG fuel system that is in working order does not have a current alternative fuel inspection certificate (Note 1) (Note 2) (Figure 13-3-1).

Condition

2. An LPG or CNG fuel system component is:

a) loose, or

b) significantly corroded, distorted or cracked.

3. A gas line:

a) shows signs of corrosion damage (Note 3), such as pitting, or

b) is bulging, or

c) is insecure, or

d) is damaged, eg cut or crimping.

4. There is a noticeable gas leak.

5. There is corrosion damage, distortion or fracture within 300mm of a tank mounting

Note 1 Definitions

Alternative fuel inspection certificate means evidence of vehicle inspection relating to the periodic in-service inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel installation certificate means an inspection and certification document relating to the installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system. It is not required for the issue of a WoF or CoF.

LPG/CNG fuel system means a fuel storage and conducting system that is used to provide liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) for the purpose of propulsion of a vehicle.

Note 2

An LPG or CNG fuel system with all the necessary components is deemed to be in working order, whether or not it is charged. A system that has had the filler connection removed is deemed to be not in working order.

Note 3

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Figure 13-1-1. Alternative fuels certificate label

alt fuels label

Table 13-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification
Fitting or modification to:
LVV certification is never required
LPG/CNG fuel system
  • in-service requirements for performance and condition must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle equipped with an LPG or CNG fuel system that is in working order must display a current alternative fuel inspection certificate.

Condition

2. An LPG or CNG fuel system must be in safe working condition.

Modification

3. The installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system is not a modification that requires certification by a LVV specialist certifier.

4. A modification to an existing LPG or CNG fuel system must be inspected and certified by an approved LPG or CNG fuel inspector or inspecting organisation.

13-5 Electric and hybrid vehicle electrical system

Reasons for rejection

Condition (Note 1)

1. High voltage wiring is:

a) insecure or not adequately secured

b) damaged or deteriorated (including insulation)

c) likely to touch:

i. hot components of the vehicle

ii. sharp edges

iii. rotating parts

iv. the ground.

2. High voltage batteries are:

a) insecure or not adequately secured

b) damaged or deteriorated (including components and electrical insulation)

c) leaking, or showing signs of leaking.

3. High voltage battery shields are damaged or not in place.

Modification

4. A modification affects the electrical system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for specialist certification (Table 13-5-1), or

b) is missing proof of specialist certification, that is:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid  certification plate (eg low volume vehicle plate or heavy vehicle certification plate/label), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. The vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Vehicle inspectors are only required to do a visual check. An invasive check is not required.

Table 13-5-1. Modifications that do not require specialist certification

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is not required provided that:

Fuel system changes and modifications

  • no structural modifications have occurred to the vehicle during the installation or modification.

Note: Specialist certification is always required for changes to the high voltage electrical system.

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. The vehicle must be safe to be operated.

2. The components and materials must be fit for their purpose and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Modifications

3. A modification that affects the electrical system must be inspected and certified by an specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for specialist certification (Table 13-5-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details)

Heavy vehicles

1 Vehicle identification

1-1 VIN and chassis number

Important Ensure that the VIN or chassis number is recorded in full on the checksheet.

This number must be:

  • the VIN if fitted – not the chassis number (locally allocated VIN)
  • the stamped VIN on the VIN plate – not the VIN etched on the glazing.

Also refer to Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers, Figure 1-1-1.  Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency and Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN or chassis number (Note 1) (Note 3).

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN number (Note 1) (Note 3).

3. A VIN number is not valid (Note 1) (Note 2).

Condition

4. A VIN or chassis number has been (Note 1) (Note 3):

a) removed, or

b) erased, or

c) altered, or

d) defaced, or

e) obscured, or

f) destroyed, or

g) obliterated, or

h) affixed unlawfully or by unauthorised persons.

Note 1

The vehicle inspector must notify the Police and the NZTA using the vehicle report form if there is reason to believe that the VIN or chassis number has been tampered with in any way .

The vehicle inspector must not issue a WoF/CoF/permit until approved by NZTA. Approval will usually include the issue or re-issue of a new VIN plate .

Refer the vehicle to a VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA, Drivesure). They will inspect the vehicle and seek approval from NZTA to issue or re-issue a VIN plate .

Note 2

A valid VIN is a unique number that has been assigned to the vehicle in the vehicle’s country of origin or by a person appointed by the NZTA. It consists of 17 characters that never contain the letters I, O or Q, and that is capable of being decoded to provide identifying information about the vehicle.

Note 3

If the vehicle is failed because the VIN/chassis is missing or unreadable, then 'not found' must be recorded in place of the VIN number on the check sheet.

Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers

Vehicle

Permitted VIN locations

Vehicles that are not forward controlled (passenger cars and off-road passenger vehicles)

  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side of the firewall
  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side adjacent to the front suspension mounting point
  • In a location inside the engine compartment approved by the NZTA for a specified vehicle or vehicle model
  • On the firewall or inner guards so it is visible from the front of the vehicle.

Forward-controlled vehicles
(passenger vans and off-road vehicles)

  • In the passenger compartment, on the top of the right-hand side wheel arch adjacent to the seat cushion
  • In the passenger compartment, on the inner panel of the right-hand A-pillar, adjacent to where the floor meets the A-pillar
  • In the passenger compartment on the B-pillar.

Goods vehicles and light omnibuses

Vehicle with a separate chassis:

  • On the outside of the chassis adjacent to the right front wheel arch,

Vehicle without a separate chassis:

  • As specified for forward-controlled vehicles.

If the vehicle is unfamiliar, and the VIN or chassis number cannot be located, the vehicle inspector should contact the manufacturer’s agent or the local VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA).

Figure 1-1-1. Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency
Pre-29 November 2009

5

Post-29 November 2009

post 09.11.2009

 

Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer
  Car

manufacturer vin car

Truck

manufacturer vin truck

 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 must have a chassis number or VIN.

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 must have a VIN.

Condition

3. A VIN or chassis number must not have been removed, erased, altered, defaced, obscured, destroyed, obliterated or affixed unlawfully, or be unauthorised.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

2 Vehicle exterior

2-1 External projections

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The risk of a component (Note 5) hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, has not been minimised, eg a bonnet or bumper has been removed, exposing sharp, moving or hot components.

2. An ornamental object or fitting (Note 2) protrudes in such a way that it is likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose (Note 3) is not installed so that the risk of causing injury to a person is minimised, eg the object or fitting:

a) is of excessively heavy construction for the purpose for which it has been fitted, or

b) has sharp corners, or

c) slopes forward, unless this is necessary to fit the contours of the vehicle, or

d) has an unnecessarily wide gap between the object or fitting and the front of the vehicle, or

e) exceeds the vehicle’s width by more than 100mm on either side, other than side mounted glass sheet transport racks and collapsible side mirrors, or

f) is a glass sheet transport rack that is not fitted with a front flaring to minimise the risk of injury to a person.

4. A protruding component, object or fitting is not securely attached to the vehicle.

5. A protruding object or fitting adversely affects the driver’s vision or control.

Modifications

6. A modification (Note 4) affects an external projection – including a protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose and affects the driver’s vision or control of the vehicle, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid vehicle certification plate (eg low volume vehicle plate or heavy vehicle certification plate/label), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1

The external projections requirements relate to the design and maintenance of objects and fittings that protrude from the exterior of the motor vehicle with regard to the safety of other motor vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. The attachment of such objects and fittings to the vehicle is addressed in the Vehicle structure section of this manual.

Note 2

Ornamental object or fitting means an object or fitting that does not have a practical purpose, eg bonnet emblems.

Note 3

Functional object or fitting means an object or fitting that has a practical purpose, eg panniers, pack racks, spare wheel carriers, and so on.

Note 4

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 5

Components include damaged, corroded and exposed body panels.

Note 6

The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500kg or less must comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard:

  • Class MA motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 March 1999
  • Class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002
  • Class MB and MC motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 October 2003.
Note 7

Rear bumper removal must still meet external projection requirements.

Table 2-1-1. Modifications that do not require specialist certification

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is not required provided that:

Cosmetic body kits and components
(including utility canopies and plastic bumper skins)

  • the fitting system does not weaken the vehicle structure, and
  • no frontal impact components have been removed where the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)
  • the kit or components do not present any forward-facing external projections, and
  • the performance of any lamps are not affected as a result of the kit or components.

Auxiliary winches

  • the winch either:

– does not protrude forward of the front face of the bumper, or

– does project forward of the bumper line, but is fitted with ‘pedestrian-friendly’ shrouds to reduce trapping risk and present a larger forward-facing surface area.

Side racks (for glass or other sheet materials)

  • there is no doubt as to the rack’s load carrying capacity, and
  • no forward-facing pedestrian traps exist, and
  • the rack is designed and protected so that sharp or dangerous cargo cannot face directly forward projecting beyond the outside of the body.

