In-service certification (WoF and CoF) - Heavy PSVs

Correct as at 18th November 2019. It may be superseded at any time.

1 Vehicle identification

1-1 VIN and chassis number

Important Ensure that the VIN or chassis number is recorded in full on the checksheet.

This number must be:

  • the VIN if fitted – not the chassis number (locally allocated VIN)
  • the stamped VIN on the VIN plate – not the VIN etched on the glazing.

Also refer to Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers, Figure 1-1-1.  Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency and Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN or chassis number (Note 1) (Note 3).

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 does not have a VIN number (Note 1) (Note 3).

3. A VIN number is not valid (Note 1) (Note 2).

Condition

4. A VIN or chassis number has been (Note 1) (Note 3):

a) removed, or

b) erased, or

c) altered, or

d) defaced, or

e) obscured, or

f) destroyed, or

g) obliterated, or

h) affixed unlawfully or by unauthorised persons.

Note 1

The vehicle inspector must notify the Police and the NZTA using the vehicle report form if there is reason to believe that the VIN or chassis number has been tampered with in any way .

The vehicle inspector must not issue a WoF/CoF/permit until approved by NZTA. Approval will usually include the issue or re-issue of a new VIN plate .

Refer the vehicle to a VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA, Drivesure). They will inspect the vehicle and seek approval from NZTA to issue or re-issue a VIN plate .

Note 2

A valid VIN is a unique number that has been assigned to the vehicle in the vehicle’s country of origin or by a person appointed by the NZTA. It consists of 17 characters that never contain the letters I, O or Q, and that is capable of being decoded to provide identifying information about the vehicle.

Note 3

If the vehicle is failed because the VIN/chassis is missing or unreadable, then 'not found' must be recorded in place of the VIN number on the check sheet.

Table 1-1-1. Location of New Zealand VIN numbers

Vehicle

Permitted VIN locations

Vehicles that are not forward controlled (passenger cars and off-road passenger vehicles)

  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side of the firewall
  • In the engine compartment on the right-hand side adjacent to the front suspension mounting point
  • In a location inside the engine compartment approved by the NZTA for a specified vehicle or vehicle model
  • On the firewall or inner guards so it is visible from the front of the vehicle.

Forward-controlled vehicles
(passenger vans and off-road vehicles)

  • In the passenger compartment, on the top of the right-hand side wheel arch adjacent to the seat cushion
  • In the passenger compartment, on the inner panel of the right-hand A-pillar, adjacent to where the floor meets the A-pillar
  • In the passenger compartment on the B-pillar.

Goods vehicles and light omnibuses

Vehicle with a separate chassis:

  • On the outside of the chassis adjacent to the right front wheel arch,

Vehicle without a separate chassis:

  • As specified for forward-controlled vehicles.

If the vehicle is unfamiliar, and the VIN or chassis number cannot be located, the vehicle inspector should contact the manufacturer’s agent or the local VIN issuing agent (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA).

Figure 1-1-1. Structure of a VIN issued by the NZ Transport Agency
Pre-29 November 2009

5

Post-29 November 2009

post 09.11.2009

 

Figure 1-1-2. Structure of a VIN issued by the vehicle manufacturer
  Car

manufacturer vin car

Truck

manufacturer vin truck

 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirements

1. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand before 1 April 1994 must have a chassis number or VIN.

2. A vehicle first registered or re-registered in New Zealand from 1 April 1994 must have a VIN.

Condition

3. A VIN or chassis number must not have been removed, erased, altered, defaced, obscured, destroyed, obliterated or affixed unlawfully, or be unauthorised.

Page amended 1 June 2018 (see amendment details).

2 Vehicle exterior

2-1 External projections

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The risk of a component (Note 5) hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, has not been minimised, eg a bonnet or bumper has been removed, exposing sharp, moving or hot components.

2. An ornamental object or fitting (Note 2) protrudes in such a way that it is likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose (Note 3) is not installed so that the risk of causing injury to a person is minimised, eg the object or fitting:

a) is of excessively heavy construction for the purpose for which it has been fitted, or

b) has sharp corners, or

c) slopes forward, unless this is necessary to fit the contours of the vehicle, or

d) has an unnecessarily wide gap between the object or fitting and the front of the vehicle, or

e) exceeds the vehicle’s width by more than 100mm on either side, other than side mounted glass sheet transport racks and collapsible side mirrors, or

f) is a glass sheet transport rack that is not fitted with a front flaring to minimise the risk of injury to a person.

4. A protruding component, object or fitting is not securely attached to the vehicle.

5. A protruding object or fitting adversely affects the driver’s vision or control.

Modifications

6. A modification (Note 4) affects an external projection – including a protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose and affects the driver’s vision or control of the vehicle, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid vehicle certification plate (eg low volume vehicle plate or heavy vehicle certification plate/label), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1

The external projections requirements relate to the design and maintenance of objects and fittings that protrude from the exterior of the motor vehicle with regard to the safety of other motor vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. The attachment of such objects and fittings to the vehicle is addressed in the Vehicle structure section of this manual.

Note 2

Ornamental object or fitting means an object or fitting that does not have a practical purpose, eg bonnet emblems.

Note 3

Functional object or fitting means an object or fitting that has a practical purpose, eg panniers, pack racks, spare wheel carriers, and so on.

Note 4

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 5

Components include damaged, corroded and exposed body panels.

Note 6

The following vehicles with a GVM of 2500kg or less must comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard:

  • Class MA motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 March 1999
  • Class MA motor vehicles that were less than 20 years old when they were first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002
  • Class MB and MC motor vehicles manufactured on or after 1 October 2003.
Note 7

Rear bumper removal must still meet external projection requirements.

Table 2-1-1. Modifications that do not require specialist certification

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is not required provided that:

Cosmetic body kits and components
(including utility canopies and plastic bumper skins)

  • the fitting system does not weaken the vehicle structure, and
  • no frontal impact components have been removed where the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)
  • the kit or components do not present any forward-facing external projections, and
  • the performance of any lamps are not affected as a result of the kit or components.

Auxiliary winches

  • the winch either:

– does not protrude forward of the front face of the bumper, or

– does project forward of the bumper line, but is fitted with ‘pedestrian-friendly’ shrouds to reduce trapping risk and present a larger forward-facing surface area.

Side racks (for glass or other sheet materials)

  • there is no doubt as to the rack’s load carrying capacity, and
  • no forward-facing pedestrian traps exist, and
  • the rack is designed and protected so that sharp or dangerous cargo cannot face directly forward projecting beyond the outside of the body.

Front bumper bar (removal and change) (Note 1) (Note 7)

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6)

Auxiliary bars (including bull bars, nudge bars, external roll cages and A-frames [or similar])

  • the vehicle is not required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard (Note 6), or
  • the vehicle is required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard and the auxiliary bar:

– is a vehicle manufacturer supplied component for that vehicle, or

– has been certified by the auxiliary bar manufacturer as frontal impact compliant (as may be indicated by a label), or

- is an A-frame that meets all of the following requirements:

- is attached to the chassis by means other than welding, and

- components are fit for purpose, and

- the brackets remaining on the vehicle when the A-frame is removed are recessed behind the forward surface of the bumper by no less than 20mm, and

- the brackets are fitted so that they do not bridge the vehicle’s crumple zones or significantly stiffen the front of the vehicle.

Note that an auxiliary bar that does not meet the above minimum requirements is unlikely to meet LVV requirements and so cannot be certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is never required:

Aerials

  • in-service requirements for conditions and performance must be met.

Engine hood emblems

Engine hood pins

Towbars

Trunk racks

Roof-mounted wheelchair winch

Roof racks (except heavy PSVs)

Additional or substituted rear-view mirrors

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with a protruding ornamental or functional object or fitting.

Condition and performance

2. A protruding ornamental object or fitting must not be likely to injure a person.

3. A protruding object or fitting that has a functional purpose must be installed so that the risk of the object or fitting causing injury to a person is minimised.

4. Components of a motor vehicle, including damaged or corroded body panels, must be such that the risk of their hooking a vehicle, or hooking or grazing a person, is minimised.

5. A protruding object or fitting must not adversely affect driver vision or driver control.

Modifications

6. A modification that affects an external projection must be inspected and certified by a specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for specialist certification (Table 2-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

2-2 Dimensions

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. A rigid vehicle (Note 1) with a GVM of 3501kg or more exceeds the dimension requirements set out in Table 2-2-3 and is not a vehicle operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

Note 1

Rigid vehicle means a vehicle that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the chassis of the vehicle to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the chassis of the vehicle, and includes an articulated bus and a pivot steer vehicle.

Note 2

Road controlling authority means the authority, body or person having control of the road (eg the Transport Agency, regional council or an authorized delegate).

Note 3

A bicycle rack fitted to the front of a vehicle of class MD3, MD4 or ME is not included in determining the overall length or forward distance of the vehicle provided the vehicle complies with the applicable low speed turning performance measures in section 3.5(2) of Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Dimensions and Mass 2016.

Table 2-2-3. Dimension requirements for heavy rigid vehicles (see Figures 2-2-8 and 2-2-9) and (Note 4) (Note 5)

Dimension

Maximum distance

Comments

Width

2.55m  , or

1.275m  from each side of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle

Measurement does not include:

  • collapsible mirrors which extend no more than 240mm from the  side and 1.49m when measured from the vehicle’s longitudinal centre line
  • direction indicator and side-marker lamps
  • cab exterior grab rails that extend no more than  1.325m when measured from a vehicle’s longitudinal centre-line
  • the bulge towards the bottom of a tyre
  • central tyre inflation system hoses that extend not more than 75mm beyond the outside of the tyre on the drive axles
  • a hubodometer that extends not more than 50mm beyond one side of a vehicle from a non-lifting, non-steering axle whose outer casings are of a light colour, provided the hubodometer is fitted on the axle that causes the least overwidth
  • trolley bus poles and their safety cables
  • cameras or close-proximity monitoring systems mounted on the side exterior of a vehicle that extends not more than 70mm from the side wall of the vehicle
  • devices for improving the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle that extend not more than 25mm from either side of a vehicle.

Overall length

11.5m (tow coupling fitted)

12.6m (no tow coupling fitted)

13.5m (rigid bus with three axles where the rearmost axle is a single-tyred steering axle that is:

a) either positively and continuously linked to the front steer (except may be locked for reverse and high-speed operation); or

b) automatically locked at a speed of 30 km/h in the straight-ahead position and for reverse operations)

18m (articulated bus)

Measurement does not include:

  • collapsible mirrors
  • up to 50mm of any ferry securing point that extends beyond the body of the trailer.

Height

4.3m

 

Forward distance

8.5m (tow coupling fitted)

9.5m (no tow coupling fitted)

8.5m (for both front and rear sections of an articulated bus)

Forward distance is measured from:

  • the rear axis to the front of a rigid vehicle or front section of an articulated bus
  • the rear axis of the rear section of an articulated bus to the centre of the point of attachment to the front section of the articulated bus.

Measurement does not include collapsible mirrors.

A vehicle with a retractable axle must meet the dimension requirements whether the axle is in contact with the road or in the retracted position.

Rear overhang

The lesser of 4m or 70% of wheelbase where rearmost axle is a non-steering axle

The lesser of 4.25m or 70% of wheelbase where rearmost axle is a steering axle

The lesser of 4.5m or 72% of wheelbase of a rigid bus with overall length exceeding 12.6m

The lesser of 4m or 50% of forward distance (articulated bus)

4m (for a vehicle first registered anywhere before 1 December 1989)

Rear overhang is measured from the rear axis to the rear of the vehicle.

A vehicle with a retractable axle must meet the dimension requirements whether the axle is in contact with the road or in the retracted position.

Ground clearance

The greater of 100mm or 6% of the distance from the nearest axle to the point where the ground clearance is measured

Measurement does not include flexible mudflaps, wheels, tyres or devices designed to discharge static electricity.

Front overhang

3m

Front overhang is measured from the front edge of the driver’s seat in the rearmost position to the front of the vehicle.

Articulated vehicle point of attachment

No further rearward than centre of rear axle (where rear axle set consists of only one axle)

No further than 300mm rearward of rear axis (where rear axle set consists of more than one axle)

Does not apply to articulated buses.

Tow coupling position (articulated bus only)

45% of wheelbase of the leading unit

The tow coupling position is the distance rearward from the vehicle’s rear axis to the centre of the tow coupling.

Turning circle

25m outside diameter

10.6m inside diameter (articulated bus only)

The vehicle must complete a 360-degree turn in either direction.

No part of the vehicle (other than collapsible mirrors) must extend beyond the outside diameter or into the inside diameter.

Figure 2-2-1. Dimensions for articulated bus

(Note: Dimensions in red updated in VDAM 2016)

Articulated bus

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. A rigid vehicle, or an articulated bus, with a GVM of 3501kg or more that exceeds the dimensions in Table 2-2-3 must be operating on a valid permit, exemption or approval.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

3 Vehicle structure

3-1 Structure

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. An open-bodied vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 January 2001:

a) has side walls that are less than 450mm above the highest point of the uncompressed seat cushion on the open-bodied part of the vehicle, or

b) does not have a permanent framework in addition to the side walls to provide reasonable protection for the occupants in the case of the vehicle rolling over, or

c) on any upper deck does not have drains to prevent water from collecting on it or draining into the body of the vehicle.

2. On a heavy open-bodied vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2001:

a) a front screen to extend above the upper floor level:

i. is missing, or

ii. does not extend to at least 1m above the highest point of the uncompressed seat cushion, or

iii. does not extend to at least 1.95m above the upper floor level, or

b) a railing, or another structure, to extend above the side walls:

i. has a railing above the side walls through which a sphere of 125mm diameter can be passed, or

ii. has a railing that does not extend above the side walls to a height of at least 610mm above the highest point of the uncompressed seat cushion.

Condition

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The structural strength of a PSV has been reduced so that it does not provide reasonable protection for the occupants in the event of roof or wall deformation resulting from the vehicle rolling over, eg:

a) structural parts of the superstructure have been removed or substituted with parts that are of insufficient strength or not fit for purpose.

5. A body-to-chassis attachment, such as a weld, or fastener is:

a) missing, or

b) loose, or

c) cracked, or

d) broken, or

e) significantly corroded, or

f) otherwise in poor condition.

Modification

6. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. An open-bodied vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 January 2001 must:

a) on the open-bodied part of the vehicle have side walls that extend at least 450mm above the highest point of the uncompressed seat cushion, and

b) have a permanent framework to provide reasonable protection for the occupants in the case of the vehicle rolling over, and

c) on any upper deck have drains to prevent water from collecting on it or draining into the body of the vehicle.

2. A heavy open-bodied vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2001 must have:

a) a front screen that extends at least 1m above the highest uncompressed seat cushion, and at least 1.95 m above the upper floor level, and

b) a railing, or another structure through which a sphere of 125mm diameter cannot be passed, that extends above the side walls to a height of 610mm above the highest point of the uncompressed seat cushion.