Front bumper bar (removal and change) (Note 1) (Note 7)

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)

Auxiliary bars (including bull bars, nudge bars, external roll cages and A-frames [or similar])

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6), or
  • the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard and the auxiliary bar:

– is a vehicle manufacturer supplied component for that vehicle, or

– has been certified by the auxiliary bar manufacturer as frontal impact compliant (as may be indicated by a label), or

- is an A-frame that meets all of the following requirements:

- is attached to the chassis by means other than welding, and

- components are fit for purpose, and

- the brackets remaining on the vehicle when the A-frame is removed are recessed behind the forward surface of the bumper by no less than 20mm, and

- the brackets are fitted so that they do not bridge the vehicle’s crumple zones or significantly stiffen the front of the vehicle.

Note that an auxiliary bar that does not meet the above minimum requirements is unlikely to meet LVV requirements and so cannot be certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is never required:

Aerials

  • in-service requirements for conditions and performance must be met.

Engine hood emblems

Engine hood pins

Towbars

Trunk racks

Roof-mounted wheelchair winch

Roof racks (except heavy PSVs)

Additional or substituted rear-view mirrors

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with a protruding ornamental or functional object or fitting.

Condition and performance

2. A protruding ornamental object or fitting must not be likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose must be installed so that the risk of the object or fitting causing injury to a person is minimised.

4. Components of a motor vehicle, including damaged or corroded body panels, must be such that the risk of their hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, is minimised.

5. A protruding object or fitting must not adversely affect driver vision or driver control.

Modifications

6. A modification that affects an external projection must be inspected and certified by a specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

2-2 Dimensions

The vehicle inspector need only inspect dimensions in detail if there is doubt about the vehicle’s compliance.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A rigid vehicle (Note 1) with a GVM of 3501kg or more exceeds the dimension requirements set out in Table 2-2-3 and is not:

a) a specialist overdimension vehicle (Note 2), or

b) a vehicle designed primarily to transport an overdimension load, or

c) a vehicle operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

2. A rigid vehicle that exceeds the dimensions set out in Table 2-2-3 is not fitted with the appropriate hazard warning equipment set out in Table 2-2-4.

3. A required beacon cannot be activated and deactivated.

Note 1

Rigid vehicle means a vehicle with motive power, driver’s position and steering system, that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the chassis of the vehicle to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the chassis of the vehicle; but includes a pivot steer vehicle.

Note 2

Specialist overdimension vehicle means a vehicle of which the primary purpose is to carry out a specialist function that requires overdimension equipment, and is not primarily designed to transport overdimension or overweight loads and the dismantling of the equipment would make it unusable for its intended purpose, or it would take more than four hours to dismantle the equipment. Additional operational requirements may apply, eg if operated at night.

Note 3

High-productivity motor vehicle (HPMV) means a heavy motor vehicle or heavy combination vehicle with or without a load:

a) exceeds a gross mass of 44,000kg, or

b) varies from a dimension requirement in Table 2-2-3, (other than width, height or ground clearance), or

c) both (a) and (b), and

d) operates on an HPMV permit issued by a road controlling authority.

Road controlling authority means the authority, body or person having control of the road (eg the Transport Agency, regional council or an authorized delegate)..

Note 4

An HPMV that does not comply with a dimension requirement in Table 2-2-3 may comply instead with a variation to that requirement as specified on the HPMV permit. The permit must be produced for inspection if required. Any other conditions specified on the permit are not required to be enforced at CoF.

Note 5

A bicycle rack fitted to the front of a vehicle of class MD3, MD4 or ME is not included in determining the overall length or forward distance of the vehicle provided the vehicle complies with the applicable swept path performance measures in section 3.5(2) of the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Dimensions and Mass 2016.

Note 6

A high-productivity motor vehicle is not required to comply with the Hazard warning equipment requirements of Table 2-2-4.

Note 7

Instead of displaying a hazard warning flag or panel, the boom head of a mobile crane may be painted to delineate its excess front overhang, provided that the colour of the paint on the front face of the boom head is either white, yellow or red or a combination of these colours, so that the area on each side of the boom head that is painted covers an area of not less than 0.12 square metres (eg 400mm x 300 mm).

Table 2-2-3. Dimension requirements for heavy rigid vehicles (see Figures 2-2-8 and 2-2-9) and (Note 4) (Note 5)

Dimension

Maximum distance

Comments

Width

2.55m, or

1.275m from each side of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle

Measurement does not include:

  • collapsible mirrors which extend no more than 240mm from the side and 1.49m when measured from the vehicle’s longitudinal centre line
  • direction indicator and side-marker lamps
  • cab exterior grab rails that extend no more than 1.325m when measured from a vehicle’s longitudinal centre-line
  • the bulge towards the bottom of a tyre
  • central tyre inflation system hoses that extend not more than 75mm beyond the outside of the tyre on the drive axles
  • a hubodometer that extends not more than 50mm beyond one side of a vehicle from a non-lifting, non-steering axle whose outer casings are of a light colour, provided the hubodometer is fitted on the axle that causes the least overwidth
  • trolley bus poles and their safety cables
  • cameras or close-proximity monitoring systems mounted on the side exterior of a vehicle that extends not more than 70mm from the side wall of the vehicle
  • devices for improving the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle that extend not more than 25mm from either side of a vehicle.

Overall length

11.5m (tow coupling fitted)

12.6m (no tow coupling fitted)

13.5m (rigid bus with three axles where the rearmost axle is a single-tyred steering axle that is:

a) either positively and continuously linked to the front steer (except may be locked for reverse and high-speed operation); or

b) automatically locked at a speed of 30 km/h in the straight-ahead position and for reverse operations)

18m (articulated bus)

Measurement does not include:

  • collapsible mirrors
  • up to 50mm of any ferry securing point that extends beyond the body of the vehicle.

Height

4.3m

 

Forward distance

8.5m (tow coupling fitted)

9.5m (no tow coupling fitted)

8.5m (for both front and rear sections of an articulated bus)

Forward distance is measured from:

  • the rear axis to the front of a rigid vehicle or front section of an articulated bus
  • the rear axis of the rear section of an articulated bus to the centre of the point of attachment to the front section of the articulated bus.

Measurement does not include collapsible mirrors.

A vehicle with a retractable axle must meet the dimension requirements whether the axle is in contact with the road or in the retracted position.

Rear overhang

4m or 70% of wheelbase (whichever is less) wheelbase where rearmost axle is a non-steering axle

4.25m or 70% of wheelbase (whichever is less) wheelbase where rearmost axle is a steering axle

4.5m or 72% of wheelbase (whichever is less) of a rigid bus that exceeds 12.6 in overall length

4m or 50% of forward distance (whichever is less) of an articulated bus

4m (for a vehicle first registered anywhere before 1 December 1989)

Rear overhang is measured from the rear axis to the rear of the vehicle.

A vehicle with a retractable axle must meet the dimension requirements whether the axle is in contact with the road or in the retracted position.

Ground clearance

The greater of 100mm or 6% of the distance from the nearest axle to the point where the ground clearance is measured

Measurement does not include flexible mudflaps, wheels, tyres or devices designed to discharge static electricity.

Front overhang

3m

Front overhang is measured from the front edge of the driver’s seat in the rearmost position to the front of the vehicle.

Articulated vehicle point of attachment

No further rearward than centre of rear axle (where rear axle set consists of only one axle)

No further than 300mm rearward of rear axis (where rear axle set consists of more than one axle)

Does not apply to articulated buses.

Tow coupling position (articulated bus only)

45% of wheelbase of the leading unit

The tow coupling position is the distance rearward from the vehicle’s rear axis to the centre of the tow coupling.

Turning circle

25m outside diameter

10.6m inside diameter (articulated bus only)

The vehicle must complete a 360-degree turn in either direction.

No part of the vehicle (other than collapsible mirrors) must extend beyond the outside diameter or into the inside diameter.

Table 2-2-4. Hazard warning equipment requirements for vehicles that exceed the dimensions in Table 2-2-3 (see Figure 2-2-3 for vehicle category thresholds) (Note 6)

Vehicle category
(see Figure 2-2-3)

Dimension

Limits
(up to and including)

Required hazard warning equipment

Category 1

Width/forward distance

2.55m /11.4m, or

3.1m/10.5m, or

3.7m/8.5m, or

1. Flags1 or panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge (for alternative requirements for a mobile crane see (Note 7))
2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear if more than 3.1m wide
Length 25m, or
Front overhang 7m, or
Rear overhang 7m

Category 2 (not including category 1)

Width/forward distance

2.55m /13.3m, or

4.5m/8.5m, or

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge (for alternative requirements for a mobile crane see (Note 7))

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear if more than 3.1m wide

3. Amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Length 35m, or
Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m

Category 3 (not including category 2)

Width/forward distance

2.55m /20m

5m/20m

5m/8.5m

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge (for alternative requirements for a mobile crane see (Note 7))

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m

Category 4A (not including category 3)

Width/forward distance

11m/20m

11m/8.5m

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge (for alternative requirements for a mobile crane see (Note 7))

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

Front overhang 10m, or
Rear overhang 10m
Category 4BExceeding any limit in Category 4A

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear as close as practical to the outside edge

2. OVERSIZE sign3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

1. Panels2 fitted on each side at the front and rear  as close as practical to the outside edge  (for alternative requirements for a mobile crane see (Note 7))

2. OVERSIZE sign 3 fitted at the front and rear

3. Revolving amber beacon fitted so that it is visible to approaching traffic if the vehicle is more than 3.7m wide

1 Flags:

  • must be fluorescent yellow
  • must be at least 400mm long x 300mm wide.

2 Hazard warning panels:

  • must be reflective yellow-green with a reflective orange diagonal stripe
  • comply with AS/NZS 1906.1:2007
  • be frangible for those portions which extend beyond the vehicle’s limits (frangible means breakable or readily deformable)
  • must be of at least the minimum dimensions and the colours specified in Figure 2-2-5.

3 OVERSIZE sign:

  • must be black lettering on a yellow-green background
  • must be at least 300mm x 1100mm in size
  • may be in two parts: OVER and SIZE.
Figure 2-2-1. Hazard panel details

Hazard panels

Figure 2-2-2. Hazard panel location and orientation

5

Figure 2-2-3. Vehicle categories and width/forward distance thresholds

vehicle dimensions

For the purposes of this figure, vehicles with a width less than 2.55m are deemed to have a width of 2.55m and vehicles with a forward distance of less than 8.5m are deemed to have a forward distance of 8.5m.

Figure 2-2-4. Dimensions for rigid heavy vehicles

(Note: Red text indicates a dimension change in VDAM 2016)

Fig 2-2-8

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A rigid vehicle, or an articulated bus, with a GVM of 3501kg or more that exceeds the dimensions in Table 2-2-3 must meet the requirements in Table 2‑2‑4.

2. A vehicle may exceed the dimensions in Table 2-2-3 only if it is a vehicle operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

Page amended 1 February 2017 (see amendment details).

2-3 Heavy vehicle equipment

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. An outrigger fitted to a vehicle does not have a locking device to prevent its inadvertent extension or separation .

2. The A vehicle recovery service hook truck or stinger-lift truck does not have its manufacturer’s stated lifting capacity clearly displayed, in kilograms, at the rear of the vehicle in letters and figures not less than 30mm high, rounded to the nearest 50kg

Condition and performance

3. A vehicle of class NB or class NC that is fitted with a swivelling (or knuckle boom) crane for loading the vehicle or a trailer towed by the vehicle does not have either:

a) a locking device fitted to each outrigger that is able to be seen in a locked position when an outrigger is retracted, or

b) a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if an outrigger is not in the fully retracted position (Note 2).

4. An outrigger locking device is bent, worn or otherwise damaged or deteriorated so that it is not effective.

5. An outrigger locking device does not lock the outrigger in its retracted position.

Note 1 Definitions

Outrigger means, in relation to a vehicle fitted with a crane or a hoist, a device fitted to the vehicle that extends and stabilises the vehicle while the crane or hoist is in use.

Hook truck means a vehicle recovery service vehicle with a crane hoist that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Stinger-lift truck means a recovery service vehicle with an arm that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Vehicle recovery service vehicle means a vehicle used in a vehicle recovery service for towing or transporting on a road any motor vehicle; does not include a vehicle that is not designed or adapted for the purpose of towing or carrying motor vehicles.

Lifting gear means, in relation to a vehicle recovery service vehicle, any equipment used to lift another vehicle, and includes a towing connection.

Note 2

An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position, and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ positionP>

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. An outrigger fitted to a vehicle must have a locking device to prevent its inadvertent extension or separation.

2. The manufacturer’s stated lifting capacity of a hook truck or stinger-lift truck must be clearly displayed, in kilograms, at the rear of the vehicle in letters and figures not less than 30 mm high, rounded to the nearest 50kg.

Condition and performance

3. A vehicle of class NB or class NC that is fitted with a swivelling (or knuckle boom) crane for loading the vehicle or a trailer towed by the vehicle must be:

a) fitted with a locking device to each outrigger that is able to be seen in a locked position when an outrigger is retracted, or

b) equipped with a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if an outrigger is not in the fully retracted position.

4. An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position, and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position.

5. An outrigger locking device must be effective.

3 Vehicle structure

3-1 Structure

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A sliding chassis is not fitted with both:

a) a locking device to prevent inadvertent extension or separation, and

b) end stops at the end of the slideway to prevent separation of the sliding parts if the primary locking device fails.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

3. The chassis (Note 1), body or other load-bearing structure of a vehicle, including a cab or a monocoque construction body, has damage so that the vehicle is no longer of adequate strength for all conditions of loading and operation for which the vehicle was constructed, such as:

a) deformation from original shape that has affected the vehicle’s structural integrity, or

b) cracking, or

c) significant corrosion or delamination, or

d) significant rust heave that exceeds the limits in (Figure 3-1-3), or

e) poor repairs that have not returned the structure to within safe tolerance of when it was manufactured, eg:

i. filler has been used to conceal corrosion damage or deformation of a component

ii. a high-strength steel component has been heated

iii. a component has been strengthened.

f) loose, broken or missing fasteners or rivets, or

g) damage that affects the integrity, operation or mounting of the following components:

i. steering and suspension system, or

ii. load anchorages

iii. seat or seatbelt anchorages, or

iv. brake system, or

v. mandatory lighting equipment, or

vi. towing connections, or

vii. transmission, or

viii. cab or vehicle body.

4. A body-to-chassis attachment, such as a weld, fastener, hinge, body guide or locking device, is:

a) missing, or

b) loose, or

c) broken, or

d) cracked, or

e) otherwise in poor condition.

5. A tipping body hinge, body guide or locking device has deteriorated so that it is not effective in securing the body to the chassis.

6. The locking of a sliding chassis locking device is either:

a) not readily verifiable by visual inspection, or

b) the vehicle is not equipped with a visible or audible alarm to warn the driver if the chassis is not locked in one of the locking positions (Note 5).

7. A sliding chassis locking device has wear or damage, such as a worn or bent pin, so that it is not effective.

8. A sliding chassis locking device does not operate correctly.

9. A sliding chassis end stop is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged.

10. A bin securing device does not operate correctly.

Modification and repair

11. A modification or repair affects the vehicle structure and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 3-1-2), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from a HVS certifier of category HVEC, or HMCD has been presented.

Note 1 Definitions

Chassis means the structural lower part of a vehicle to which the running gear and, as applicable, engine, transmission, steering system and body may be attached.

Chassis assembly means a chassis with running gear attached and, as applicable, engine, transmission and steering system attached.

Body means the part of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants or to hold any goods.

Note 2

Rust stains can indicate fretting or movement between two components, eg as a result of loose fasteners or cracking.

Note 3

Chassis cracking is most likely to occur in the following areas:

  • abrupt changes in chassis section
  • adjacent to welds
  • body mounting points
  • adjacent to loose fasteners
  • notches.
Note 4

Corrosion is most likely to occur in areas where moisture is retained, or when the vehicle is used to carry stock, fertiliser or corrosive cargo.

Note 5

An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position, and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position.

Table 3-1-2. Requirements for HVS certification

HVS certification is required

HVS certification is not required

1. Repairs to a structural component of a monocoque body.

2. Repairs to a chassis cross-member, ie:

a) the first or last cross-member of the chassis

b) a cross-member that is fitted within 500mm of an engine mount, transmission mount, or suspension support

c) a cross-member to which a driveshaft centre bearing is fitted

d) a cross-member that supports any of the following:

i. ballrace turntable

ii. tow coupling

iii. fifth wheel

iv. kingpin

v. bolster attachment

vi. hoist, hydraulic cylinder of a tipping body or any other device that may place a concentrated load on the chassis.

3. Repairs to a coaming rail that supports a certified load anchorage point or J-hook, or that secures a load-rated curtain.

4.Modifications carried out on or after 1 April 2005 that may result in increased stress to a localised area of the chassis or significant redistribution of the load over the chassis (eg fitting of a hoist, crane, tipping body or other special equipment, etc.).

For modifications carried out before 1 April 2005 it is up to the vehicle inspector to determine if certification is required. Individual certification is only required when the vehicle inspector determines, on reasonable grounds, that the component presents a safety risk.

5. Modification to structural reinforcements of the cab/body likely to affect occupant protection (eg cut-outs through pillars, roof rails, reinforcements (not merely stiffeners), etc) for modifications such as campervan, crewcab, truck/bus conversions.

1. Repairs to a non-structural component of a monocoque body (eg a body panel).

2. Repairs to a first failure of a chassis cross-member except a repair listed in the left-hand column.

3. Repairs to a coaming rail that does not support a load anchorage point (including a stock crate J-hook) or that does not secure a load-rated curtain.