Condition

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The structural strength must be maintained throughout the service life of the PSV.

5. The superstructure must be of robust design, and made of materials fit for the purpose.

6. The body of a PSV must be fit for its purpose and securely fixed to the chassis.

7. The structural strength of a PSV must be sufficient to provide reasonable protection for the occupants in the event of roof or wall deformation resulting from the vehicle rolling over.

Modification and repair

8. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

3-2 Stability

Reasons for rejection

Modification and repair

1. A modification or repair since 1 July 2000 affects the vehicle stability and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 3-2-1), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier has been presented.

Table 3-2-1. Requirements for HVS certification

HVS certification is required

HVS certification is not required

1. Fitting of components to the roof, eg a roof rack or an air conditioning unit.

2. Changes in floor height or geometry, eg due to changes to suspension, wheel or tyre size.

1. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Modification and repair

1. A modification or repair, on or after 1 July 2000, that affects the stability of a heavy PSV must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 3-2-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

3-3 Heavy PSV roof racks

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. A roof rack does not have a sign or plate on the left-hand side.

2. A roof rack sign or plate does not state:

a) the purpose of the roof rack, if other than for general baggage, or

b) the maximum weight it is allowed to carry, or

c) the manufacturer of the roof rack, or

d) at least one of the following:

i. the make, model and registration number of the PSV to which it is fitted

ii. vehicle identification number or chassis number of the PSV to which it is fitted

iii. if rated and certified either by the vehicle manufacturer or by a  heavy vehicle specialist certifier for a vehicle model, the approval for that vehicle model.

Condition

3. The roof rack sign or plate is:

a) not securely fitted, or

b) not legible.

4. A roof rack that is fitted to a heavy PSV:

a) is not fitted as appropriate for that particular vehicle make and model, or

b) is not fitted securely, eg fastenings are missing, broken or loose, or

c) shows signs of significant deterioration that affects its ability to hold or retain the rated load.

Modification and repair

5. A modification or repair affects the roof rack, or a roof rack has been fitted, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 3-3-1), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification (other than one rated and certified by the vehicle manufacturer), ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from a HVS certifier of category HVEC, HVMC or HVIC has been presented.

Table 3-3-1. Requirements for HVS certification

HVS certification is required

HVS certification is not required

Fitting a roof rack (other than one rated and certified by the vehicle manufacturer)

Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed, eg the manufacturer’s representative or a reputable workshop).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. A roof rack that is fitted to a heavy PSV must have a sign or plate on the left-hand side stating:

a) the purpose of the roof rack, if other than for general baggage, and

b) the maximum weight it is allowed to carry, and

c) the manufacturer of the roof rack, and

d) either:

i. the make, model and registration number of the PSV to which it is fitted, or

ii. vehicle identification number or chassis number of the PSV to which it is fitted, or

iii. if rated and certified by the vehicle manufacturer or a category HVEC, HVIC or HVMC heavy vehicle specialist certifier for a vehicle model, the approval for that vehicle model.

Condition

2.A roof rack fitted to a heavy PSV must:

a) be fitted and rated as appropriate for that particular make and model of PSV, or

b) be rated and certified by a category HVEC, HVIC, or HVMC heavy vehicle specialist certifier and fitted in accordance with their instructions.

3. A roof rack that is fitted to a heavy PSV must be fitted in accordance with instructions by a category HVEC, HVIC or HVMC heavy vehicle specialist certifier.

Modification

4. A modification that affects the roof rack of a heavy PSV, including the fitting of a roof rack, must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirements for HVS specialist certification (Table 3-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

4 Lighting

4-1 Headlamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is not fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with more than:

a) one pair of dipped-beam headlamps (Note 10) , or

b) two pairs of dipped-beam headlamps if the vehicle was first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

c) two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with a headlamp that is not in a pair.

4. A vehicle of class LE is not fitted with one dipped-beam headlamp.

5. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than:

a) two dipped-beam headlamps, or

b) two main-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard headlamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

7. A device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately is fitted to a vehicle that is not an emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle.

8. A vehicle is fitted with a dipped-beam headlamp where the maximum intensity of the beam is projected to the right.

Condition (Note 5)

9. A lamp is insecure, obscured, or contains dirt or moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

10. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

11. A lens or reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

12. A main-beam headlamp warning device is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

13. When switched on, a headlamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 8) or other incorrect light source.

14. When the dipped-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on dipped beam, or

c) more than four lamps operate on dipped beam on a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 January 1977 and 31 March 1980, or

d) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused, or is reduced or altered, or

e) the centreline of the light beam is too far to the left or slopes down too far so that the headlamp is no longer capable of illuminating the road at least 50m ahead (Figure 4-1-2), or

f) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or projects from the lamp at an angle other than:

i. as specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or

ii. as specified in Table 4-1-1.

15. When the main-beam headlamps are switched on (with wheels pointing straight ahead):

a) a lamp does not operate, or

b) more than two lamps operate on main beam on a class LE vehicle, or

c) more than four lamps operate on main beam on a vehicle of group M or N, or

d) a vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 has a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that continue to operate, or

e) the centreline of the light beam projects to the right of the vehicle’s centreline or up from the horizontal, or

f) the light beam produces an incorrect beam pattern, is not focused or is reduced or altered, or

g) the lamps are not capable of being switched to dipped beam or turned off from the driver’s seating position, or

h) a main-beam headlamp warning device, if fitted as original equipment, does not indicate to the driver that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

16. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash alternately:

a) does not indicate to the driver that the device is activated, or

b) flashes:

i. faster than two flashes per second, or

ii. slower than one flash per second, or

iii. at a varying frequency.

17. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs) fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

18. A headlamp is retrofitted with a type of light source other than that specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer (eg a headlamp designed for a halogen bulb is fitted with any other type of light source such as an HID or LED bulb, or any other light source such as LED strips or non-OEM angel eyes) (Note 8).

19. Retrofitted headlamps are not fitted:

a) as a pair, or

b) symmetrically, or

c) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

20. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less is positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m from the ground (Note 9).

Note 1

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 2

If the dipped-beam headlamps are able to be adjusted from the driver’s seating position, the alignment must be checked with the adjustment at its highest position.

Note 3

If the vehicle is fitted with self-levelling suspension, the alignment must be checked with the suspension at its normal level.

Note 4 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Headlamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is a:

a) dipped-beam headlamp (single lamp), or

b) main-beam (high-beam) headlamp (single lamp), and includes a driving lamp, or

c) combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp (dual-lamp unit).

Dipped-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to emit a dipped beam, which is a beam of light that is angled downwards in such a way that it prevents undue dazzle or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.

Main-beam headlamp means a headlamp that is designed to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of the vehicle.

Note 5

If a headlamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the headlamp.

Note 6

A vehicle originally manufactured with a headlamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original headlamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 7

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 8

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing.

It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified.

It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID or LED headlamp unit. If the vehicle is required to meet an approved safety standard for headlamps, only approved headlamps can be retrofitted (see Figure 4-1-1).

Note 9

The dipped-beam headlamps may be positioned at a height exceeding 1.2m if a road maintenance implement (eg, snowplough or roadsweeper) fitted to the front of the vehicle would obscure headlamps placed at a height of 1.2m or less.

Note 10

It is acceptable for a pair of dipped-beam headlamps to consist of one symmetric and one asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp. However, in some cases this may result in one lamp being noticeably brighter than the other lamp in the pair. In that case, the vehicle inspector may determine that the dipped beams differ noticeably in light intensity, and the lamps fail the inspection. Note that a beamsetter’s luxmeter cannot measure the light intensity of a dipped beam headlamp.

Table 4-1-1. Allowable dipped-beam headlamp alignment

Headlamp type

Distance from ground to centre of light source

Dip rate of beam centre:
lower and upper limits

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

EITHER

Any headlamp dipped beam

N/A

That specified by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer

OR

Headlamp with symmetric dipped-beam pattern

N/A

3.0–3.5

90–105

1.7–2.0

OR

Headlamp with asymmetric dipped-beam pattern and distance from ground to centre of light source

less than 0.8 m

1.0–1.5

30–45

0.57–0.85

0.8–1.2 m

1.0–2.0

30–60

0.57–1.15

more than 1.2 m

2.0–2.5

60–75

1.15–1.43

Table 4-1-2. Dipped-beam angle conversions

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

Percent (%)

mm/3 m

Degrees (°)

1.0

30

0.6

2.3

69

1.3

1.1

33

0.6

2.4

72

1.4

1.2

36

0.7

2.5

75

1.4

1.3

39

0.7

2.6

78

1.5

1.4

42

0.8

2.7

81

1.5

1.5

45

0.9

2.8

84

1.6

1.6

48

0.9

2.9

87

1.7

1.7

51

1.0

3.0

90

1.7

1.8

54

1.0

3.1

93

1.8

1.9

57

1.1

3.2

96

1.8

2.0

60

1.1

3.3

99

1.9

2.1

63

1.2

3.4

102

1.9

2.2

66

1.3

3.5

105

2.0

Figure 4-1-1. Approved headlamp standard markings

The following standard markings may assist in determining compliance with approved standards.

Vehicles required to comply with an approved headlamp standard are:

  • vehicles of class MA and NA manufactured on or after 1 January 1992
  • vehicles of class MB, MC, MD1, MD2, MD3, MD4, ME, NB and NC manufactured on or after 1 January 1996.
Figure 4-1-2. Minimum illuminated area

dipped beam angles

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one pair of dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two pairs of main-beam headlamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE:

a) must be fitted with one or two dipped-beam headlamps, and

b) may be fitted with one or two main-beam headlamps.

3. A vehicle first registered anywhere between 1 February 1977 and 31 March 1980 may be fitted with a second pair of dipped-beam headlamps that:

a) do not operate when the main-beam headlamps are switched on, and

b) may operate independently of the first pair of dipped-beam headlamps.

4. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

5. A vehicle required to meet an approved safety standard for lighting must continue to meet an approved safety standard for lighting.

6. A retrofitted dipped-beam headlamp on a vehicle with a GVM of 12,000 kg or less must be fitted at a height not exceeding 1.2 m from the ground (Note 9).

7. A warning device may be fitted that indicates that the main-beam headlamps are switched on.

8. An emergency vehicle or a pilot vehicle may be fitted with a device that allows the headlamps to flash alternately, provided it is also fitted with equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

9. A retrofitted pair of headlamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Prohibited equipment

10. A dipped-beam headlamp designed solely for a left-hand drive vehicle, where the maximum intensity of the beam is dispersed to the right, must not be fitted.

Condition (Note 5)

11. A headlamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured.

Performance

12. A headlamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

13. A headlamp must emit a steady light.

14. A headlamp must provide sufficient illumination and light output to illuminate the road ahead.

15. If fitted with a device that allows headlamps to flash alternately, the lamps must flash at a fixed frequency.

16. A pair of headlamps must emit light that is approximately of equal colour and intensity when switched on.

17. A headlamp must emit a beam that is substantially white or amber.

18. A main-beam headlamp must be capable of being dipped or turned off from the driver’s position.

19. A warning device that indicates that the main-beam lamps are in operation must be in good working order.

20. When the headlamps are switched on and the vehicle’s front wheels are pointing in the straight-ahead position:

a) the centre of a headlamp beam must be either parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle, and

b) the centre of a main-beam headlamp beam must be either parallel to or dipping down from the horizontal, and

c) the centre of a dipped-beam headlamp beam must dip at an angle specified by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, or:

i. 3–3.5% for a symmetric beam pattern, or

ii. 1–1.5% for an asymmetic beam pattern where the centre of the light source is less than 0.8 m from the ground, or

iii. 1–2% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is 0.8–1.2 m from the ground, or

iv. 2–2.5% for an asymmetric beam pattern where the centre of the light source is above 1.2 m from the ground.

21. The dipped-beam headlamps must illuminate the road ahead for 50 m in normal darkness.

22. Where a headlamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

23. A device fitted to a vehicle that allows the headlamps to flash must:

a) make the headlamps flash alternately at a frequency of 1–2 Hertz, and

b) incorporate equipment that indicates to the driver that the device is activated.

24. A headlamp must be fitted with a light source that is specified by the vehicle manufacturer or the headlamp manufacturer.

Modifications (Note 4)

25. A headlamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

4-2 Front and rear fog lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one front fog lamp, or

b) more than one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two front fog lamps.

3. A vehicle is fitted with more than two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps is not fitted:

a) symmetrically, or

b) as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable, or

c) positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

Condition (Note 3)

5. A lamp is insecure or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles .

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

8. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, is obscured from the driver’s vision.

Performance

9. When switched on, a front fog lamp does not operate (Note 5).

10. When switched on, a front fog lamp emits light that:

a) is not projected to the front, or

b) produces an incorrect beam pattern (Figure 4-2-1), or

c) is not substantially white or amber to the front, or

d) is not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

e) is not steady, or

f) is not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source, or

g) is too bright, and could dazzle other road users, eg due to the fitment of an HID conversion kit (Note 6) or an incorrect , or

h) is altered, eg due to damage or modification, or

i) has a beam centre to the right of the vehicle’s centreline, or

j) has a beam that is not permanently dipped, or

k) has a beam centre that dips at an angle of less than 3% (Figure 4-2-1).

11. When switched on, a rear fog lamp emits light that is:

a) not projected to the rear, or

b) not diffuse, or

c) not substantially red, or

d) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in a pair, or

e) of variable intensity, or

f) not bright enough to indicate the presence of the vehicle from the rear in conditions of severely reduced visibility, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

12. A fog lamp cannot be switched off from the driver’s seating position.

13. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

14. A fog lamp warning device, if fitted, does not operate.

Note 1

Fog lamp means a high-intensity front or rear lamp designed to aid the driver or other road users in conditions of severely reduced visibility, including fog or snow, but not including clear atmospheric conditions under the hours of darkness.

Note 2

A rear fog lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

If a front fog lamp is fitted with a readily removable cover, other than a clear protective cover, this must be removed for inspection of the fog lamp.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a front- or rear-fog-lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original front or rear fog lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 5

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply, be removed from the vehicle, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 6

A high-intensity discharge (HID or Xenon HID) conversion kit consists of an HID bulb with a high voltage power output or ‘ballast’ which fits into the original headlamp unit in place of the original bulb with no change to the headlamp lens, reflector or housing. It is illegal to fit an HID conversion kit to a vehicle as it brings the headlamp out of standards compliance by producing poor beam patterns and light that is far too bright to be safe. The bulbs can also produce light that is noticeably blue and not the required substantially white or amber colour. Vehicle and headlamp manufacturers do not permit this modification, and these kits cannot be LVV certified. It is permitted to replace a complete halogen headlamp unit with a complete HID headlamp unit.

Figure 4-2-1. Front fog lamp characteristics

front fog lamp characteristics

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE: one pair of front fog lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE: one or two front fog lamps.

3. One or two rear fog lamps.

4. A retrofitted pair of fog lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far as is practicable towards each side of the vehicle.

5. A retrofitted front fog lamp must not be positioned higher than the dipped-beam headlamps.

6. A vehicle may be fitted with a warning device that indicates that a front or rear fog lamp is in operation.

Condition

7. A front fog lamp must be in sound condition.

8. A rear fog lamp must be in sound condition if it emits a light.

Performance

9. A fog lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

10. A fog lamp must emit a steady light.

11. A front fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

12. A rear fog lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate the presence of the vehicle on the road in conditions of severely reduced visibility.

13. The light emitted from a front fog lamp must be substantially white or amber.

14. The light emitted from a rear fog lamp must be diffuse and substantially red in colour.

15. A pair of fog lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

16. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be parallel to or to the left of the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle.

17. The centre of a front fog lamp beam must be permanently dipped at an angle of at least 3%.

18. A fog lamp must be able to be turned off from the driver’s seating position.

19. A front or rear fog lamp warning device must be in good working order.

20. Where a fog lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

22. A fog lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-3 Cornering lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps, or

c) a lamp that either:

i. was not originally fitted by the vehicle manufacturer, or

ii. is not fitted in the original position.

Condition

2. A lamp is insecure.

3. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

4. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

5. When activated by switching on the direction indicator lamp or by turning the steering wheel, a cornering lamp:

a) does not operate, or

b) does not project in the direction of the turn.

6. A cornering lamp emits light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber, or

b) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

c) not steady, or

d) not bright enough to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

e) too bright causing dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source or misalignment, or

f) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

7. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1

Cornering lamp means a lamp designed to emit light at the front of a vehicle to supplement the vehicle’s headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

Note 2

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a cornering lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original cornering lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 4

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One pair of cornering lamps fitted as OE.

Condition

2. A cornering lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

3. A cornering lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A cornering lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

5. A pair of cornering lamps must emit light that is approximately equal in colour and intensity.

6. A cornering lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A cornering lamp must provide sufficient light output to illuminate the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

8. A cornering lamp must be correctly aligned.

9. Where a cornering lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. A cornering lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-4 Daytime running lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE is fitted with:

a) only one lamp, or

b) more than one pair of lamps.

2. A vehicle of class LE is fitted with more than two lamps.

3. A lamp is fitted in a position other than at the front of the vehicle.

4. A retrofitted lamp is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

5. A lamp is insecure.

6. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

7. A lamp’s reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

8. When switched on, a daytime running lamp does not operate (Note 4).

9. When switched on, a daytime running lamp emits light that is:

a) projected in a direction other than to the front, or

b) not substantially white or amber, or

c) not approximately equal in colour or intensity from the other lamp in the pair, or

d) not steady, or

e) not bright enough to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or or an incorrect light source, or

f) too bright, causing significant dazzle to other road users, eg due to an incorrect light source, or

g) altered, eg due to damage or modification.

10. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources, fewer than 75% of these operate.

11. A daytime running lamp continues to operate when the headlamps or fog lamps are switched on.

Note 1

Daytime running lamp means a lamp designed to emit a low-intensity light forward of a vehicle to make it more easily seen in the daytime.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a daytime running lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original daytime running lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Note 3

A forward-facing permitted lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 4

Some vehicles are equipped with OE or after-market daytime running lamps (DRLs) that also incorporate position lamp and direction indicator lamp functions. When the DRLs are on (when headlamps are off), and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding DRL is temporarily extinguished or dimmed. When the position lamps are on and an indicator lamp is activated, the corresponding position lamp may remain lit.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle other than class LE may have: one pair of daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

2. A vehicle of class LE may have one or two daytime running lamps fitted to the front of the vehicle.

3. A retrofitted lamp must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

4. A daytime running lamp must be in sound condition.

Performance

5. A daytime running lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A daytime running lamp must emit light that is substantially white or amber.

7. A pair of daytime running lamps must emit light that is of approximately equal colour and intensity.

8. A daytime running lamp must emit a steady light.

9. A daytime running lamp must provide sufficient light output to make the vehicle more easily seen during the daytime.

10. A daytime running lamp must be correctly aligned.

11. A daytime running lamp must not operate when a front fog lamp or a headlamp is in use.

12. Where a daytime running lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A daytime running lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-5 Direction indicator lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, or NC first registered on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 9.2m in length:

a) is not fitted with one side-facing direction indicator lamp on each side, at or near the front of the vehicle, or

b) is fitted with more than two side-facing direction indicator lamps on either side.

3. A retrofitted side-facing direction indicator lamp is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

4. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted symmetrically as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

5. A pair of forward-facing or rearward-facing direction indicator lamps (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practical due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practical due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

6. A heavy vehicle is fitted with top-mounted lamps at the front of the vehicle.

Condition

7. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

8. Refer to general vehicle pages.

9. A mandatory side-facing direction indicator lamp is not visible from the side of the vehicle (Figure 4-5-2):

a) through an angle of 60° above and below a horizontal plane passing through the lamp, or

b) at least between an angle of 30° and 80° rearward of a vertical plane that is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle and passing through the lamp.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Direction indicator lamp means a lamp designed to emit a flashing light to signal the intention of the driver to change the direction of the vehicle to the right or to the left.

Note 2

A permitted (ie non-mandatory) rear or a non-OE side-facing direction indicator lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 may have rear direction indicator lamps that also function as reversing lamps.

Note 5

A vehicle originally manufactured with a direction indicator lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original direction indicator lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Note 6

A forward-facing permitted direction indicator lamp that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Figure 4-5-2. Required angles for side-facing direction indicator lamps

required angles side facing 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, or NC first registered on or after 1 January 1978 that exceeds 9.2m in length must be fitted with one or two side-facing direction indicator lamps on each side, at or near the front of the vehicle.

3. A retrofitted side-facing direction indicator lamp must be mounted at a height not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

4. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of direction indicator lamps at the rear of the vehicle that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

5. Forward-facing or rearward-facing direction indicator lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

6. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

7. Refer to general vehicle pages.

8. A mandatory side-facing direction indicator must be visible from the side of the vehicle:

a) through an angle of 60° above and below the horizontal plane passing through the lamp, and

b) at least between an angle of 30° and 80° rearward of a vertical plane that is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle and passing through the lamp.

Modifications

9. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-6 Forward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the front with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1

The following total numbers of position lamps may generally be fitted to the front or rear of a vehicle:

Front of vehicle:

a) one pair of forward-facing position lamps below 1.5 m (usually the OE lamps)

b) one pair of forward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) two cab roof lamps

d) 10 end-outline marker lamps fitted elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle or on the cab roof (for vehicles first
registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 there is no restriction on the number of forward-facing end-outline marker lamps that may be fitted).

Rear of vehicle:

a) two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps, one pair below 1.5 m and a second pair below 2.1 m, fitted symmetrically as
far as possible towards the extremities

b) one pair of rearward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) six end-outline marker lamps elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle.

Note 2 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 3

A permitted forward-facing position lamp, fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005, that does not comply with condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other permitted forward-facing position lamps that do not comply with requirements must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 4

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 5

A vehicle originally manufactured with a position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of forward-facing position lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

Condition

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-7 Rearward-facing position lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

3. A rearward-facing position lamp (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one or one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted rearward-facing position lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by the body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a position lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original position lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of rearward-facing position lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

2. Rearward-facing position lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one lamp or one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-8 Side-marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A side-marker lamp is not positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

2. A lamp is insecure.

3. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

4. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

5. When switched on, a side-marker lamp emits a light that:

a) is not substantially white or amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured before January 2006), or

b) is not substantially amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured on or after January 2006), or

c) is not substantially red or amber to the rear, or

d) is not diffuse, or

e) is not approximately of the same colour and intensity on each side of the vehicle, or

f) does not remain steadily illuminated, or

g) is not bright enough to produce light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source.

6. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Modifications

7. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Note 1 Definitions

Side-marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted to the side of a vehicle or its load.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 2

A permitted side-marker lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Figure 4-8-1. Visibility angles for side-marker lamps

visibility angles side marker lamps 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with one or more side-marker lamps.

2. A side-marker lamp must be positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

3. A side-marker lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

4. A side-marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

5. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured before January 2006), or

c) substantially amber to the front (for a vehicle manufactured on or after January 2006), or

d) substantially red or amber to the rear.

6. A lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A side-marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

8. A side-marker lamp must emit a light that is visible from a distance of 100m in daylight and 200m during the hours of darkness.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

10. A side-marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

4-9 End-outline marker lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory, permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A vehicle listed in Table 4-9-1:

a) is not fitted with the lamps required in Table 4-9-1, or

b) is fitted with lamps that exceed the numbers permitted in Table 4-9-1.

2. A vehicle not listed in Table 4-9-1 is fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

3. An end-outline marker lamp is not positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions, that is lamps, other than cab roof lamps, are fitted other than around the outline of the vehicle (Note 2).

Condition

4. A lamp is insecure or, if a mandatory lamp, obscured.

5. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

6. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

7. When switched on, a mandatory or a forward-facing end-outline marker lamp does not operate (Note 3).

8. When switched on, an end-outline marker lamp emits a light that is:

a) not substantially white or amber to the front, or

b) not substantially red to the rear, or

c) not diffuse, or

d) not projected to the front or rear, or

e) not approximately of the same colour or intensity as the other lamp if fitted in a pair, or

f) not steady, or

g) not bright enough to indicate the presence and dimensions of the vehicle to other road users.

9. A mandatory cab roof lamp is not bright enough to produce light that is visible from 100m in normal daylight and from 200m in normal darkness, eg due to modification, deterioration or an incorrect light source.

10. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1

For vehicles manufactured before 1/5/2011, the following total numbers of position lamps may generally be fitted to the front or rear of a vehicle:

Front of vehicle:

a) one pair of forward-facing position lamps below 1.5m (usually the OE lamps)

b) one pair of forward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) two cab roof lamps

d) 10 end-outline marker lamps fitted elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle or on the cab roof (for vehicles first
registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 there is no restriction on the number of forward-facing end-outline
marker lamps that may be fitted).

Rear of vehicle:

a) two pairs of rearward-facing position lamps, one pair below 1.5m and a second pair below 2.1m, fitted symmetrically as
far as possible towards the extremities

b) one pair of rearward-facing position lamps at the top corners

c) six end-outline marker lamps elsewhere on the outline of the vehicle.

Note 2 Definitions

End-outline marker lamp means a position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of the vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps, and includes a cab roof lamp.

Position lamp means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate the presence and dimensions of a vehicle to other road users, being:

a) a forward-facing position lamp (front side or park lamp), or

b) a rearward-facing position lamp (rear side lamp or tail lamp), or

c) a side-marker lamp, or

d) an end-outline marker lamp (including cab roof lamp).

Note 3

A rearward-facing end-outline marker lamp, or a forward-facing end-outline marker lamp fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005, that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements, must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other permitted forward-facing end-outline marker lamps must be made to comply or be fully removed from the vehicle.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with an end-outline marker lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original end-outline marker lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. Lamps visible from the front and from the rear on the same side of the vehicle may be combined into one device.

Note 5

Vehicle manufacturer means the original vehicle manufacturer and the final stage manufacturer in the case of certain modified vehicles (see Technical bulletin 13:  Acceptable overseas proof of modification).

Table 4-9-1. Fitting requirements for end-outline marker lamps

If the vehicle was:

Row

Characteristics of the heavy vehicle

Front

Rear

Mandatory lamps1,4

Maximum permitted lamps2

Maximum permitted lamps2

Vehicle manufactured before 1/4/20113

A

  • A vehicle with a GVM exceeding 11,300 kg
  • A vehicle with a towing connection where the vehicle combination is likely to have a total length exceeding 9.2m

2

12

(No Limit if first registered before 27/2/2005)

6

B

A vehicle with an overall width of 1.8 m or more (other than a vehicle in row A)

Not required

6

4

Vehicle manufactured from 1/4/2011

C

A vehicle with an overall width exceeding 2.1m and with a GVM or GCM exceeding 12,000kg

2

12

6

D

A vehicle with an overall width exceeding 2.1m (other than a vehicle in row C)

2

6

4

E

A vehicle with an overall width of 1.8 m or more (other than a vehicle in row C or D).

Not required

6

4

1 Vehicles in Table 4-9-2 are not required to be fitted with mandatory lamps.

2 Maximum permitted lamps are the maximum number of lamps allowed to be fitted, including mandatory lamps.

3 A vehicle manufactured before 1/4/2011 also has the option of complying with the requirements applicable to vehicles manufactured from 1/4/2011.

4 Mandatory lamps must be positioned at a height no lower than the top edge of the windscreen.

Table 4-9-2. Vehicles exempt from mandatory cab roof requirements

A vehicle fitted with a waste collection unit that incorporates front-loading container handling equipment and a cab protection shield, and which operates predominantly within 50km/h speed limit zones during daylight hours only.

A PSV used exclusively on urban routes.

A vehicle designed principally for carrying ready-mix concrete no more than 9.2m in length, and which operates predominantly in 50km/h speed limit zones.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory, permitted and prohibited equipment

1. A vehicle listed in Table 4-9-1 must or may be fitted with end-outline marker lamps as specified in the table.

2. A vehicle not listed in Table 4-9-1 must not be fitted with end-outline marker lamps.

3. An end-outline marker lamp must be positioned so that it gives an indication of the vehicle’s dimensions.

Condition

4. An end-outline marker lamp must:

a) be in sound condition, and

b) not be obscured (if a mandatory lamp).

Performance

5. An end-outline marker lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

6. A lamp must emit a light that is:

a) diffuse, and

b) substantially white or amber to the front, and

c) substantially red to the rear.

7. A lamp must emit a steady light.

8. An end-outline marker lamp must provide sufficient light output to indicate to other road users the presence and dimensions of the vehicle.

9. A mandatory cab roof lamp must emit a light that is visible from a distance of 100m in daylight and 200m during the hours of darkness.

10. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

11. An end-outline marker lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-10 Stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A heavy vehicle is fitted at the rear with:

a) only one top-mounted lamp, or

b) more than one pair of top-mounted lamps, or

c) top-mounted lamps that are not mounted as close as is practicable to the top corners of the bodywork.

3. A stop lamp (other than top-mounted lamps):

a) in the case of a vehicle with one or one pair, is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

b) in the case of a vehicle with two pairs:

i. the lower pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle), or

ii. the other pair is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment. Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is applied.

Note 2

A permitted stop lamp that does not comply with condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

An original equipment (OE) lamp is one that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer in the original position, or is an equivalent replacement or aftermarket lamp suitable for the position provided by the vehicle manufacturer for that lamp. All other lamps, including those fitted by a body builder, are considered retrofitted (ie non-OE).

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer. This does not include lamps fitted by a body builder.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A heavy vehicle may be fitted with an additional pair of stop lamps that must be symmetrically mounted as near the top corners of the bodywork of the vehicle as is practicable (top-mounted lamps).

2. Stop lamps (excluding top-mounted lamps) may be mounted as follows:

a) one lamp or one pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m, and

b) a second pair at a height from the ground not exceeding 2.1m.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4-11 High-mounted stop lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 is not fitted with one high-mounted stop lamp.