4. Any modification or repair likely to have been carried out before 1 January 1997 (modifications and repairs before this date generally required certification but for inspection purposes no evidence of this is required).

5. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed).

6. Any Japanese-market imported used 4x2 (or 4x4) vehicle that has had its tipper body or tail lift mounted as original equipment does not require HVS certification, provided the vehicle inspector is satisfied that the vehicle was registered in Japan in that configuration. This applies to all makes of vehicles. The vehicle and body should be free from damage, repairs or modifications when presented (Note 6).

7. There is evidence of certification of the modification from the company that carried out the modification (ie a statement of compliance or a second stage certification plate or label). See Technical bulletin 13: Acceptable overseas proof of modification.

Note 6

Some new trucks imported from Japan fitted with tipper bodies in Japan can be accepted without an LT400. See Technical bulletin (CoF) 8 for a list of the makes and models that can be accepted without an LT400.

Figure 3-1-3. Rust heave limits

rust heave limits

Rust heave beyond the limits described above is acceptable only if an HVS certifier has confirmed this in writing. The vehicle may continue without repair until an expiry date specified by the HVS certifier. Where no expiry date is specified the vehicle must be referred to an HVS certifier for another assessment at the next CoF inspection.

Regardless of any expiry date, an inspector may refer the vehicle to an HVS certifier if he/she suspects that the safety of the vehicle is compromised, eg due to excessive corrosion or chassis cracking. If the chassis is repaired, an LT400 is required.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A sliding chassis must be fitted with:

a) a locking device to prevent inadvertent extension or separation, and

b) endstops at the end of the slideway to prevent separation of the sliding parts if the primary locking device fails.

2. The body of a vehicle such as a tank body for transporting bulk liquid, a tipping body for transporting sand, grain or other bulk goods, or other types of body that are constructed to contain the transported goods without the use of lashings, chains or other devices, must be specifically designed to contain that type and size of load.

Condition and performance

3. The following must be of adequate strength for all conditions of loading and operation for which the vehicle was constructed:

a) the chassis and body of the vehicle

b) the body of a vehicle of monocoque construction

c) any other load-bearing structure.

4. The locking of a sliding chassis locking device must be readily verifiable by visual inspection or the vehicle must be equipped with a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if the chassis is not in one of the locking positions.

5. An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position, and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position.

6. A sliding chassis locking device must be effective.

7. If a sliding chassis locking device incorporates a system that provides energy for its operation, the device must remain fully engaged in the locked position, or the locking action must be initiated immediately, if the energising system fails.

8. Load-securing equipment that is fitted to a vehicle must be constructed to ensure that the load can be securely contained on the vehicle under all conditions of loading and operation for which the vehicle was constructed.

Modification and repair

9. A modification or repair that affects the vehicle structure must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for HVS certification (Table 3-1-2), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4 Lighting


4-1 Headlamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is not fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with more than:

a) one pair of dipped-beam headlamps (Note 10) , or

b) two pairs of dipped-beam headlamps if the vehicle was first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

c) two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with a headlamp that is not in a pair.

4. A vehicle of class LE is not fitted with one dipped-beam headlamp.

5. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than:

a) two dipped-beam headlamps, or

b) two main-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard headlamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

7. A device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately is fitted to a vehicle that is not an emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle.

8. A vehicle is fitted with a dipped-beam headlamp where the maximum intensity of the beam is projected to the right.

Condition (Note 5)

9. A lamp is insecure, obscured, or contains dirt or moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

10. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

11. A lens or reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

12. A main-beam headlamp warning device is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

13. When switched on, a headlamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 8) or other incorrect light source.

14. When the dipped-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on dipped beam, or

c) more than four lamps operate on dipped beam on a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

d) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused, or is reduced or altered, or

e) the centreline of the light beam is too far to the left or slopes down too far so that the headlamp is no longer capable of illuminating the road at least 50m ahead (Figure 4-1-2), or

f) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or projects from the lamp at an angle other than:

i. as specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or

ii. as specified in Table 4-1-1.

15. When the main-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on main beam on a class LE vehicle, or

c) more than four lamps operate on main beam on a vehicle of group M or N, or

d) a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 has a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that continue to operate, or

e) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline or up from the horizontal, or

f) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused or is reduced or altered, or

g) the lamps are not capable of being switched to dipped beam or turned off from the driver’s seating position, or

h) a main-beam headlamp warning device does not indicate to the driver that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

16. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash alternately:

a) does not indicate to the driver that the device is activated, or

b) flashes:

i. faster than two flashes per second, or

ii. slower than one flash per second, or

iii. at a varying frequency.

17. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs) fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

18. A headlamp is retrofitted with a type of light source other than that specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer (eg a headlamp designed for a halogen bulb is fitted with any other type of light source such as an HID or LED bulb, or any other light source such as LED strips or non-OEM angel eyes) (Note 8).

19. Retrofitted headlamps are not fitted:

a) as a pair, or

b) symmetrically, or

c) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

20. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less is positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m from the ground (Note 9).

Note 1

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 2

If the dipped-beam headlamps are able to be adjusted from the driver’s seating position, the alignment must be checked with the adjustment at its highest position.

Note 3

If the vehicle is fitted with self-levelling suspension, the alignment must be checked with the suspension at its normal level.

Note 4 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Headlamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is a:

a) dipped-beam headlamp (single lamp), or

b) main-beam (high-beam) headlamp (single lamp), and includes a driving lamp, or

c) combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp (dual-lamp unit).

Dipped-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to emit a dipped beam, which is a beam of light that is angled downwards in such a way that it prevents undue dazzle or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.

Main-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of the vehicle.

Note 5

If a headlamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the headlamp.

Note 6

A vehicle originally manufactured with a headlamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original headlamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 7

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 8

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing.

It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified.

It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID or LED headlamp unit. If the vehicle is required to meet an approved safety standard for headlamps, only approved headlamps can be retrofitted (see Figure 4-1-1).

Note 9

The dipped-beam headlamps may be positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m if a road maintenance implement (eg, snowplough or roadsweeper) fitted to the front of the vehicle would obscure headlamps placed at a height of 1.2m or less.

Note 10

It is acceptable for a pair of dipped-beam headlamps to consist of one symmetric and one asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp. However, in some cases this may result in one lamp being noticeably brighter than the other lamp in the pair. In that case, the vehicle inspector may determine that the dipped beams differ noticeably in light intensity, and the lamps fail the inspection. Note that a beamsetter’s luxmeter cannot measure the light intensity of a dipped beam headlamp.

Table 4-1-1. Allowable dipped-beam headlamp alignment

Headlamp type

Distance from ground to centre of light source

Dip rate of beam centre:
lower and upper limits

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

EITHER

Any headlamp dipped beam

N/A

That specified by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer

OR

Headlamp with symmetric dipped-beam pattern

N/A

3.0–3.5

90–105

1.7–2.0

OR

Headlamp with asymmetric dipped-beam pattern and distance from ground to centre of light source

less than 0.8 m

1.0–1.5

30–45

0.57–0.85

0.8–1.2 m

1.0–2.0

30–60

0.57–1.15

more than 1.2 m

2.0–2.5

60–75

1.15–1.43

Table 4-1-2. Dipped-beam angle conversions

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

1.0

30

0.6

2.3

69

1.3

1.1

33

0.6

2.4

72

1.4

1.2

36

0.7

2.5

75

1.4

1.3

39

0.7

2.6

78

1.5

1.4

42

0.8

2.7

81

1.5

1.5

45

0.9

2.8

84

1.6

1.6

48

0.9

2.9

87

1.7

1.7

51

1.0

3.0

90

1.7

1.8

54

1.0

3.1

93

1.8

1.9

57

1.1

3.2

96

1.8

2.0

60

1.1

3.3

99

1.9

2.1

63

1.2

3.4

102

1.9

2.2

66

1.3

3.5

105

2.0

Figure 4-1-1. Approved headlamp standard markings

The following standard markings may assist in determining compliance with approved standards.

Vehicles required to comply with an approved headlamp standard are:

  • vehicles of class MA and NA manufactured on or after 1 January 1992
  • vehicles of class MB, MC, MD1, MD2, MD3, MD4, ME, NB and NC manufactured on or after 1 January 1996.
Figure 4-1-2. Minimum illuminated area

dipped beam angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one or two dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 may be fitted with a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that:

a) do not operate when the main-beam headlamps are switched on, and

b) may operate independently of the first pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

4. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

5. A vehicle required to meet an approved safety standard for lighting must continue to meet an approved safety standard for lighting.

6. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less must be fitted at a height not exceeding 1.2 m from the ground (Note 9).

7. A warning device may be fitted that indicates that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

8. An emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle may be fitted with a device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately, provided it is also fitted with equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

9. A retrofitted pair of headlamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Prohibited equipment

10. A dipped-beam headlamp designed solely for a left-hand drive vehicle, where the maximum intensity of the beam is dispersed to the right, must not be fitted.