2. A vehicle is fitted with more than two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp is not fitted in a central high-mounted position.

4. A lamp fitted to a group M or N vehicle, except one that does not have a rear window, or that does not have a rear window visible from the rear, has an illuminated surface that is lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard stop lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Condition

6. A lamp is insecure.

7. A mandatory lamp (Note 2) is obscured, or contains moisture in the form of large droplets, runs or puddles.

8. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

9. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance

10. When the service brake is activated:

a) a mandatory (Note 2) lamp does not operate, or

b) a lamp does not remain steadily illuminated.

11. A lamp operates when the service brake is not activated.

12. A lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially red, or

b) diffuse, or

c) projected to the rear, or

d) bright enough to be visible from 100m in normal daylight, eg due to modification, deterioration, dirt or an incorrect light source

13. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

High-mounted stop lamp means a stop lamp that is designed to be fitted in a central, high-mounted position at the rear of a vehicle.

Stop lamp means a lamp that is designed to operate when the service brake is activated.

Note 2

Mandatory lamp – the vehicle must have one high-mounted stop lamp that meets the equipment, condition and performance requirements. Any other high-mounted stop lamp is a permitted lamp. The permitted lamp is not required to operate, but if it does operate, it must meet the equipment, condition and performance requirements, although it may be obscured.

Note 3

A vehicle originally manufactured with a high-mounted stop lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original high-mounted stop lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A class MA vehicle first registered or manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 must be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

2. Any other vehicle may be fitted with one or two high-mounted stop lamps.

3. A lamp on a group M or N vehicle must be fitted in a central high-mounted position at the rear of the vehicle.

4. No part of a lamp’s illuminated surface must be lower than 150mm below the bottom edge of the rear window, except where there is no rear window fitted or visible from behind the vehicle.

5. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Condition

6. A high-mounted stop lamp must be in good condition.

7. At least one high-mounted stop lamp must not be obscured.

Performance

8. A high-mounted stop lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

9. The light emitted from a high-mounted stop lamp must be diffuse light that is substantially red.

10. A high-mounted stop lamp must emit a steady light.

11. At least one unobscured lamp must operate when the vehicle’s service brakes are activated.

12. Where a high-mounted stop lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

13. A high-mounted stop lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

4-12 Rear-reg.-plate illumination lamps

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle is not fitted with at least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) does not meet standard rear-registration-plate illumination lamp requirements, and:

a) does not have a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, or

b) does not meet the conditions of the lighting equipment endorsement in its vehicle identity card.

Performance

3. The lamp emits a light that is not:

a) substantially white, or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse.

4. The lamps are not bright enough to show up the registration plate text from 20m in normal darkness.

5. The light source of a lamp is visible from the rear of the vehicle.

Note 1 Definitions

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the rear registration plate of a vehicle.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rear-registration-plate illumination lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rear-registration-plate illumination lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. At least one rear-registration-plate illumination lamp.

2. A vehicle (eg a vintage or veteran vehicle) manufactured without lamps, or with lamps that cannot meet specified requirements, may obtain a WoF if:

a) the vehicle has a valid vehicle identity card with a lighting equipment endorsement, and

b) the vehicle meets the conditions of that endorsement.

Performance

3. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

4. A lamp must emit a diffuse light that is substantially white.

5. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp must emit a steady light.

6. The light source of the lamp must not be visible from the rear of the vehicle.

7. A lamp must illuminate the figures and letters of the plate so that they are visible from 20m during normal darkness.

8. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A rear-registration-plate illumination lamp that is affected by a modification must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements.

4-13 Rear-reflectors

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle:

a) is not fitted with at least one red rearward-facing reflector on each side, or

b) is fitted with a red rearward-facing reflector that is not in a pair.

2. A class LE vehicle is not fitted with at least one red rearward-facing reflector.

3. A reflector is not positioned to the rear of the vehicle.

4. A retrofitted reflector is fitted at a height from the ground exceeding 1.5m (or 2.1m where fitting below 1.5m is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle).

5. A retrofitted pair of reflectors is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

6. A mandatory reflector’s ability to reflect light is affected by excessive:

a) fading, or

b) scratching or other damage.

7. A mandatory reflector is obscured.

Performance

8. The reflected light from a mandatory reflector is not visible from 100m.

9. A rearward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than red light (this does not apply to reflective material such as conspicuity/reflective tape).

10. The reflected light from a reflector is not red.

Note 1 Definitions

Reflector means a distinct item of lighting equipment that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source, but does not include reflective material (such as reflective tape).

Reflective material means any material that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source and includes reflective tape, but does not include a reflector.

Note 2

A vehicle originally manufactured with a rear reflector arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original rear reflectors provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Figure 4-13-1. Reflector vs reflective material

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. A group M or N vehicle must be fitted with at least one pair of rearward-facing reflectors at a height from the ground not exceeding 1.5m, or if this is not practicable due to the shape of the bodywork of the vehicle, not exceeding 2.1m.

2. A class LE vehicle must be fitted with at least one rearward-facing reflector that reflects light that is visible from 100m.

3. A rearward-facing reflector must be positioned to the rear of the vehicle.

4. A reflector must be of an area that allows it to reflect light to improve the visibility of the vehicle to other road users, but it must not cause them undue dazzle or discomfort.

5. A retrofitted pair of reflectors must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

6. A mandatory reflector must be in good condition and not be obscured.

Performance

7. A reflector must operate in a way that is appropriate for the reflector and the vehicle.

8. A reflector must reflect white light as substantially red light.

9. A reflector must provide sufficient light reflection to fulfil its intended purpose.

Modifications

10. A rear reflector that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details).

4-14 Reversing lamps

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment (Note 2)

1. A vehicle is fitted with more than two reversing lamps at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps is not:

a) symmetrically mounted, or

b) mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition (Note 2)

3. A lamp is insecure.

4. A lens is missing, or has a hole, crack or other damage that allows moisture or dirt to enter.

5. A reflector is damaged or has deteriorated so that light output is reduced.

Performance (Note 2)

6. A lamp controlled by gear engagement continues to display a light to the rear when the reverse gear is disengaged.

7. A lamp controlled by a manual switch continues to display a light to the rear while the headlamps are switched on.

8. When engaged, a lamp emits light that is not:

a) substantially white (Note 3), or

b) steady, or

c) diffuse or a dipped beam.

9. Where a lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), fewer than 75% of these operate.

Note 1 Definitions

Reversing lamp means a lamp designed to illuminate the area behind the vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

Note 2

A reversing lamp that does not comply with equipment, condition and performance requirements must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 3

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 were allowed to use rear indicator lamps as reversing lamps. Although the light emitted is amber rather than white, this arrangement is still permitted for these vehicles.

Note 4

A vehicle originally manufactured with a reversing lamp arrangement that differs from what is required or permitted in this section may retain the original reversing lamps provided they remain fitted in their original position and perform as intended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. One or two reversing lamps fitted at the rear of the vehicle.

2. A retrofitted pair of reversing lamps must be symmetrically mounted as far towards each side of the vehicle as is practicable.

Condition

3. A reversing lamp must be in good condition.

Performance

4. A reversing lamp must operate in a way that is appropriate for the lamp and the vehicle.

5. A reversing lamp, when operated, must emit a diffuse light or a dipped beam of light that is substantially white (Note 3).

6. A reversing lamp must emit a steady light.

7. A reversing lamp may operate only when the reverse gear is engaged or the headlamps are turned off.

8. Where a reversing lamp comprises an array of light sources (eg LEDs), at least 75% of these must operate.

Modifications

9. A reversing lamp that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet equipment, condition and performance requirements, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

4-15 Other lighting

Reasons for rejection

Permitted equipment

1. A cosmetic lamp (ie one not listed in Table 4-15-1) that is fitted to a vehicle:

a) has a part of its light-emitting surface positioned within 250mm of any mandatory lamp, or

b) is not mounted in a fixed position, or

c) is positioned so that its light-emitting surface is visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

3. Retroreflective material fitted within 150mm of a required lamp or retroreflector on a heavy motor vehicle:

a) does not comply with an approved vehicle standard for retroreflective material, or

b) is not fitted in accordance with any other enactment relating to retroreflective material on vehicles.

Performance

4. When switched on, a cosmetic lamp with a light-emitting surface not visible within the shaded areas in Figure 4-15-1 emits a light that:

a) is not diffuse, or

b) flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, or

c) revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, or

d) is too bright and likely to dazzle other road users, or

e) is likely to cause confusion about the orientation of the vehicle, or

f) is red when seen directly from the front, or

g) is not red or amber when seen directly from the rear.

5. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

6. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle reflects white light shining on it as anything other than white or amber light.

Note 1

A rear or side cosmetic lamp that does not comply with requirements for condition or performance must be made to comply, or be disabled so that it does not emit a light.

Note 2

A forward-facing cosmetic lamp fitted to a class NC vehicle first registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005 that does not comply with the equipment, condition and performance requirements, must be made to comply or be disabled so that it does not emit a light. All other forward-facing cosmetic lamps that do not comply must be made to comply or be removed from the vehicle.

Note 3 Definitions

Lamp means a device designed to emit light, and includes an array of separate light sources that appear as a continuous illuminated surface.

Cosmetic lamp means any lamp that is not listed in Table 4-15-1.

Work lamp means a high-intensity lamp that is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate the area or scene and include scene lamps, spot lamps and alley lamps.

Scene lamp means a work lamp designed to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to illuminate the area around the vehicle or the vehicle itself.

Alley lamp means a work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of the vehicle it is fitted to.

Reflective material (or retroreflective material) means any material that is designed to reflect incident light back towards a light source or in a specific direction; but does not include a reflector

Table 4-15-1. Lamps that are not cosmetic lamps

Lamps covered in the VIRM

Other lighting equipment not requiring inspection

Headlamps

Stop lamps

High-mounted stop lamps

Direction indicator lamps

Position lamps
(includes side-marker lamps and end-outline marker lamps)

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamps

Rear reflectors

Fog lamps

Daytime running lamps

Cornering lamps

Reversing lamps

PSV interior lamps

Work lamps

Interior lamps
Designed to illuminate the interior of the vehicle for the convenience of passengers

Flashing or revolving beacons

Illuminated vehicle-mounted signs
Includes PSV destination signs, taxi signs and variable message signs operated by enforcement officers, under a traffic management plan or permitted by other legislation

A light source that is a necessary part of equipment required or permitted by any enactment to be fitted to a vehicle
Includes LEDs that indicate status on eRUC labels

Figure 4-15-1. Visibility angles for cosmetic lamps

visibility angles cosmetic lamps

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A vehicle may be fitted with one or more lamps not specified in Table 4-15-1, provided they are fitted so that light sources are not visible in those regions specified in Figure 4-15-1.

2. A cosmetic lamp must be fitted in a fixed position on the vehicle and positioned so that no part of the light source is situated within 250mm of a mandatory lamp.

3. A work lamp that is fitted to a vehicle is wired in such a way that the switch or circuit for any mandatory or optional lamp controls it.

Performance

3. A cosmetic lamp must:

a) only emit light that is diffuse, and

b) not emit light that flashes or otherwise varies in intensity or colour, and

c) be fitted in a way, and be of a luminance that ensures, that it does not dazzle, confuse or distract other road users, and

d) not emit a light that revolves, rotates or otherwise moves, and

e) not cause confusion as to the orientation of the vehicle, and

f) not emit a red light that is directly visible from the front of the vehicle, and

g) not emit a light other than red or amber if the light is directly visible from the rear of the vehicle.

6. A forward-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

7. A side-facing reflector on a vehicle must reflect white light shining on it as white or amber light.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

4-16 PSV audible and visible reversing warning devices

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy motor vehicle that can carry 13 or more persons, which entered service on or after 1 July 2000, is not fitted with a reversing warning device that operates when the reverse gear is engaged and the engine is running.

Condition and performance

2. With reverse gear engaged and the engine running, the reversing warning device does not give:

a) an audible external warning, or

b) a visible external warning (usually the reversing lamps).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy motor vehicle that can carry more than 12 persons, which entered service on or after 1 July 2000, must be fitted with a device that operates when the reverse gear is engaged and the engine is running, and which gives an audible and visible external warning when the vehicle is reversing.

4-17 PSV interior lighting

Reasons for rejection

1. An interior light for the purpose of illuminating a doorway, aisle or step:

a) does not function, or

b) interferes with the driver’s vision when the doors are closed.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. Interior lights must be positioned so that they adequately illuminate doorways, aisles and steps, but without interfering with the driver’s vision when the doors are closed.

5 Vision

5-1 Glazing

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A glazing marking required in Table 5-1-8 or Table 5-1-9 is missing, except for hard plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages (Note 1).

4. A wire-mesh windscreen stoneguard (Figure 5-1-7):

a) top edge is both above the top of the steering wheel in its highest adjusted position and above 225mm measured from the bottom edge of the windscreen, or

b) has a mesh size smaller than 12mm (Note 2), or

c) makes it difficult to access the windscreen for cleaning.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification
Permitted modifications

6. Refer to general vehicle pages.

7. OE glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle has been permanently removed and:

a) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Windscreen repair

8. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Note 1

With reference to Figure 5-1-8, for heavy vehicles only, the upper and lower boundaries of the CVA must be taken as:

  • Upper boundary: the lower of 100mm from the edge of the glazing or 900mm from the top of the uncompressed seat cushion
  • Lower boundary: the higher of the top of the uncompressed seat cushion or 100mm from the bottom of the windscreen.
Note 2

Objects, whether functional or otherwise (for example signage or badges) must not be attached to a wire-mesh windscreen stoneguard.

Table 5-1-8. Required markings for windscreens on heavy vehicles

Vehicle class

Date of manufacture

Before 1/1/60

1/1/60–31/12/90

1/1/91–30/6/97

From 1/7/97

MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC

Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standard

Safety glass with approved standard

Laminated glass with approved standard

Table 5-1-9. Required marking for other glazing on heavy vehicles

Vehicle class

Date of manufacture

Before 1/2/77

1/2/77–31/12/90

From 1/1/91

MD31, MD41, ME1, NB, NC

Safety glass with approved trade name or approved standard

Safety glass with approved standard

1 Curved scenic skylights above the cant rail, curved windows at front and rear corners, skylights, louvres and interior partitions may be made of transparent material of a kind that does not shatter. This material is not usually marked.

Figure 5-1-7. Stoneguard measurements

Stoneguard measurements

Figure 5-1-8. Windscreen critical vision area (CVA)

Note: Applies to all heavy vehicles, not only buses.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. A glazing marking required in Table 5-1-8 or Table 5-1-9 is missing, unless it is hard plastic glazing behind the driver’s seat in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1991.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification

5. The permanent removal of OE glazing that affects the structural integrity of the vehicle requires certification by an HVS certifier.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

5-2 Sun visors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A sun visor for the driver’s use is not fitted to a vehicle (other than of class LE) which can practicably be fitted with a sun visor (Note 1).