Condition (Note 5)

11. A headlamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured.

Performance

12. A headlamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

13. A headlamp must emit a steady light.

14. A headlamp must provide sufficient illumination and light output to illuminate the road ahead.

15. If fitted with a device that allows headlamps to flash alternately, the lamps must flash at a fixed frequency.

16. A pair of headlamps must emit light that is approximately of equal colour and intensity when switched on.

17. A headlamp must emit a beam that is substantially white or amber.

18. A main-beam headlamp must be capable of being dipped or turned off from the driver’s position.

19. A warning device that indicates that the main-beam lamps are in operation must be in good working order.

20. When the headlamps are switched on and the vehicle’s front wheels are pointing in the straight-ahead position:

a) the centre of a headlamp beam must be either parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle, and

b) the centre of a main-beam headlamp beam must be either parallel to or dipping down from the horizontal, and

c) the centre of a dipped-beam headlamp beam must dip at an angle specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or:

i. 3–3.5% for a symmetric beam pattern, or

ii. 1–1.5% for an asymmetic beam pattern where the centre of the light source is less than 0.8 m from the ground, or

iii. 1–2% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is 0.8–1.2 m from the ground, or

iv. 2–2.5% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is above 1.2 m from the ground.

21. The dipped-beam headlamps must illuminate the road ahead for 50 m in normal darkness.

22. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

23. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash must:

a) make the headlamps flash alternately at a frequency of 1–2 Hertz, and

b) incorporate equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

24. A headlamp must be fitted with a light source that is specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer.

Modifications (Note 4)

25. A headlamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-2 Front and rear fog lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one front fog lamp, or

b) more than one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two front fog lamps.

3. A vehicle is fitted with more than two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps is not fitted:

a) symmetrically, or

b) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable, or

c) positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

Condition (Note 3)

5. A lamp is insecure or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles .

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

8. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

9. When switched on, a front fog lamp does not operate (Note 5).

10. When switched on, a front fog lamp emits light that:

a) is not projected to the front, or

b) produces an incorrect beam pattern (Figure 4-2-1), or

c) is not substantially white or amber to the front, or

d) is not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

e) is not steady, or

f) is not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

g) is too bright, and could dazzle other road users, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 6) or an incorrect , or

h) is altered, eg due to damage or modification, or

i) has a beam centre to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or

j) has a beam that is not permanently dipped, or

k) has a beam centre that dips at an angle of less than 3% (Figure 4-2-1).

11. When switched on, a rear fog lamp emits light that is:

a) not projected to the rear, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not substantially red, or

d) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) of variable intensity, or

f) not bright enough to indicate the presence of the vehicle from the rear in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

12. A fog lamp cannot be switched off from the driver’s seating position.

13. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

14. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, does not operate.

Note 1

Fog lamp means a high-intensity front or rear lamp designed to aid the driver or other road users in conditions of severely reduced visibility, including fog or snow, but not including clear atmospheric conditions under the hours of darkness.

Note 2

A rear fog lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

If a front fog lamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the fog lamp.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a front- or rear-fog-lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original front or rear fog lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 5

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply, be removed from the vehicle, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 6

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing. It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified. It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID headlamp unit.

Figure 4-2-1. Front fog lamp characteristics

front fog lamp characteristics

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE: one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE: one or two front fog lamps.

3. One or two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far as is practicable towards each side of the vehicle.

5. A retrofitted front fog lamp must not be positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle may be fitted with a warning device that indicates that a front or rear fog lamp is in operation.

Condition

7. A front fog lamp must be in sound condition.

8. A rear fog lamp must be in sound condition if it emits a light.

Performance

9. A fog lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

10. A fog lamp must emit a steady light.

11. A front fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

12. A rear fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate the presence of the vehicle on the road in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

13. The light emitted from a front fog lamp must be substantially white or amber.

14. The light emitted from a rear fog lamp must be diffuse and substantially red in colour.

15. A pair of fog lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

16. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle.

17. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be permanently dipped at an angle of at least 3%.

18. A fog lamp must be able to be turned off from the driver’s seating position.

19. A front or rear fog lamp warning device must be in good working order.

20. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

22. A fog lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-3 Cornering lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps, or

c) a lamp that either:

i. was not originally fitted by the vehicle manufacturer, or

ii. is not fitted in the original position.

Condition

2. A lamp is insecure.

3. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

4. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

5. When activated by switching on the direction indicator lamp or by turning the steering wheel, a cornering lamp:

a) does not operate, or

b) does not project in the direction of the turn.

6. A cornering lamp emits light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright causing dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source or misalignment, or

f) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

7. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1

Cornering lamp means a lamp designed to emit light at the front of a vehicle to supplement the vehicle’s headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

Note 2

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a cornering lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original cornering lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 4

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One pair of cornering lamps fitted as OE.

Condition

2. A cornering lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

3. A cornering lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A cornering lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

5. A pair of cornering lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

6. A cornering lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A cornering lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

8. A cornering lamp must be correctly aligned.

9. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. A cornering lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-4 Daytime running lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two lamps.

3. A lamp is fitted in a position other than at the front of the vehicle.

4. A retrofitted lamp is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

5. A lamp is insecure.

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

8. When switched on, a daytime running lamp does not operate (Note 4).

9. When switched on, a daytime running lamp emits light that is:

a) projected in a direction other than to the front, or

b) not substantially white or amber, or

c) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

d) not steady, or

e) not bright enough to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

f) too bright, causing significant dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

10. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources, fewer than 75% of these operate.

11. A daytime running lamp continues to operate when the headlamps or fog lamps are switched on.

Note 1

Daytime running lamp means a lamp designed to emit a low-intensity light forward of a vehicle to make it more easily seen in the daytime.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a daytime running lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original daytime running lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 3

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 4

Some vehicles are equipped with OE or after-market daytime running lamps (DRLs) that also incorporate position lamp and direction indicator lamp functions. When the DRLs are on (when headlamps are off), and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding DRL is temporarily extinguished or dimmed. When the position lamps are on and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding position lamp may remain lit.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE may have: one pair of daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

2. A vehicle of class LE may have one or two daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

3. A retrofitted lamp must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

4. A daytime running lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

5. A daytime running lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A daytime running lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

7. A pair of daytime running lamps must emit light that is of approximately equal colour and intensity.

8. A daytime running lamp must emit a steady light.

9. A daytime running lamp must provide sufficient light output to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime.

10. A daytime running lamp must be correctly aligned.

11. A daytime running lamp must not operate when a front fog lamp or a headlamp is in use.

12. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A daytime running lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-5 Direction indicator lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, or NC first registered on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 9.2m in length:

a) is not fitted with one side-facing direction indicator lamp on each side, at or near the front of the vehicle, or

b) is fitted with more than two side-facing direction indicator lamps on either side.

3. A retrofitted side-facing direction indicator lamp is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

4. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted symmetrically as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

5. A pair of forward-facing or rearward-facing direction indicator lamps (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practical due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practical due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

6. A heavy vehicle is fitted with top-mounted lamps at the front of the vehicle.

Condition

7. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

8. Refer to general vehicle pages.

9. A mandatory side-facing direction indicator lamp is not visible from the side of the vehicle (Figure 4-5-2):

a) through an angle of 60° above and below a horizontal plane passing through the lamp, or

b) at least between an angle of 30° and 80° rearward of a vertical plane that is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle and passing through the lamp.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Direction indicator lamp means a lamp designed to emit a flashing light to signal the intention of the driver to change the direction of the vehicle to the right or to the left.

Note 2

A permitted (ie non-mandatory) rear or a non-OE side-facing direction indicator lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 may have rear direction indicator lamps that also function as reversing lamps.

Note 5

A vehicle originally manufactured with a direction indicator lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original direction indicator lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Note 6

A forward-facing permitted direction indicator lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Figure 4-5-2. Required angles for side-facing direction indicator lamps

required angles side facing 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, or NC first registered on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 9.2m in length must be fitted with one or two side-facing direction indicator lamps on each side, at or near the front of the vehicle.

3. A retrofitted side-facing direction indicator lamp must be mounted at a height not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

4. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of direction indicator lamps at the rear of the vehicle that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

5. Forward-facing or rearward-facing direction indicator lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

6. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

7. Refer to general vehicle pages.

8. A mandatory side-facing direction indicator must be visible from the side of the vehicle:

a) through an angle of 60° above and below the horizontal plane passing through the lamp, and

b) at least between an angle of 30° and 80° rearward of a vertical plane that is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle and passing through the lamp.

Modifications

9. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-6 Forward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the front with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1

The following total numbers of position lamps may generally be fitted to the front or rear of a vehicle:

Front of vehicle:

a) one pair of forward-facing position lamps below 1.5 m (usually the OE lamps)

b) one pair of forward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) two cab roof lamps

d) 10 end-outline marker lamps fitted elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle or on the cab roof (for vehicles first
registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 there is no restriction on the number of forward-facing end-outline marker lamps that may be fitted).