Condition

2. A sun visor:

a) is insecurely mounted, or

b) for the driver, cannot be adjusted from the normal driving position, or

c) cannot maintain its adjusted position, or

d) has been modified or has deteriorated, and the likelihood of injury to vehicle occupants has not been minimised.

Performance

3. A driver’s sun visor does not effectively aid the driver’s vision by intercepting the glare from the sun.

Note 1 Definitions

Sun visor means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle other than of class LE must be fitted with a sun visor for the driver’s use if it is reasonable and practicable to do so (Note 1).

Permitted equipment

2. A vehicle of class LE may be fitted with a sun visor.

3. Additional sun visors may be fitted in other positions.

Condition

4. The condition of a sun visor must be such that the likelihood of injury to occupants is minimised.

Performance

5. A driver’s sun visor must be effective.

Modification

6. A sun visor that is not OE or that has been affected by a modification (Note 1):

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

5-3 Windscreen wipe and wash

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle that has a windscreen is not fitted with a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 is not fitted with a windscreen wash system.

3. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1960 is fitted with wipers that are not power driven.

Condition
Windscreen wipe system

4. The wiper operating device is missing.

5. A wiper arm or wiper blade is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

6. The wiper operating mechanism is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged so as to affect the performance of the wipers.

Windscreen wash system

7. A wash system component is missing or insecure.

8. The wash operating device is missing.

Performance
Windscreen wipe system

9. A windscreen wiper does not wipe the windscreen effectively, preventing adequate forward vision by the driver.

10. The wipe operating device is unable to activate the wipe system.

Windscreen wash system

11. A windscreen wash nozzle does not discharge washer liquid directly onto the windscreen.

12. The wash operating device is unable to activate the wash system.

Modifications

13. A modification affects a windscreen wipe system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Table 5-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

Removal of a windscreen wash system from a vehicle manufactured before 1/1/1992

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe system.

2. A vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1992 that is fitted with a windscreen must have a windscreen wipe and wash system.

3. Windscreen wipers must be power driven, unless they follow OE specifications in a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1960.

Permitted equipment

4. A vehicle may be fitted with a wash system when this is not required.

Condition

5. A vehicle’s windscreen wipe system must be efficient and within the vehicle manufacturer’s operating limits.

Performance

6. The equipment fitted must be capable of keeping an adequate area of the windscreen clean and clear so that the vehicle may be operated safely under all reasonably foreseeable conditions.

Modifications

7. An OE windscreen washing system may be removed from a vehicle manufactured before 1 January 1992.

8. A modification to the windscreen wipe system must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 5-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition, and performance.

5-4 Rear-view mirrors

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A class MD3, MD4, ME, NB or NC vehicle is not fitted with:

a) an outside left-hand rear view mirror, or

b) an outside right-hand rear view mirror.

2. An unclassified vehicle is not fitted with at least one rear view mirror.

Permitted equipment

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A class MD3, MD4, ME, NB and NC vehicle must be fitted with an outside left-hand and an outside right-hand rear-view mirror.

2. An unclassified heavy vehicle must be fitted with at least one rear-view mirror.

Permitted equipment

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Performance

5. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

6. A rear-view mirror that is affected by a modification or repair:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require HVS certification.

5-5 PSV driver's vision

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The driver’s view through the windscreen or front side window is obstructed.

2. A passenger seat is positioned so that its occupant obstructs the driver’s view through the windscreen or front side windows.

3. The interior of the vehicle, except a stretch limousine, cannot be clearly seen by the driver either:

a) directly, or

b) indirectly using mirrors or closed-circuit cameras (Note 1).

4. A person in the exterior vicinity of any door used by passengers cannot be clearly seen by the driver either:

a) directly, or

b) indirectly using existing rear-view mirrors, additional mirrors, or closed-circuit cameras.

5. A required closed-circuit camera has a screen that does not operate.

Note 1

The indirect view may be provided using rear-view mirrors (section 5-4), additional mirrors, or closed-circuit cameras.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Performance

1. The vehicle must provide the driver with a direct or indirect (Note 1) clear view of:

a) the interior of the vehicle (except for stretch limousines), and

b) any person in the exterior vicinity of any door used by passengers.

2. Seats must not be positioned where their occupants will obstruct the driver’s view through the windscreen or front side windows.

3. A closed-circuit camera system may be fitted to provide the driver with an indirect view on a television screen.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

5-6 PSV demisters

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. The windscreen or a side window used by the driver is not equipped with demisting equipment.

Condition and performance

2. The demisting equipment:

a) does not operate, or

b) is ineffective, eg the air is not hot enough or there is insufficient volume, or

c) cannot be operated from the driver’s seat.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. The front windscreen and side windows used by the driver must be equipped with effective demisting equipment, adjustable from the driver’s seat.

6 Entrance and exit

6-1 Door and hinged panel retention systems

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle does not have a door retention system.

2. A vehicle for transporting prisoners which does not have doors in the prison compartment that can be opened from the inside, has no alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

3. A hinge for a door or other hinged panel is not securely attached to both the vehicle body and to the door or other hinged panel due to loose connections, corrosion or other damage (Note 1).

4. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers cannot be opened from the inside, unless the vehicle is designed or adapted to transport prisoners and the door is inoperable from the inside of the prison compartment.

5. A child safety lock or similar safety device cannot be deactivated.

6. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the hinge of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

7. There is corrosion damage within 150 mm of the latch of a door or other hinged panel (see Figure 6-1-1).

Equipment performance

8. A door used for entrance and exit of the driver or passengers does not open or close easily.

9. A door or other hinged panel does not remain secure in a closed or locked position.

Modifications

10. A modification (Note 2) affects door or hinged panel retention systems, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Note 2 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Child safety lock (also known as a kiddi-lock) means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from the inside of the vehicle.

Tables and images

Table 6-1-1 Modifications that do not require LVV certification
Fitting of or modification to:LVV certification is not required provided that:
Exterior door handles (on doors normally used for entry and exit of occupants)
  • the modification is minor (eg removal of key locks), and
  • door handles remain fitted and in serviceable condition.

Note
The fitting of a door opening/closing mechanism (which may include the removal of exterior door handles) that differs from original must be LVV certified.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:
Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
Figure 6-1-1 Hinge and latch anchorages

Figure 6-1-1

No corrosion damage is allowed within 150mm of a circle around the outside of hinge or latch components.

See also figures for corrosion limits to structure (section 3-1), seatbelt anchorages (section 7-5), and front or rear suspension anchorages (section 9-1).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle fitted with doors used by the driver or passengers for entrance and exit of the motor vehicle must have a door retention system.

Permitted equipment

2. The door retention system on doors to the rear of the driver’s seat may incorporate safety devices installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from the inside of the vehicle (eg child safety locks).

3. A vehicle designed or adapted to transport prisoners is not required to be fitted with a mechanism for opening a door from the inside if the prison compartment has an alternative exit that can be operated by an authorised person in an emergency.

Equipment condition

4. A door retention system and its mountings must be safe and structurally sound.

5. A door used for the entrance and exit of the driver or passengers must be operable by any occupant seated by the door from inside the motor vehicle, unless it is permitted equipment designed or adapted to operate otherwise.

6. The vehicle must be designed and constructed using components and materials that are fit for their purpose, and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Equipment performance

7. A door retention system must be in good working order.

8. A door used for entrance and exit must open and close easily.

9. A door used for entrance and exit must remain secure in a closed position during the operation of the motor vehicle.

Modifications

10. A modification that affects door or hinged panel retention systems must be inspected and certified by a low volume vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 6-1-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

6-2 PSV doors and doorways

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
General

1. Refer to section 6-1.

2. A heavy PSV does not have all doorways for normal passenger entry and exit on the left-hand side of the vehicle, unless it is an outdoor access vehicle with a doorway provided for passenger entry and exit in the rear.

3. A heavy PSV has a doorway on the right-hand side of the vehicle unless it is a vehicle a vehicle fitted with equipment for people with special mobility requirements.

4. An outdoor-access vehicle does not have at least one doorway for passenger entry or exit either on the left-hand side or in the rear of the vehicle.

5. On a motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 July 2000, a door, except for a left-front door alongside and within direct line of sight of the driver, does not have a device that warns the driver if the door is not closed properly when the vehicle is stationary or driven away.

Power-operated doors

6. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV before 1 July 2000 that has a door which is controlled from the driver’s seat does not have either:

a) a sign by the door, in letters at least 10 mm high, which states: In an emergency use door control by the driver’s seat, or

b) emergency controls which:

i. are fitted on or next to the door, both inside and outside the vehicle, or

ii. have easy-to-understand operating instructions fitted next to them, both inside and outside the vehicle.

7. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 July 2000 that has a door which is controlled from the driver’s seat does not have emergency controls which:

a) can be operated in an emergency when the PSV is stationary, or

b) are fitted on or next to the door, both inside and outside the vehicle, or

c) have easy-to-understand operating instructions fitted next to them, both inside and outside the vehicle.

Condition and performance
General

8. Refer to section 6-1.

9. A door locks automatically when it is closed.

10. A small passenger service vehicle (Note 2) has a speed-sensitive or other automatic central locking device that causes any door to be locked while the vehicle is stationary.

11. A passenger service vehicle, other than a small passenger service vehicle (Note 2), has a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from inside the vehicle, eg a child safety lock (Note 1), and the safety device has not been removed or permanently deactivated, and

a) a valid exemption cannot be produced, or

b) an approved sign (Figure 6-2-2) is not displayed adjacent to the exterior handle of each rear side door, or

c) the approved sign is not clearly legible.

12. A small passenger service vehicle (Note 2) has a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from inside the vehicle, eg a child safety lock (Note 1), and the safety device has not been removed or permanently deactivated, and

a) an approved sign (Figure 6-2-2) is not displayed adjacent to the exterior handle of each rear side door, or

b) the approved sign is not clearly legible.

13. A door that is not controlled by the driver cannot be opened from outside the vehicle.

14. A doorway provided for passenger entry or exit is obstructed.

15. A device to warn the driver that the door is not closed properly:

a) does not function correctly, or

b) is not effective.

16. A door or doorway is in such a condition that it is likely to injure passengers entering or leaving the vehicle.

17. An emergency door control sign or operating instruction is not clearly legible.

18. An emergency door control:

a) cannot be operated when the PSV is stationary, or

b) does not allow the door to be opened manually in the event of a power failure, or

c) has a component that has significantly deteriorated so that its operation in an emergency is likely to be compromised.

19. A handrail or handhold for assisting people who are entering or leaving the vehicle is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) significantly deteriorated so that it is likely to injure passengers.

Power-operated doors

20. A power-operated door is such that it is likely to injure or trap a person eg by excessive opening or closing force, or damage or deterioration (Note 3).

Modification

21. A door or doorway was modified since the last CoF inspection and there is no written confirmation that items affected by the modification comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Note 1

Child safety lock (also known as a kiddi-lock) means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from the inside of the vehicle.

Note 2

Small passenger service vehicle means a vehicle used for use in a passenger service for the carriage of passengers that is designed or adapted to carry 12 or fewer persons (including the driver).

Note 3

A power-operated door may be deemed acceptable in terms of potential injury or entrapment of a person due to excessive closing force if:

a) the door is located at the left-front of the vehicle within the driver’s clear view from his seat (without using mirrors or CCTV), and is opened and closed by means of a driver-operated control, or

b) the door automatically opens when it meets an obstruction, and remains open until being closed using the driver-operated control, or

c) in the event that the door closes onto part of a person, the person can readily extract the trapped part. For compressed air- or vacuum-operated doors only see Technical Bulletin 5: Door test procedure: Compressed air- or vacuum-operated doors).

Figure 6-2-1. Approved child safety lock sign (white text on red background)

child safety lock 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
General

1. Refer to section 6-1.

2. Heavy PSV and doorways for passenger entry or exit must be on the left-hand side of the vehicle, unless:

a) the vehicle is an outdoor-access vehicle, and a doorway for passenger entry or exit is provided in the rear, or

b) the vehicle is fitted with equipment for people with special mobility requirements.

3. On a motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 July 2000, a door, except a left-front door alongside and within direct line of sight of the driver, must have a device that warns the driver if the door is not closed properly.

4. A heavy PSV must be fitted with handrails or handholds which are suitable to assist people who are entering or leaving the vehicle.

Power-operated doors

5. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV before 1 July 2000 that has a door which is controlled from the driver’s seat must have:

a) a sign by the door, in letters at least 10 mm high, which states: In an emergency use door control by the driver’s seat, or

b) emergency controls which:

i. can be operated in an emergency when the PSV is stationary, and

ii. are fitted on or next to the door, both inside and outside the vehicle, and

iii. have easy-to-understand operating instructions fitted next to them, both inside and outside the vehicle.

6. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 July 2000 that has a door which is controlled from the driver’s seat must have emergency controls which:

a) can be operated in an emergency when the PSV is stationary, and

b) are fitted on or next to the door, both inside and outside the vehicle, and

c) have easy-to-understand operating instructions fitted next to them, both inside and outside the vehicle.

Performance
General

7. A door and its operation must meet the requirements of section 6-1, except:

a) safety devices installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent the doors from being opened from the inside of the vehicle (eg a child safety lock (Note 1)) must be removed or permanently deactivated (unless the vehicle is a small passenger service vehicle (Note 2) and a sign approved by the NZTA is displayed at the outer door handle), and

b) doors that are not controlled by the driver must be able to be opened from both inside and outside the vehicle when someone is in the vehicle except when the occupant has locked the doors, and

c) a door must be operable by any occupant next to the door, from inside the vehicle.

8. A doorway provided for passenger entry or exit must be clear of obstruction.

9. A door must not lock automatically when it is closed.

10. Speed-sensitive or other automatically operating central-locking devices fitted to a small passenger service vehicle (Note 2) must not automatically cause any door to be locked while the vehicle is stationary.

Power-operated doors

11. A power-operated door must be maintained so that the opening and closing force of the door, or its method of operation, is unlikely to injure or trap any person (Note 3).

Modification

12. If a PSV doorway has been modified since it was last certified for operation in-service and the modification has affected the door’s operation or the doorway dimensions, items affected by the modification must comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Page amended 1 November 2014 (see amendment details).

6-3 PSV entry and exit steps, ramps and hoists

Note An unmodified vehicle is not required to comply with Summary of legislation 1–5 or Reasons for rejection 1–4 provided that it complies with either:

  • UN/ECE 36 and UN/ECE 66; UN/ECE 107 and UN/ECE 66; UN/ECE 52 or Directive 2001/85/EC.

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. A wheelchair hoist fitted to a PSV that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 or a wheelchair hoist fitted to a PSV on or after 1 July 2000 does not have evidence of HVS certification, ie:

a) the hoist was fitted before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

b) the hoist was fitted after the last CoF inspection and:

i. a valid LT400 form has not been presented, or

ii. the HVS certifier was not of the category, HVEC, HVIC or HVMC.