Rear of vehicle:

a) two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps, one pair below 1.5 m and a second pair below 2.1 m, fitted symmetrically as
far as possible towards the extremities

b) one pair of rearward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) six end-outline marker lamps elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle.

Note 2 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 3

A permitted forward-facing position lamp, fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005, that does not comply with condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other permitted forward-facing position lamps that do not comply with requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 4

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 5

A vehicle originally manufactured with a position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of forward-facing position lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

Condition

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-7 Rearward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

3. A rearward-facing position lamp (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one or one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted rearward-facing position lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of rearward-facing position lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

2. Rearward-facing position lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one lamp or one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-8 Side-marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A side-marker lamp is not positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

2. A lamp is insecure.

3. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

4. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

5. When switched on, a side-marker lamp emits a light that:

a) is not substantially white or amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured before January 2006), or

b) is not substantially amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured on or after January 2006), or

c) is not substantially red or amber to the rear, or

d) is not diffuse, or

e) is not approximately of the same colour and intensity on each side of the vehicle, or

f) does not remain steadily illuminated, or

g) is not bright enough to produce light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source.

6. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

7. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Note 1 Definitions

Side-marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted to the side of a vehicle or its load.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted side-marker lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Figure 4-8-1. Visibility angles for side-marker lamps

visibility angles side marker lamps 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with one or more side-marker lamps.

2. A side-marker lamp must be positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

3. A side-marker lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

4. A side-marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

5. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured before January 2006), or

c) substantially amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured on or after January 2006), or

d) substantially red or amber to the rear.

6. A lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A side-marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

8. A side-marker lamp must emit a light that is visible from a distance of 100m in daylight and 200m during the hours of darkness.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

4-9 End-outline marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory, permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A vehicle listed in Table 4-9-1:

a) is not fitted with the lamps required in Table 4-9-1, or

b) is fitted with lamps that exceed the numbers permitted in Table 4-9-1.

2. A vehicle not listed in Table 4-9-1 is fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

3. An end-outline marker lamp is not positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions, that is lamps, other than cab roof lamps, are fitted other than around the outline of the vehicle (Note 2).

Condition

4. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, obscured.

5. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

6. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

7. When switched on, a mandatory or a forward-facing end-outline marker lamp does not operate (Note 3).

8. When switched on, an end-outline marker lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber to the front, or

b) not substantially red to the rear, or

c) not diffuse, or

d) not projected to the front or rear, or

e) not approximately of the same colour or intensity as the other lamp if fitted in a pair, or

f) not steady, or

g) not bright enough to indicate the presence and dimensions of the vehicle to other road users.

9. A mandatory cab roof lamp is not bright enough to produce light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source.

10. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1

For vehicles manufactured before 1/5/2011, the following total numbers of position lamps may generally be fitted to the front or rear of a vehicle:

Front of vehicle:

a) one pair of forward-facing position lamps below 1.5m (usually the OE lamps)

b) one pair of forward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) two cab roof lamps

d) 10 end-outline marker lamps fitted elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle or on the cab roof (for vehicles first
registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 there is no restriction on the number of forward-facing end-outline
marker lamps that may be fitted).

Rear of vehicle:

a) two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps, one pair below 1.5m and a second pair below 2.1m, fitted symmetrically as
far as possible towards the extremities

b) one pair of rearward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) six end-outline marker lamps elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle.

Note 2 Definitions

End-outline marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of the vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps, and includes a cab roof lamp.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate the presence and dimensions of a vehicle to other road users, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side or park lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 3

A rearward-facing end-outline marker lamp, or a forward-facing end-outline marker lamp fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005, that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements, must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other permitted forward-facing end-outline marker lamps must be made to comply or be fully removed from the vehicle.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with an end-outline marker lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original end-outline marker lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. Lamps visible from the front and from the rear on the same side of the vehicle may be combined into one device.

Note 5

Vehicle manufacturer means the original vehicle manufacturer and the final stage manufacturer in the case of certain modified vehicles (see Technical bulletin 13:  Acceptable overseas proof of modification).

Table 4-9-1. Fitting requirements for end-outline marker lamps

If the vehicle was:

Row

Characteristics of the heavy vehicle

Front

Rear

Mandatory lamps1,4

Maximum permitted lamps2

Maximum permitted lamps2

Vehicle manufactured before 1/4/20113

A

  • A vehicle with a GVM exceeding 11,300 kg
  • A vehicle with a towing connection where the vehicle combination is likely to have a total length exceeding 9.2m

2

12

(No Limit if first registered before 27/2/2005)

6

B

A vehicle with an overall width of 1.8 m or more (other than a vehicle in row A)

Not required

6

4

Vehicle manufactured from 1/4/2011

C

A vehicle with an overall width exceeding 2.1m and with a GVM or GCM exceeding 12,000kg

2

12

6

D

A vehicle with an overall width exceeding 2.1m (other than a vehicle in row C)

2

6

4

E

A vehicle with an overall width of 1.8 m or more (other than a vehicle in row C or D).

Not required

6

4

1 Vehicles in Table 4-9-2 are not required to be fitted with mandatory lamps.

2 Maximum permitted lamps are the maximum number of lamps allowed to be fitted, including mandatory lamps.

3 A vehicle manufactured before 1/4/2011 also has the option of complying with the requirements applicable to vehicles manufactured from 1/4/2011.

4 Mandatory lamps must be positioned at a height no lower than the top edge of the windscreen.

Table 4-9-2. Vehicles exempt from mandatory cab roof requirements

A vehicle fitted with a waste collection unit that incorporates front-loading container handling equipment and a cab protection shield, and which operates predominantly within 50km/h speed limit zones during daylight hours only.

A PSV used exclusively on urban routes.

A vehicle designed principally for carrying ready-mix concrete no more than 9.2m in length, and which operates predominantly in 50km/h speed limit zones.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory, permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A vehicle listed in Table 4-9-1 must or may be fitted with end-outline marker lamps as specified in the table.

2. A vehicle not listed in Table 4-9-1 must not be fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

3. An end-outline marker lamp must be positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

4. An end-outline marker lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

5. An end-outline marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front, and

c) substantially red to the rear.

7. A lamp must emit a steady light.

8. An end-outline marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

9. A mandatory cab roof lamp must emit a light that is visible from a distance of 100m in daylight and 200m during the hours of darkness.

10. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

11. An end-outline marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-10 Stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

3. A stop lamp (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one or one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment. Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is applied.

Note 2

A permitted stop lamp that does not comply with condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by a body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of stop lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

2. Stop lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one lamp or one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-11 High-mounted stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 is not fitted with one high-mounted stop lamp.

2. A vehicle is fitted with more than two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp is not fitted in a central high-mounted position.

4. A lamp fitted to a group M or N vehicle, except one that does not have a rear window, or that does not have a rear window visible from the rear, has an illuminated surface that is lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard stop lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Condition

6. A lamp is insecure.

7. A mandatory lamp (Note 2) is obscured, or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

8. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

9. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

10. When the service brake is activated:

a) a mandatory (Note 2) lamp does not operate, or

b) a lamp does not remain steadily illuminated.

11. A lamp operates when the service brake is not activated.

12. A lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially red, or

b) diffuse, or

c) projected to the rear, or

d) bright enough to be visible from 100m in normal daylight, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source

13. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

High-mounted stop lamp means a stop lamp that is designed to be fitted in a central, high-mounted position at the rear of a vehicle.

Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is activated.

Note 2

Mandatory lamp – the vehicle must have one high-mounted stop lamp that meets the equipment, condition and performance requirements. Any other high-mounted stop lamp is a permitted lamp. The permitted lamp is not required to operate, but if it does operate, it must meet the equipment, condition and performance requirements, although it may be obscured.

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a high-mounted stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original high-mounted stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 must be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

2. Any other vehicle may be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp on a group M or N vehicle must be fitted in a central high-mounted position at the rear of the vehicle.

4. No part of a lamp’s illuminated surface must be lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window, except where there is no rear window fitted or visible from behind the vehicle.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Condition

6. A high-mounted stop lamp must be in good condition.

7. At least one high-mounted stop lamp must not be obscured.

Performance

8. A high-mounted stop lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

9. The light emitted from a high-mounted stop lamp must be diffuse light that is substantially red.

10. A high-mounted stop lamp must emit a steady light.

11. At least one unobscured lamp must operate when the vehicle’s service brakes are activated.

12. Where a high-mounted stop lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A high-mounted stop lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-12 Rear-reg.-plate illumination lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle is not fitted with at least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard rear-registration-plate illumination lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Performance

3. The lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially white, or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse.

4. The lamps are not bright enough to show up the registration plate text from 20m in normal darkness.

5. The light source of a lamp is visible from the rear of the vehicle.

Note 1 Definitions

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the rear registration plate of a vehicle.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rear-registration-plate illumination lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rear-registration-plate illumination lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. At least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Performance

3. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A lamp must emit a diffuse light that is substantially white.

5. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must emit a steady light.

6. The light source of the lamp must not be visible from the rear of the vehicle.

7. A lamp must illuminate the figures and letters of the plate so that they are visible from 20m during normal darkness.

8. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

4-13 Rear-reflectors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A rearward-facing reflector fitted to a class NB or NC vehicle:

a) does not have an area of at least 30cm2, or

b) is not fitted within 150mm on the right and left extremities of the vehicle.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. A rearward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than red light (this does not apply to reflective material such as conspicuity/reflective tape).

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Figure 4-13-1. Reflector vs reflective material

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A rearward-facing reflector fitted to a class NB or NC vehicle must have an area of at least 30 cm2 and be fitted within 150mm on the right and left extremities of the vehicle.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-14 Reversing lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment (Note 2)

1. A vehicle is fitted with more than two reversing lamps at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition (Note 2)

3. A lamp is insecure.

4. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

5. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance (Note 2)

6. A lamp controlled by gear engagement continues to display a light to the rear when the reverse gear is disengaged.

7. A lamp controlled by a manual switch continues to display a light to the rear while the headlamps are switched on.

8. When engaged, a lamp emits light that is not:

a) substantially white (Note 3), or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse or a dipped beam.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Reversing lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the area behind the vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

Note 2

A reversing lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 were allowed to use rear indicator lamps as reversing lamps. Although the light emitted is amber rather than white, this arrangement is still permitted for these vehicles.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a reversing lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original reversing lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One or two reversing lamps fitted at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

3. A reversing lamp must be in good condition.

Performance

4. A reversing lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

5. A reversing lamp, when operated, must emit a diffuse light or a dipped beam of light that is substantially white (Note 3).

6. A reversing lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A reversing lamp may operate only when the reverse gear is engaged or the headlamps are turned off.

8. Where a reversing lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A reversing lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

4-15 Other lighting

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A cosmetic lamp (ie one not listed in Table 4-15-1) that is fitted to a vehicle:

a) has a part of its light-emitting surface positioned within 250mm of any mandatory lamp, or

b) is not mounted in a fixed position, or

c) is positioned so that its light-emitting surface is visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

Performance

3. When switched on, a cosmetic lamp with a light-emitting surface not visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1 emits a light that:

a) is not diffuse, or

b) flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, or

c) revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, or

d) is too bright and likely to dazzle other road users, or

e) is likely to cause confusion about the orientation of the vehicle, or

f) is red when seen directly from the front, or

g) is not red or amber when seen directly from the rear.

4. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

5. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

Note 1

A rear or side cosmetic lamp that does not comply with requirements for condition or performance must be made to comply, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 2

A forward-facing cosmetic lamp fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements, must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other forward-facing cosmetic lamps that do not comply must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 3 Definitions

Lamp means a device designed to emit light, and includes an array of separate light sources that appear as a continuous illuminated surface.

Cosmetic lamp means any lamp that is not listed in Table 4-15-1.

Work lamp means a high-intensity lamp that is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate the area or scene and include scene lamps, spot lamps and alley lamps.

Scene lamp means a work lamp designed to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to illuminate the area around the vehicle or the vehicle itself.

Alley lamp means a work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of the vehicle it is fitted to.

Reflective material (or retroreflective material) means any material that is designed to reflect incident light back towards a light source or in a specific direction; but does not include a reflector

Table 4-15-1. Lamps that are not cosmetic lamps

Lamps covered in the VIRM

Other lighting equipment not requiring inspection

Headlamps

Stop lamps

High-mounted stop lamps

Direction indicator lamps

Position lamps
(includes side-marker lamps and end-outline marker lamps)

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamps

Rear reflectors

Fog lamps

Daytime running lamps

Cornering lamps

Reversing lamps

PSV interior lamps

Work lamps

Interior lamps
Designed to illuminate the interior of the vehicle for the convenience of passengers

Flashing or revolving beacons

Illuminated vehicle-mounted signs
Includes PSV destination signs, taxi signs and variable message signs operated by enforcement officers, under a traffic management plan or permitted by other legislation

A light source that is a necessary part of equipment required or permitted by any enactment to be fitted to a vehicle
Includes LEDs that indicate status on eRUC labels

Figure 4-15-1. Visibility angles for cosmetic lamps

visibility angles cosmetic lamps

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle may be fitted with one or more lamps not specified in Table 4-15-1, provided they are fitted so that light sources are not visible in those regions specified in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A cosmetic lamp must be fitted in a fixed position on the vehicle and positioned so that no part of the light source is situated within 250mm of a mandatory lamp.

3. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

Performance

3. A cosmetic lamp must:

a) only emit light that is diffuse, and

b) not emit light that flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, and

c) be fitted in a way, and be of a luminance that ensures, that it does not dazzle, confuse or distract other road users, and

d) not emit a light that revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, and

e) not cause confusion as to the orientation of the vehicle, and

f) not emit a red light that is directly visible from the front of the vehicle, and

g) not emit a light other than red or amber if the light is directly visible from the rear of the vehicle.

6. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

7. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

5 Vision

5-1 Glazing

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A glazing marking required in Table 5-1-8 or Table 5-1-9 is missing, except for hard plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages (Note 1).

4. A wire-mesh windscreen stoneguard (Figure 5-1-7):

a) top edge is both above the top of the steering wheel in its highest adjusted position and above 225mm measured from the bottom edge of the windscreen, or

b) has a mesh size smaller than 12mm (Note 2), or

c) makes it difficult to access the windscreen for cleaning.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification
Permitted modifications

6. Refer to general vehicle pages.

7. OE glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle has been permanently removed and:

a) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Windscreen repair

8. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1

With reference to Figure 5-1-8, for heavy vehicles only, the upper and lower boundaries of the CVA must be taken as:

  • Upper boundary: the lower of 100mm from the edge of the glazing or 900mm from the top of the uncompressed seat cushion
  • Lower boundary: the higher of the top of the uncompressed seat cushion or 100mm from the bottom of the windscreen.
Note 2

Objects, whether functional or otherwise (for example signage or badges) must not be attached to a wire-mesh windscreen stoneguard.

Table 5-1-8. Required markings for windscreens on heavy vehicles

Vehicle class

Date of manufacture

Before 1/1/60

1/1/60–31/12/90

1/1/91–30/6/97

From 1/7/97

MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC

Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standard

Safety glass with approved standard

Laminated glass with approved standard

Table 5-1-9. Required marking for other glazing on heavy vehicles

Vehicle class

Date of manufacture

Before 1/2/77

1/2/77–31/12/90

From 1/1/91

MD31, MD41, ME1, NB, NC

Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standard

Safety glass with approved standard

1 Curved scenic skylights above the cant rail, curved windows at front and rear corners, skylights, louvres and interior partitions may be made of transparent material of a kind that does not shatter. This material is not usually marked.

Figure 5-1-7. Stoneguard measurements

Stoneguard measurements

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A glazing marking required in Table 5-1-8 or Table 5-1-9 is missing, unless it is hard plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification

5. The permanent removal of OE glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle requires certification by an HVS certifier.

Page amended 1 November 2012 (see amendment details).

5-2 Sun visors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A sun visor for the driver’s use is not fitted to a vehicle (other than of class LE) which can practicably be fitted with a sun visor (Note 1).

Condition

2. A sun visor:

a) is insecurely mounted, or

b) for the driver, cannot be adjusted from the normal driving position, or

c) cannot maintain its adjusted position, or

d) has been modified or has deteriorated, and the likelihood of injury to vehicle occupants has not been minimised.

Performance

3. A driver’s sun visor does not effectively aid the driver’s vision by intercepting the glare from the sun.

Note 1 Definitions

Sun visor means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE must be fitted with a sun visor for the driver’s use if it is reasonable and practicable to do so (Note 1).

Permitted equipment

2. A vehicle of class LE may be fitted with a sun visor.

3. Additional sun visors may be fitted in other positions.

Condition

4. The condition of a sun visor must be such that the likelihood of injury to occupants is minimised.

Performance

5. A driver’s sun visor must be effective.

Modification

6. A sun visor that is not OE or that has been affected by a modification (Note 1):

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

5-3 Windscreen wipe and wash

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle that has a windscreen is not fitted with a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 is not fitted with a windscreen wash system.

3. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1960 is fitted with wipers that are not power driven.

Condition
Windscreen wipe system

4. The wiper operating device is missing.

5. A wiper arm or wiper blade is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

6. The wiper operating mechanism is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

Windscreen wash system

7. A wash system component is missing or insecure.

8. The wash operating device is missing.

Performance
Windscreen wipe system

9. A windscreen wiper does not wipe the windscreen effectively, preventing adequate forward vision by the driver.

10. The wipe operating device is unable to activate the wipe system.

Windscreen wash system

11. A windscreen wash nozzle does not discharge washer liquid directly onto the windscreen.

12. The wash operating device is unable to activate the wash system.

Modifications

13. A modification affects a windscreen wipe system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Table 5-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Removal of a windscreen wash system from a vehicle manufactured before 1/1/1992

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe and wash system.