2. A wheelchair hoist fitted to a PSV that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 or a wheelchair hoist fitted to a PSV on or after 1 July 2000 does not have evidence that it is load-rated for 300kg or more.

Mandatory equipment

2. A heavy PSV is not fitted with a panel to prevent the feet of seated passengers from protruding into any nearby stairwell or ramp in such a way as to create a hazard.

3. A heavy PSV is not fitted with a guardrail or equivalent item both:

  • to the rearward side of any stairwell or ramp if passengers can stand or sit behind the stairwell or ramp, and
  • to the forward side of the stairwell or ramp if there is a rearward- or sideways-facing seat in front of it or if passengers can stand in front of it.
Condition and performance

4. An entry and exit step or ramp:

a) does not have a slip-resistant tread surface, or

b) does not provide safe entry or exit for occupants, eg:

i. the tread surface is slippery or has significantly deteriorated, or

ii. the structure or its attachment is loose or has significantly deteriorated.

5. A ramp or retractable step does not:

a) operate correctly, or

b) remain secure in its retracted position or when in use.

6. A panel fitted to prevent the feet of seated passengers from protruding into any nearby stairwell or ramp:

a) is insecure, or

b) has deteriorated so that it is likely to injure occupants.

7. A guardrail or equivalent item:

a) is insecure, or

b) has deteriorated so that it is likely to injure occupants.

Wheelchair hoists (Note 1)

8. A wheelchair hoist:

a) does not operate correctly, or

b) is not securely fitted to the vehicle, or

c) has a component which is missing, insecure or has significantly deteriorated, or

d) if power operated, does not incorporate a braking function that actuates when the control device is released, or

e) when powered down, does not have a device that prevents jacking of the vehicle, or

f) if side-mounted, does not have a means of warning the driver when the hoist is not stowed, or

g) has moving parts which touch the vehicle during the raising/lowering cycle, or

h) platform does not provide safe parking for the wheelchair, or

i) is not fitted with a constraint to prevent the wheelchair rolling off the platform, or

j) platform cannot be manually deployed and lowered.

Wheelchair ramps (Note 2)
A wheelchair ramp and its fitting to the vehicle must comply with all of the requirements specified below. HVS certification is required if the vehicle inspector has reason to doubt the safety of the wheelchair ramp and its fitting to the vehicle.

9. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair ramp that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair ramp on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair ramp and its fitting to a PSV:

a) does not, from the driving position, allow an unobstructed view (either directly or indirectly) of :

i. the exterior and interior of the doorway used for entry and exit, or

ii. the wheelchair parking position, or

iii. the ramp, unless the ramp is power operated and cannot be seen clearly by the driver, or

b) if it is power operated and cannot be clearly seen by the driver, does not stop or retract if it meets an obstruction before it is fully extended, or

c) does not have on the ramp side edges:

i. a safety ridge, or

ii. a conspicuous stripe at least 20 mm wide, or

d) does not have adequate illumination of the fully extended ramp to enable safe use during the hours of darkness, or

e) if it is power operated:

i. has no audible warning while the ramp is extending or retracting, or

ii. has no safety system to prevent the vehicle from moving off while the ramp is extended, or

iii. cannot be manually deployed and lowered in the event of a power failure.

10. A wheelchair ramp:

a) if side-mounted, has no device that warns the driver when the ramp is not stowed, or

b) has a moving part which touches the vehicle during the raising/lowering cycle.

Modification

11. An entry and exit step or ramp, or a wheelchair hoist or ramp, was modified since the last CoF inspection and there is no written confirmation that items affected by the modification comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Note 1

Wheelchair hoist means an appliance attached to the vehicle which is used for raising or lowering wheelchairs and their occupants into or out of the vehicle.

Note 2

Wheelchair ramp means an inclined platform that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle to allow wheelchairs and their occupants into or out of the vehicle.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair ramp that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair ramp on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair ramp and its fitting to a PSV must be certified by an HVS certifier.

2. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair hoist that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair hoist on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair hoist and its attachment to a PSV must be certified by an HVS certifier.

3. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair hoist that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair  hoist on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair ramp must display a load rating of at least 300kg.

Mandatory equipment

3. A heavy PSV must be fitted with a panel to prevent the feet of seated passengers from protruding into any nearby stairwell or ramp in such a way as to create a hazard.

4. A heavy PSV must be fitted with a guardrail or equivalent item:

a) to the rearward side of any stairwell or ramp if passengers can stand or sit behind the stairwell or ramp, and

b) to the forward side of the stairwell or ramp if there is a rearward- or sideways-facing seat in front of it or if passengers can stand in front of it.

Condition and performance

5. The step-tread surfaces of entry and exit steps and ramps must be of a slip-resistant material.

6. Entry and exit steps and ramps must provide safe entry or exit for the occupants of a PSV.

7. External steps and ramps must be constructed so that they are not likely to injure any person.

Wheelchair hoists (Note 1)

8. The vehicle must be safe to be operated.

9. The components and materials must be fit for their purpose and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Wheelchair ramps (Note 2)

10. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair ramp that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair ramp on or after 1 July 2000:

a) there must be an unobstructed view from the driving position, either directly or indirectly of the:

i. exterior and interior of the doorway used for entry and exit, and

ii. wheelchair parking position, and

iii. ramp, except where the ramp is power operated and cannot be seen clearly by the driver, it must be fitted with a sensor so that the ramp stops or retracts if it meets an obstruction before it is fully extended, and

b) ramps must have a slip-resistant surface, and

c) ramps must have:

i. a safety ridge along the side edges, or

ii. a conspicuous stripe, at least 20mm wide, along the side edges, and

d) there must be adequate illumination of the fully extended ramp to enable safe use during the hours of darkness, and

e) power-operated ramps must:

i. be fitted with a device that gives audible warning while the ramp is extending or retracting, and

ii. have a safety system to prevent the vehicle from moving off while the ramp is extended, and

iii. be able to be operated in the event of power failure.

Modification

11. An entry and exit step or ramp, or a wheelchair hoist or ramp, fitted to or modified on a heavy PSV since it was last certified for operation in-service must meet the requirements for entry certification.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

6-4 PSV emergency exits

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Emergency exits (Note 3)

1. The compartment (Note 2) of a heavy PSV does not have at least (Note 6):

a) two emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 26 or fewer persons, or

b) three emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 27 or more persons, or

c) four emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 36 or more persons and the vehicle entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1999.

Signs and markings (Note 1)

2. A dedicated emergency exit does not have at least one of the following:

a) a coloured band on the inside frame, at least 20mm wide, which contrasts with the background

b) signs on the exit, both inside and outside the PSV, with the words EMERGENCY EXIT in letters that are at least 75mm high.

3. A clear instruction sign for opening the exit:

a) is not displayed on or next to every dedicated emergency exit and power-operated passenger entry and exit door, both inside and outside the PSV, or

b) does not include the word "Emergency" in letters that are at least 10mm high, or

c) does not have words or drawings that identify the exit, and that clearly identify and describe or illustrate its operating mechanism.

Dedicated emergency exits (Note 4)

4. A breakable-glass dedicated emergency exit does not have a device (eg a hammer) that is capable of breaking the glass fitted in a prominent position on or next to the glass, inside the PSV.

5. The glazing of a breakable-glass dedicated emergency exit:

a) is laminated, or

b) is not made of readily breakable, toughened safety glass (refer to section 5-1 of this manual for markings), or

c) has been modified, covered or treated in a way which might adversely affect the breakability or the removal of the glass, eg it has a vinyl overlay.

6. A chain or similar device used to retain a dedicated emergency exit is not easily breakable or detachable.

7. A seat which is designed to tilt out of the way to provide access to a dedicated emergency exit does not have:

a) a single-action tilting mechanism, or

b) a tilting mechanism that has an automatic locking device which locks the seat in the tilted position, or

c) operating instructions.

Performance
Dedicated emergency exits (Note 4)

8. The removal of a readily removeable glass-breaking device (eg a hammer) does not generate an audible or visible warning to the driver that the hammer has been removed or tampered with.

9. A dedicated emergency exit, including its control mechanisms or associated equipment:

a) is likely to injure or trap any person, if it is operated according to the operating instructions, or

b) does not open easily from both inside and outside the vehicle when stationary, or

c) has sharp edges on the frame, or

d) has security locks or similar devices that do not give audible and visible warning to the driver when the exit is locked and the engine is running.

10. Internal access to a dedicated emergency exit is obstructed.

11. A hinged or hatch-type dedicated emergency exit does not open easily from both inside and outside the PSV (Note 5).

12. The opening of a hinged or hatch-type dedicated emergency exit does not generate an audible warning to the driver that the opening mechanism is activated, with the exception of:

a) an emergency hatch in the floor of the upper deck of a double-decked vehicle

b) an emergency roof hatch, if its internal opening device is sealed in such a way that it is clearly apparent if the seal has been opened

c) an emergency window, if its internal opening device is sealed in such a way that it is clearly apparent if the seal has been opened.

Modification

13. An emergency exit was modified (including fitting or removal) since the last CoF inspection and there is no written confirmation that items affected by the modification comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Note 1

These requirements are for heavy PSV emergency exit signs. Section 7-10 covers signs and instructions generally.

Note 2

Compartment, for the purposes of emergency exits, means:

a) the separated driver’s compartment

b) the upper and lower passenger compartments of a double-decked vehicle

c) the front and rear sections of the passenger compartment of an articulated bus

d) the passenger compartment of a single-decked non-articulated bus.

Note 3

Emergency exit means:

a) a door used for the entry and exit of the occupants and, for this purpose, a door of double width is a single emergency exit

b) the access between the front and rear sections of an articulated bus

c) the stairway from the upper deck to the lower deck

d) a dedicated emergency exit.

Note 4

Dedicated emergency exit means any doorway, window, hatch or other opening that is designed and constructed solely to provide a means of leaving the vehicle in the event of an emergency.

Note 5

Check the operation of an emergency exit only if it can be done without causing damage.

Note 6

A sliding or similar type of dedicated emergency exit, which is likely to jam even with slight distortion of the vehicle body, must not be taken into account when counting the number of required emergency exits

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Emergency exits (Note 3)

1. The compartment (Note 2) of a heavy PSV must have at least:

a) two emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 26 or fewer persons, or

b) three emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 27 or more persons, or

c) four emergency exits, if the compartment accommodates 36 or more persons and the vehicle entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1999.

Signs and markings (Note 1)

2. A dedicated emergency exit must have:

a) a coloured band on the inside frame, at least 20 mm wide, which contrasts with the background, or

b) signs on the exit, both inside and outside the PSV, with the words EMERGENCY EXIT in letters that are at least 75mm high.

3. A clear instruction sign for opening the exit must be displayed:

a) both inside and outside the vehicle on or next to every:

i. power-operated passenger entry and exit door, and

ii. dedicated emergency exit, and

b) the clear instruction sign must include:

i. the word "Emergency" in letters that are at least 10 mm high, and

ii. words or drawings that identify the exit, and clearly identify and describve or illustrate its operating mechanism.

Dedicated emergency exits (Note 4)

4. A breakable-glass dedicated emergency exit must have a device that is capable of breaking the glass to enable the safe exit of passengers:

a) is provided in a prominent position on or next to the glass, on the inside of the vehicle, and

b) if the device is readily removeable there must be an audible or visual alarm system that alerts the driver if the device is removed or tampered with.

5. Seats which are designed to tilt out of the way to provide access to a dedicated emergency exit must have:

a) a single-action tilting mechanism, and

b) a tilting mechanism that has an automatic locking device which locks the seat in the tilted position, and

c) operating instructions.

6. A chain or similar device used to retain the dedicated emergency exit must be easily breakable or detachable.

7. The glazing of a breakable-glass dedicated emergency exit must:

a) not be laminated, and

b) be made of readily breakable, toughened safety glass (refer to section 5-1 of this manual for markings), and

c) not be modified, covered or treated in a way which might adversely affect the breakability or the removal of the glass.

Performance
Dedicated emergency exits (Note 4)

8. A dedicated emergency exit, its control mechanisms and associated equipment must comply with the following requirements:

a) its operation must be unlikely to injure or trap any person, if it is operated according to the operating instructions, and

b) it must open easily from both inside and outside the vehicle when stationary, and

c) the frame must not have sharp edges, and

d) security locks or similar devices , if fitted, must have a device which gives audible and visible warning to the driver when the exit is locked and the engine is running.

9. Internal access to a dedicated emergency exit must not be obstructed.

10. A dedicated emergency exit must open easily from both inside and outside the PSV.

11. A dedicated emergency exit must have an audible alarm system to warn the driver if the opening mechanism is activated, with the exception of:

a) a breakable-glass dedicated emergency exit

b) an emergency hatch in the floor of the upper deck of a double-decked vehicle

c) an emergency roof hatch or emergency window, if its internal opening device is sealed in such a way that it is clearly apparent if the seal has been opened.

Modification

12. If an emergency exit or dedicated emergency exit is modified (including fitting or removal) on a heavy PSV since it was last certified for operation in-service, the emergency exit or dedicated emergency exit must meet the requirements for entry certification.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

7 Vehicle interior

7-1 Seats and seat anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

3. A modification or repair since 1 April 2002 (Note 1) affects a seat or seat anchorage and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 7-1-2), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Note 1

If the vehicle inspector is in doubt as to when the modification or repair was carried out the onus is on the vehicle owner to provide evidence to support their claim or specialist certification will be required.

Table 7-1-2. Requirements for HVS certification

Certification required

Certification not required

1. Retrofitting a seat that:

a) has an integrated seatbelt, or

b) is not fitted to existing unmodified OE seat anchorages.

1. Seat modification or replacement, or installation of a seat anchorage, provided that:

a) the seat is either an unmodified OE seat from another vehicle or of a known and reputable aftermarket brand, and

i. the seat is fitted to unmodified OE seat anchorages, and

ii. the anchorage or operation of seatbelts is not affected, and

iii. the relationship between seat, seat occupant, and location of the seatbelt anchorages is not affected.

2. Removal of seats and/or seatbelts (however, a class change and a new load rating may be required in some cases).

3. Fitting or modification to seat pads or covers.

4. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed, eg the manufacturer’s representative, or a reputable workshop).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to to general vehicle pages.

Modifications

3. A modification on or after 1 April 2002 (Note 1) that affects a seat or seat anchorage must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for HVS certification (Table 7-1-2), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

7-2 PSV seating

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair or wheelchair and occupant restraint that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair-occupant restraint on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair or wheelchair and occupant restraint has not been certified by an HVS certifier.

Mandatory and permitted equipment

2. The driver’s seat is not adjustable.

3. Refer to section 7-1, general vehicle pages.

4. There is a seat on the right-hand side of the driver’s seat.

5. A forward-facing passenger seat (Note 2), other than one fitted with a seatbelt or facing a longitudinal aisle, does not have another seat, partition, guardrail or equivalent fitting installed in front of it within 1m of the front edge of the seat to prevent a passenger sitting on the seat from being thrown forward.