3. Windscreen wipers must be power driven, unless they follow OE specifications in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1960.

Permitted equipment

4. A vehicle may be fitted with a wash system when this is not required.

Condition

5. A vehicle’s windscreen wipe system must be efficient and within the vehicle manufacturer’s operating limits.

Performance

6. The equipment fitted must be capable of keeping an adequate area of the windscreen clean and clear so that the vehicle may be operated safely under all reasonably foreseeable conditions.

Modifications

7. An OE windscreen washing system may be removed from a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992.

8. A modification to the windscreen wipe system must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition, and performance.

5-4 Rear-view mirrors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A class MD3, MD4, ME, NB or NC vehicle is not fitted with:

a) an outside left-hand rear view mirror, or

b) an outside right-hand rear view mirror.

2. An unclassified vehicle is not fitted with at least one rear view mirror.

Permitted equipment

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A class MD3, MD4, ME, NB and NC vehicle must be fitted with an outside left-hand and an outside right-hand rear-view mirror.

2. An unclassified heavy vehicle must be fitted with at least one rear-view mirror.

Permitted equipment

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

6. A rear-view mirror that is affected by a modification or repair:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require HVS certification.

6 Entrance and exit

6-1 Door and hinged panel retention systems

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle does not have a door retention system.

2. A vehicle for transporting prisoners which does not have doors in the prison compartment that can be opened from the inside, has no alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

3. A hinge for a door or other hinged panel is not securely attached to both the vehicle body and to the door or other hinged panel due to loose connections, corrosion or other damage (Note 1).

4. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers cannot be opened from the inside, unless the vehicle is designed or adapted to transport prisoners and the door is inoperable from the inside of the prison compartment.

5. A child safety lock or similar safety device cannot be deactivated.

6. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the hinge of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

7. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the latch of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

Equipment performance

8. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers does not open or close easily.

9. A door or other hinged panel does not remain secure in a closed or locked position.

Modifications

10. A modification (Note 2) affects door or hinged panel retention systems, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 2 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Child safety lock (also known as a kiddi-lock) means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from the inside of the vehicle.

Tables and images

Table 6-1-1 Modifications that do not require LVV certification
Fitting of or modification to:LVV certification is not required provided that:
Exterior door handles (on doors normally used for entry and exit of occupants)
  • the modification is minor (eg removal of key locks), and
  • door handles remain fitted and in serviceable condition.

Note
The fitting of a door opening/closing mechanism (which may include the removal of exterior door handles) that differs from original must be LVV certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:
Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
Figure 6-1-1 Hinge and latch anchorages

Figure 6-1-1

No corrosion damage is allowed within 150mm of a circle around the outside of hinge or latch components.

See also figures for corrosion limits to structure (section 3-1), seatbelt anchorages (section 7-5), and front or rear suspension anchorages (section 9-1).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle must have a door retention system.

Permitted equipment

2. The door retention system on doors to the rear of the driver’s seat may incorporate safety devices installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from the inside of the vehicle (eg child safety locks).

3. A vehicle designed or adapted to transport prisoners is not required to be fitted with a mechanism for opening a door from the inside if the prison compartment has an alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

4. A door retention system and its mountings must be safe and structurally sound.

5. A door used for the entrance and exit of the driver or passengers must be operable by any occupant seated by the door from inside the motor vehicle, unless it is permitted equipment designed or adapted to operate otherwise.

6. The vehicle must be designed and constructed using components and materials that are fit for their purpose, and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Equipment performance

7. A door retention system must be in good working order.

8. A door used for entrance and exit must open and close easily.

9. A door used for entrance and exit must remain secure in a closed position during the operation of the motor vehicle.

Modifications

10. A modification that affects door or hinged panel retention systems must be inspected and certified by a low volume vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7 Vehicle interior

7-1 Seats and seat anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

3. A modification or repair since 1 April 2002 affects a seat or seat anchorage and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 7-1-2), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Table 7-1-2. Requirements for HVS certification

Certification required

Certification not required

1. Retrofitting a seat that:

a) has an integrated seatbelt, or

b) is not fitted to existing unmodified OE seat anchorages.

1. Seat modification or replacement, or installation of a seat anchorage, provided that:

a) the seat is either an unmodified OE seat from another vehicle or of a known and reputable aftermarket brand, and

i. the seat is fitted to unmodified OE seat anchorages, and

ii. the anchorage or operation of seatbelts is not affected, and

iii. the relationship between seat, seat occupant, and location of the seatbelt anchorages is not affected.

2. Removal of seats and/or seatbelts (however, a class change and a new load rating may be required in some cases).

3. Fitting or modification to seat pads or covers.

4. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed, eg the manufacturer’s representative, or a reputable workshop).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

3. A modification on or after 1 April 2002 that affects a seat or seat anchorage must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for HVS certification (Table 7-1-2), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

7-3 Head restraints

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint have deteriorated to the extent that they are likely to injure a vehicle occupant.

2. An adjustable head restraint is unable to remain locked in its adjusted position.

Modification

3. A modification (Note 1) affects a head restraint, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Table 7-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Head restraint removal

  • A front-seat head restraint must not be removed from a vehicle required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard. These vehicles are the following with a GVM of 2500 kg or less:

– a class MA motor vehicle manufactured from 1 March 1999

– a class MA motor vehicle that was less than 20 years old when it was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002,

– a class MB or MC motor vehicle manufactured from 1 October 2003.

Fitting of aftermarket LCD screens to head restraints

  • the performance of the head restraint is not affected, eg the head restraint still provides sufficient padding for the seat occupant, and
  • the screen is fitted in a suitable manner, eg it appears similar to OE fitments in other vehicles, or
  • the screen can be easily attached or removed.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

  • Removal of a rear head restraint
  • Any modification for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
       
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with head restraints.

Condition and performance

2. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint must not have deteriorated to the extent that the likelihood of injury to an occupant of the vehicle is increased.

3. An adjustable head restraint must remain able to be adjusted and locked into position.

Modification

4. A modification that affects a head restraint must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7-5 Seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment (Note 2)

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A class NB or NC vehicle is not fitted with seatbelts as specified in Table 7-5-7, and the requirements for specific vehicles in Table 7-5-4 (general vehicle pages) are not met.

3. A motorhome is not fitted with seatbelts as specified in Table 7-5-7.

4. A three-point seatbelt imported and distributed by BVL (Business Ventures Limited) and manufactured by Changzhou BWD, China or Jiang Su Jiu Jiu Traffic Facilities Co. Ltd. is installed (See Figure 7-5-1 for samples to help identify the seatbelts).

Condition

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

6. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

7. A modification or repair since 1 April 2002 affects a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 7-5-8), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

8. The seatbelt assembly has been removed after it was rejected for one or more reasons for rejection due to Condition or Performance (above), whether or not the seatbelt is required to be fitted.

Note 1

On NZ Army Pinzgauer vehicles, the belts/harnesses fitted in the rear are attached to load anchorage points certified to NZS 5444. They are not considered to be seatbelts for the purpose of CoF inspections.

Note 2

Except as provided by Table 7-5-8, item 5, any seatbelt fitted to a seating position of a vehicle—either having been entry certified (as originally manufactured or modified) or subsequently specialist certified—must remain and be restored when damaged. It cannot be removed on the grounds that Table 7-5-7 doesn’t require a seatbelt.

Table 7-5-7. Seatbelt requirements for heavy vehicles (first registered in New Zealand from 1 April 2002) and all heavy motorhomes (first registered anytime)

Vehicle class

Seating position

Manufactured3

before 1 October 2003

from 1 October 2003

NB, NC

Front outer and driver’s

R22

Front middle

L

Rear outer1

Rear middle1

Motorhome Front outer and driver's

R2
Front middle

L
Rear outer1, 4

R1 or R2 or L

Rear middle4

L or S or R1 or R2

Rear sideways-facing1, 4 - L

1 A sideways-facing seating position in a vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 1 October 2002 may be fitted with a seatbelt of any type, and in a vehicle first registered from 1 October 2002 may be fitted with a seat belt that is a lapbelt only.

2 Front type R1 seatbelts may remain fitted if they were fitted as OE and have a declaration issued by a certifier, or a plate affixed to the vehicle in a position approved by the Transport Agency.

3 For a motorhome, manufactured means motor vehicles converted to motorhomes as well as manufactured as motorhomes.

4 Rear seating positions: as many or more lap (type L) or lap-and-diagonal (type R1 or R2) seatbelts as there are sleeping berths minus the number of front seating positions.

Table 7-5-8. Certification requirements for seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages

HVS certification is required