6. A vehicle (Note 4), except any outdoor-access vehicle (Note 3), that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand:

a) before 1 July 2000 does not have armrests fitted to the open ends of sideways-facing seats, or

b) on or after 1 July 2000 does not have armrests fitted to sideways-facing seats at intervals of 1.8m or less as well as to the open ends of sideways-facing seats.

7. A folding crew seat (Note 1):

a) is fitted other than in the stairwell of the front doorway, or

b) does not fold away automatically when unoccupied, or

c) does not have clear signs stating that the seats:

i. are for use by crew members only, or

ii. must be secured in the fold-away position when they are not being used.

8. A folding or tilting passenger seat (Note 2):

a) is fitted to the stairwell forward of the front axle, or

b) is fitted to the stairwell behind the front axles and does not have operating instructions.

Wheelchair and wheelchair-occupant restraints

9. A passenger service vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, and is designed to carry a forward-facing wheelchair and occupant, is not fitted with a restraint system for a wheelchair.

10. A heavy passenger service vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, and is designed to carry a rearward-facing wheelchair and occupant, is not fitted with a backrest head support. 

11. A restraint system for a wheelchair, or for a wheelchair and occupant, on a vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or that was fitted with such equipment on or after 1 July 2000 does not include:

a) a horizontal handrail adjacent to the wheelchair parking position for wheelchair occupants to steady themselves while the passenger service vehicle is moving, or

b) a means of preventing the wheelchair from tipping backwards, or

c) a head support if the back of the wheelchair occupant’s head would be against a window, bulkhead or partition, or

d) a means of preventing the wheelchair from swinging out of position or tipping over, or

e) a sign adjacent to the wheelchair parking position stating that the restraint system must be secured and the wheelchair’s brakes applied, or

f) easily accessible quick-release mechanisms.

Condition and performance

12. Refer to section 7-1, general vehicle pages.

13. A wheelchair or wheelchair-occupant restraint does not meet the condition and performance requirements of section 7-5, general vehicle pages.

Folding or tilting passenger seats fitted in stairwells

14. A folding or tilting passenger seat is fitted to the stairwell behind the front axle and:

a) the front doorway is obstructed, or

b) operating instructions for the seat are not clearly displayed, or

c) the seat does not lock automatically, both when in use and in the fold-away or tilted position, or

d) the risk of injury to the seat operator has not been minimised, or

e) the seat could injure persons using the stairwell where the seat is located.

Position of driver’s seat and controls

15. The driver does not have safe and reasonably easy access to the driver’s seat.

16. The driving controls are not protected, or located in such a way as to minimise the risk that they will be operated accidentally.

Modification

17. A seat or seating arrangement, including a wheelchair or wheelchair occupant restraint system, has been modified since the last CoF inspection and there is no written confirmation that items affected by the modification comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Note 1

Crew, in relation to a PSV, means the person or group of persons in control or having responsibility for the operation of the vehicle or the wellbeing of the passengers.

Note 2

Passenger means a person travelling in a vehicle but does not include the crew.

Note 3

Outdoor-access vehicle means a motor vehicle that is used to provide access to remote areas solely in connection with outdoor activities.

Note 4

Sideways-facing passenger seats may be fitted in a heavy motor vehicle without armrests if:

a) the seats fold down for use and fold away when not in use to enable the carriage of wheelchairs or pushchairs, and

b) a row of sideways-facing seating positions is no more than 1.8m wide.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. On a vehicle fitted with a wheelchair or wheelchair and occupant restraint that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or on a PSV fitted with a wheelchair-occupant restraint on or after 1 July 2000, a wheelchair-occupant restraint must be certified by an HVS certifier.

Mandatory and permitted equipment

2. A driver’s seat must be adjustable to ensure the driver has access to the driving controls.

3. Refer to section 7-1, general vehicle pages.

4. There must not be a seat on the right-hand side of the driver’s seat.

5. Every forward-facing passenger seat (Note 2) must have either another seat, a partition or a guard rail positioned no more than 1m in front of the front edge of the seat unless the seat is:

a) fitted with a seatbelt, or

b) fitted in a heavy passenger service vehicle and is facing a longitudinal aisle.

6. A vehicle (Note 4), except any outdoor-access vehicle (Note 3), that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand:

a) before 1 July 2000 must have armrests fitted to the open ends of sideways-facing seats, or

b) on or after 1 July 2000 must have armrests fitted to sideways-facing seats at intervals of 1.8m or less as well as to the open ends of sideways-facing seats.

7. Folding crew seats:

a) may be fitted only in the stairwell of the front doorway of a PSV and

b) must fold away automatically when unoccupied, and

c) must have clear signs stating that the seats:

i. are for use by crew members only, and

ii. must be secured in the fold-away position when they are not being used.

8. A heavy PSV may be fitted with folding or tilting passenger seats, with operating instructions, to the stairwell behind the front axle.

Wheelchair and wheelchair-occupant restraints

9. A restraint system for a wheelchair, or for a wheelchair and occupant, on a vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000, or that was fitted with such equipment on or after 1 July 2000, must comply with all of the following requirements:

a) there must be a horizontal handrail adjacent to the wheelchair parking position for wheelchair occupants to steady themselves while the passenger service vehicle is moving, and

b) the wheelchair must be prevented from tipping backwards, and

c) a head support must be fitted if the back of the wheelchair occupant’s head would be against a window, bulkhead or partition, and

d) a restraint system must be fitted to prevent the wheelchair from swinging out of position or tipping over, and

e) there must be a sign adjacent to the wheelchair parking position stating that the restraint system must be secured and the wheelchair’s brakes applied, and

f) the restraint system must include easily accessible quick-release mechanisms.

10. A passenger service vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 that is designed to carry a forward-facing wheelchair and occupant, must be fitted with a restraint system for a wheelchair.

11. A heavy passenger service vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 that is designed to carry a rearward-facing wheelchair and occupant, must be fitted with a backrest head support and may be fitted with a restraint system for a wheelchair.

Condition and performance

12. Refer to section 7-1, general vehicle pages.

Folding or tilting passenger seats fitted in stairwells

13. A folding or tilting passenger seat fitted to the stairwell behind the front axle must comply with the following:

a) there must be an unobstructed doorway in front of the front axle for passenger entry or exit, and

b) the seats must lock automatically, both when in use and in the fold-away or tilted position, and

c) operating instructions for the seats must be clearly displayed, and

d) the seats must be designed to minimise the risk of injury to the passengers using the seats, and

e) provision must be made to ensure that the seat mechanism cannot cause injury to passengers using the concealed stairwell.

Position of driver’s seat and controls

14. The driver must have safe and reasonably easy access to the driver’s seat.

15. The driving controls must be protected, or located in such a way as to minimise the risk that they will be operated accidentally.

Modification

16. Refer to section 7-1, general vehicle pages.

17. If a passenger seat, crew seat, wheelchair restraint system, or wheelchair and occupant restraint system is fitted, relocated or modified in a heavy PSV since it was last certified for operation in-service, the passenger seat, crew seat, wheelchair restraint system, or wheelchair and occupant restraint system must comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

7-3 Head restraints

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint have deteriorated to the extent that they are likely to injure a vehicle occupant.

2. An adjustable head restraint is unable to remain locked in its adjusted position.

Modification

3. A modification (Note 1) affects a head restraint, and

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card, or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Note 1 Definitions

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Table 7-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is not required provided that:

Head restraint removal

  • A front-seat head restraint must not be removed from a vehicle required to comply with a frontal impact occupant protection standard. These vehicles are the following with a GVM of 2500 kg or less:

– a class MA motor vehicle manufactured from 1 March 1999

– a class MA motor vehicle that was less than 20 years old when it was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 April 2002,

– a class MB or MC motor vehicle manufactured from 1 October 2003.

Fitting of aftermarket LCD screens to head restraints

  • the performance of the head restraint is not affected, eg the head restraint still provides sufficient padding for the seat occupant, and
  • the screen is fitted in a suitable manner, eg it appears similar to OE fitments in other vehicles, or
  • the screen can be easily attached or removed.

Fitting of or modification to:

LVV certification is never required:

  • Removal of a rear head restraint
  • Any modification for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services
       
  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Permitted equipment

1. A motor vehicle may be fitted with head restraints.

Condition and performance

2. The external surfaces and padding of a head restraint must not have deteriorated to the extent that the likelihood of injury to an occupant of the vehicle is increased.

3. An adjustable head restraint must remain able to be adjusted and locked into position.

Modification

4. A modification that affects a head restraint must be inspected and certified by an LVV specialist certifier, unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for LVV specialist certification (Table 7-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

7-4 PSV aisles

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A PSV does not have at least one of the following:

a) an aisle to provide unobstructed access throughout the PSV from each doorway used for passenger entry and exit

b) a door alongside every seat or every row of forward-facing or rearward-facing seats

c) a doorway that gives access to a compartment with fewer than nine seating positions in two rows of seats that face each other and opens into the space between the seats

d) in an outdoor-access vehicle with sideways-facing seats, at least a 300mm space between the front edges of seats which face each other, and at least 300mm foot room for any other seats.

Aisle steps and ramps

2. A flight of aisle steps, an internal ramp or a landing is not provided with handrails, handholds, or handgrips.

Aisles in a PSV used for standing passengers

3. A PSV with a certificate of loading that allows standing passengers is not fitted with handrails, handholds or handgrips whose number and location are appropriate for:

a) the number of passengers permitted to occupy the aisle, or

b) passengers of different heights.

Condition and performance

4. A light, push button, air vent or similar device:

a) projects more than 5mm into the required minimum aisle space, or

b) is not designed to minimise the risk of injury to passengers.

5. A handrail, handhold or handgrip is:

a) not suitable, or

b) not securely attached, or

c) in a condition such that it is likely to injure a person.

6. The aisle step-tread surfaces are:

a) not of a slip-resistant material, or

b) slippery or have deteriorated so that they are no longer safe to use.

Modification

7. An aisle arrangement was modified since the last CoF inspection and there is no written confirmation that items affected by the modification comply with the requirements for entry certification.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. An aisle is required in a PSV to provide unobstructed access throughout the PSV from each doorway used for passenger entry and exit, except where:

a) there is a door alongside every seat or every row of forward- or rearward-facing seats, or

b) a doorway:

i. gives access to a compartment with fewer than nine seating positions in two rows of seats which face each other, and

ii. opens into the space between the seats, or

c) the sideways-facing seats in an outdoor-access vehicle have at least a 300mm space between the front edges of seats which face each other, and there is at least 300mm foot room for any other seats.

Aisle steps and ramps

2. Aisle steps, internal ramps and landings must be provided with suitable handrails, handholds or handgrips.

Aisles in a PSV used for standing passengers

3. If the certificate of loading allows standing passengers to be carried on the PSV, handrails, handholds or handgrips must be fitted, whose number and location must be appropriate for the number of passengers permitted to occupy the aisle and for passengers of different heights.

Performance

4. An aisle, where required, must provide unobstructed access throughout the PSV from each doorway used for passenger entry and exit.

5. The aisle, where required, must be clear of any fixture, except that lights, push buttons, air vents, and similar devices may project up to 5mm into the required minimum aisle-height space, provided it is designed to minimise the risk of injury to passengers.

Aisle steps and ramps

6. The aisle step-tread surfaces must be of a slip-resistant material.

Modification

7. If an aisle in a PSV has been modified since it was last certified for operation in-service, the aisle must meet the requirements for entry certification.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

7-5 Seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy open-bodied vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2001 and is fitted with seatbelts, does not have legible signs that state that passengers must remain seated with seatbelts on while the vehicle is moving.

Condition

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

4. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy open-bodied vehicle that entered passenger service in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2001, if fitted with seatbelts, must have signs that state that passengers must remain seated with seatbelts on while the vehicle is moving.

Condition

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

4. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

7-6 Frontal impact airbags

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification (Note 3)

3. A modification affects an airbag system (eg an airbag has been removed or made inoperable, including retrofitting a switch), and

a) the modification is not for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

b) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from a HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

4. A motor vehicle that has an airbag system removed or made inoperable and been certified as above does not:

a) have all OE signs, lights, or other devices that indicated that the vehicle was fitted with an airbag removed, or

b) if the signs, lights or other devices cannot be readily removed, have a label that indicates an airbag has been removed permanently attached in a prominent location where it is clearly visible to any occupant of the seating position that was previously protected by the airbag.

Note 1

Some modifications are permitted, but they must always be HVS certified. The only modifications permitted are:

1. fitting a switch to render an airbag temporarily inoperable, and

2. the removal or permanent deactivation of an airbag in a vehicle that:

  • is at least 14 years old, or
  • has been adapted for a person with a disability, or
  • has been extensively modified for motorsport use.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Permitted equipment

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification

4. A motor vehicle that has had its airbag removed or made inoperable must either:

a) have all OE signs, lights, or other devices that indicated the vehicle was fitted with an airbag removed, or

b) if the signs, lights, or other devices cannot be readily removed, have a label that indicates an airbag has been removed permanently attached in a prominent location where it is clearly visible to any occupant of the seating position that was previously protected by the airbag.

5. A modification that affects an airbag system must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier unless the vehicle is:

a) excluded from the requirement for HVS certification, and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

7-7 Interior impact

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. An outdoor-access vehicle is not fitted with energy-absorbent material on all the interior surfaces that could come into contact with the occupants when the vehicle is vigorously manoeuvring or in a crash.

2. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 is not fitted with energy-absorbent material to:

a) the tops of exposed partitions, which are less than 1.2m high, situated in front of seats, or

b) the tops of seats, except in the following limited areas:

i. at the upper corners of seat backs which are dedicated handholds and which are integrated parts of the seat frames

ii. where the upper point of a lap-and-diagonal seatbelt is fitted.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4. Energy-absorbent material is missing, damaged or has deteriorated to the extent that the likelihood of injury to passengers is increased.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. If the vehicle is an outdoor-access vehicle it must be fitted with energy-absorbent material on the interior surfaces that could come into contact with the occupants when the vehicle is vigorously manoeuvring or in a crash.

2. A motor vehicle that entered service as a PSV in New Zealand on or after 1 July 2000 must be fitted with energy-absorbent material to:

a) the tops of exposed partitions, which are less than 1.2m high, situated in front of seats, and

b) the tops of seats, except in a limited area:

i. at the upper corners of seat backs which are dedicated handholds and which are integrated parts of the seat frames, or

ii. to which the upper point of a lap-and-diagonal seatbelt is fitted.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

7-8 PSV heating and ventilation

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A PSV does not have ventilation that is provided by at least one of the following:

a) opening windows or roof hatches,

b) forced ventilation.

2. The driver does not have at least one independently adjustable means of ventilation.

Condition and performance

3. A window or roof hatch used for ventilation cannot be easily opened.

4. A forced ventilation system:

a) does not operate, or

b) has insufficient air flow.

5. An interior heating system is installed in a way that does not minimise the risk of occupants being burned.

6. The operation of an interior heating, ventilation or air-conditioning system introduces harmful gases into the vehicle.

7. A window opening (not including a window next to a driver or a window next passenger seating position that is next to a driver):

a) next to a passenger seat and below 610mm above the uncompressed seat cushion allows a 125mm sphere to pass through it, or

b) with no seat next to it and below 1.5m above the floor allows a 125mm sphere to pass through it.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A PSV must have ventilation that is provided by:

a) opening windows or roof hatches, or

b) forced ventilation.

2. The driver must have at least one independently adjustable means of ventilation.

Condition and performance

3. The ventilation system must provide adequate ventilation throughout the length of the passenger compartment.

4. An interior heating system must be installed in a way that will minimise the risk of occupants being burned.

5. An interior heating or air-conditioning system must be designed and constructed so that no harmful fumes associated with its operation can be introduced into the vehicle.

6. Ventilation air intakes must be in a position which minimises the possibility of introducing exhaust gases or other harmful fumes into the passenger compartment.

7. The design and construction of an opening window (not including a window next to a driver or a window next passenger seating position that is next to a driver) must ensure that a sphere of 125mm diameter cannot be passed through that part of the opening which:

a) is below the height of 610mm above the uncompressed seat cushion, if there is a seat other than the driver’s seat next to that window, or

b) is below 1.5m above the floor, if there is no seat next to that window.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

7-9 PSV fire protection

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment
Fire extinguishers

1. A PSV that has more than 12 seating positions is not equipped with a fire extinguisher.

2. The fire extinguishers in a PSV with more than 12 seating positions are not appropriate for:

a) the size of the vehicle, or

b) the materials used in the construction of the vehicle, or

c) the type of fuel used, eg a trolley bus has a fire extinguisher filled with water.

3. A passenger compartment (Note 1) that has more than 12 seating positions does not have at least one fire extinguisher.

4. A fire extinguisher does not have clear and simple operating instructions, in English or with pictorial symbols, attached to it.

5.  A PSV required to have a fire extinguisher does not have a fire extinguisher located near the driver:

a) that is also clearly visible to passengers, or

b) where there is clearly visible signage that indicates its location to passengers.

6. If a fire extinguisher is located within a closed container, the container does not:

a) have a cover that is readily removable or breakable by a passenger, or

b) clearly display instructions that explain how to access the fire extinguisher in an emergency, or

c) enable a driver to confirm that the fire extinguisher is present by:

i. being sufficiently transparent to enable a clear view of the fire extinguisher, or

ii. being equipped with an audible or visual alarm system that alerts the driver if the extinguisher is not in place when the vehicle’s engine is running.

Condition and performance
Fire extinguishers

7. A fire extinguisher:

a) does not have a date of inspection recorded on or near the fire extinguisher, or

b) is past its specified re-inspection period (usually printed on the extinguisher), or

c) is not within six months of the last recorded inspection, where no re-inspection period is specified, or

d) is showing ‘low’ on its charge indicator, or

e) is not sealed, that is it may have been discharged and needs recharging or replacement.

Note 1

Compartment, for the purposes of fire extinguishers, means

a) the separated driver's compartment

b) the upper and lower passenger compartments of a double-decked vehicle

c) the front and rear sections of the passenger compartment of an articulated bus

d) the passenger compartment of a single-decked non-articulated bus.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Fire extinguishers

1. A PSV that has more than 12 seating positions must be equipped with fire extinguishers that are appropriate for:

a) the size of the vehicle, and

b) the materials used in the construction of the vehicle, and

c) the type of fuel used.

2. Every passenger compartment (Note 1) must have at least one fire extinguisher if that passenger compartment has more than 12 seating positions.

3. Clear and simple operating instructions, in English or with pictorial symbols, must be attached to each fire extinguisher.

4. One of the fire extinguishers must be located near the driver, clearly visible to the passengers and must:

a) be clearly visible to the passengers, or

b) have clearly visible signage that indictaes its location to passengers.

5. If a fire extinguisher is located within a closed container, the container must:

a) have a cover that is readily removable or breakable by a passenger, and

b) clearly display instructions that explain how to access the fire extinguisher in an emergency, and

c) enable a driver to confirm that the fire extinguisher is present by:

i. being sufficiently transparent to enable a clear view of the fire extinguisher, or

ii. being equipped with an audible or visual alarm system that alerts the driver if the extinguisher is not in place when the vehicle’s engine is running.

Condition and performance
Fire extinguishers

6. A fire extinguisher must be:

a) inspected regularly as is appropriate for the particular make and model of fire extinguisher, and the date of the inspection must be recorded on or near the fire extinguisher, and

b) sealed so it is clearly apparent if it has been discharged and needs recharging or replacement.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

7-10 PSV signs and instructions

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. A sign or instruction is:

a) not in a simple typeface, or

b) not in a colour which contrasts with the background of the sign, or

c) obscured by other fittings, or

d) incomplete, or

e) illegible.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. Signs and instructions:

a) must be in a simple typeface, and

b) must be in a colour which contrasts with the background of the sign, and

c) must not be obscured by other fittings.

7-11 PSV emergency passenger signals

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle in which direct communication between the passengers and driver is restricted by a partition, obstruction or for some other reason, has no other form of communication between the passengers and the driver in case of emergency (Note 1).

Condition and performance

2. An emergency communication system between passengers and driver:

a) is in poor condition, or

b) does not operate as intended.

Note 1

This does not include signalling equipment designed to indicate to the driver that a passenger wishes to alight at the next stop.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. If direct communication with the driver is restricted by a partition, obstruction or for some other reason, signalling equipment must be installed to provide the passengers with some other form of communication with the driver in case of emergency.

7-12 Speedometer

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 December 1951 that is capable of a speed exceeding 50km/h is not fitted with a speedometer, and the vehicle operator cannot produce acceptable written evidence (Note 2) that:

a) the speedometer has been removed for repair, or

b) there are no undue delays by the vehicle owner in having the speedometer replaced.

Condition and performance

2. The speedometer:

a) does not operate as intended when the vehicle is moving forward, or

b) is obscured from the driver’s position, or

c) does not indicate the vehicle’s speed in km/h or mph.

3. Reason for rejection 2(a), 2(b) or 2(c) applies and the vehicle operator cannot produce acceptable written evidence (Note 2) that repair of the speedometer or associated equipment is impracticable or that a suitable replacement is not available.

Note 1

Speedometer means an instrument in a motor vehicle that continuously indicates to the driver the forward speed of the vehicle in either kilometres per hour (km/h) or miles per hour (mph). For clarification: This definition does not include the speed provided by a GPS system.

Note 2

Acceptable written evidence is documentation provided by the speedometer repairer or supplier. A copy of the documentation must be kept on file with the checksheet.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 December 1951 that is capable of a speed exceeding 50km/h must be fitted with a speedometer (Note 1).

2. A vehicle is not required to have a speedometer if the speedometer or associated equipment:

a) has been removed for repair and there are no undue delays by the vehicle owner in having it replaced, or

b) is out of repair, repair is impracticable and a suitable replacement is not available.

Condition and performance

3. The speedometer must be in good working order and operate while the vehicle is moving forward.

Modification

4. A speedometer that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment, condition and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

7-13 Audible warning devices

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle is:

a) not fitted with a horn, or

b) fitted with a bell or whistle (Note 2), or

c) not an emergency vehicle (Note 1) and is fitted with a siren (Note 2).

2. A horn cannot be easily operated from the driver’s seating position.

Performance

3. The horn does not operate when activated.

4. The horn operates when not activated.

5. The sound from the horn is not steady and continuous, eg the horn plays a tune.

6. The horn is not audible at a distance of 100 m.

7. A siren fitted to an emergency vehicle operates when not activated.

Note 1

Emergency vehicle means a vehicle used for the attendance of emergencies and operated:

a) by an enforcement officer, or

b) by an ambulance service, or

c) as a fire service vehicle, or

d) as a civil defence emergency vehicle, or

e) as a New Zealand Defence Force emergency vehicle.

Note 2

A vehicle may be fitted with a bell, whistle or siren that is part of an anti-theft car alarm, personal security alarm or reversing warning device.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle must be fitted with a device (horn) that is audible to other road users.

Permitted equipment

2. A vehicle may be fitted with a bell, whistle or siren only as follows:

a) a siren fitted to an emergency vehicle (Note 1), or

b) a siren, bell or whistle that is part of an anti-theft car alarm, personal security alarm or a reversing warning device.

Performance

3. The device must be in good working order.

4. The device must be capable of giving a warning that is audible under normal traffic conditions from a distance of at least 100 m.

Modification

5. An audible warning device that is affected by a modification:

a) must meet the requirements for equipment and performance, and

b) does not require LVV specialist certification.

8 Brakes

8-1 Service brake, parking brake and heavy vehicle emergency brake

See also Heavy vehicle brake testing: CoF and entry certification brake test protocol and procedure

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment
Service brake

1. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Parking brake

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Emergency brakes

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The emergency brake of a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 that is combined with the service brake or with a parking brake that acts on the transmission does not meet the requirements of Table 8-1-8.

Hoses and other flexible tubing

5. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Compressed air brake systems

6. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

7. An air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand before 10 February 1978 is not fitted with either:

a) a visual low pressure warning device fitted to the service brake reservoirs that is clearly visible from the driver’s normal driving position, or

b) an air pressure gauge that indicates the pressure in a brake reservoir (Note 1).

8. An air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 is not fitted with an air pressure gauge that indicates the pressure in a brake reservoir (Note 1).

9. The service brake reservoirs of an air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 are not fitted with a low pressure warning device that is clearly visible and/or audible from the driver’s normal driving position.

Vacuum brake systems

10. A heavy PSV with more than 9 seating positions that uses a vacuum to boost the force supplied by the driver to apply the brakes and is fitted with a vacuum reservoir, is not fitted with both of the following:

  • an audible warning device
  • a vacuum gauge.
Hydraulic brake systems

11. A heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1954 with brakes that are operated by pump-generated hydraulic pressure is not fitted with both of the following:

  • an audible warning device
  • a visible warning lamp or a suitable pressure gauge that is able to indicate both the maximum and minimum pressures being  used.
Permitted equipment

12. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Prohibited equipment

13. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition

14. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Performance
Service brake

15. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Parking brake

16. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Compressed air brake systems

17. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

18. Reservoir capacity of a heavy PSV – with the air pressure in the braking system at its maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer and the compressor stopped, the reserve of stored compressed air does not provide:

a) For a vehicle that complies with Australian Design Rule 35 or a European brake standard:

i. three full service brake applications, with full release of the brakes after each application, before the low-pressure warning device operates, and

ii. two full applications, with full release of the brakes, after the low-pressure warning device operates.

b) For a vehicle that does not comply with a European brake standard:

i. five full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low pressure warning operates, and

ii. two full applications with full release of the brakes after the low pressure warning operates, or

Note A full service-brake application is considered to be made when the brake pedal is fully depressed and there is no further movement of the brake actuators.

19. Compressor capacity of a heavy PSV – with the vehicle’s engine at maximum governed speed or if not governed, then at a speed determined by the vehicle inspector, the compressor is not capable of raising the air pressure in the braking system to the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer within:

  • 90 seconds, starting from the pressure to which the brake system falls from the maximum specified operating pressure as a result of fully applying and releasing the service brakes five times.

20. A required low pressure warning device does not give a continuous signal, visible or audible, that clearly indicates to the driver when the pressure in any of the service brake reservoirs is below the minimum safe operating pressure unless the parking brake is fully applied or an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position (Note 2).

21. A service brake reservoir air-pressure gauge does not operate correctly.

22. A heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 has more than one air service brake circuit and there is no protection between those circuits (Note 3).

Vacuum brake system

23. On a heavy PSV with more than nine seating positions that uses vacuum to boost the force supplied by the driver to apply the brakes and is fitted with a vacuum reservoir:

a) The audible warning device does not give continuous signal at any time the vacuum in the vehicle’s reservoir has less than 25 kilopascals or its equivalent (200mm mercury), or

b) The vacuum gauge does not indicate to the driver at all times the vacuum in kilopascals, or its equivalent, available in the reservoir.

Hydraulic brake system

24. The audible warning device and the visible warning lamp/suitable pressure gauge fitted to a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1954 with brakes tht are operated by pump-generated hydraulic pressure:

a) is not clearly visible to the driver (day and night) from the normal driving position, or

b) does not operate correctly.

Modification and certification

25. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Note 1

A vehicle may be fitted with more than one gauge, but only one gauge that indicates the pressure in one service brake reservoir is necessary. A gauge fitted to a supply reservoir (wet tank) cannot be used to indicate the pressure in a service brake reservoir.

Note 2

Where the minimum safe operating pressure is not specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer, the minimum safe operating pressure is taken as 50% of the correctly adjusted cut-out pressure for the compressor-governor.

Note 3

Protection, in this case, means a system to prevent a brake failure that lowers the pressure in one service brake circuit below the minimum safe operating pressure from lowering the pressure in any other service brake circuits below the minimum safe operating pressure.

Note 4

A supply reservoir (wet tank) is a brake reservoir from which the service brake reservoirs receive compressed air.

Table 8-1-8. Emergency brake Requirements for heavy PSVs

Vehicle with hydraulic service brake first registered 10 February 1978 to 31 October 1990

All vehicles first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 November 1990 except those in the right hand column

Vehicles first registered in New Zealand 1 November 1990 to 31 December 1994, when the parking brake acts on the transmission, and brakes not modified since manufacture

Full dual-circuit service brake1, and

a) one of those circuits activates the brake on all the front wheels and the other circuit activates the brake on all the rear wheels, or

b) each circuit activates the brake on at least one-third of the wheels.2

Full dual-circuit service brake1, and

a) one of those circuits activates the brake on all the front wheels and the other circuit activates the brake on all the rear wheels, or

b) each circuit activates the brake on at least one-third of the wheels.2

EITHER

A full dual-circuit service brake1, and

a) one of those circuits activates the brake on all the front wheels and the other circuit activates the brake on all the rear wheels, or

b) each circuit activates the brake on at least one-third of the wheels2

OR

A dual-line service brake that is fitted with a tandem/ dual master cylinder

OR

A single-line hydraulic service brake that is divided into two independent circuits through and excess flow-prevention valve, and the brake fluid reservoir is fitted with a low-level warning device.

1 For a hydraulic system, this means a dual or tandem master cylinder.

2 Both circuits acting together must activate the brake on all the wheels.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment
Service brake

1. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Parking brake

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Emergency brakes

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The emergency brake of a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 that is combined with the service brake or the parking brake acts solely through the transmission must meet the requirements of Table 8-1-8.

Hoses and other flexible tubing

5. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Compressed air brake systems

6. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

7. An air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand before 10 February 1978 must be fitted with either:

a) one (or more) pressure gauge(s), readily visible to the driver at all times from the driver’s normal driving position, to indicate to the driver the pressure in the brake reservoir(s), or

b) a device that provides a continuous signal that is clearly visible from the driver’s normal driving position if the pressure in one or more of the brake reservoirs is below the minimum safe operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer.

8. An air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 must be fitted with one (or more) pressure gauge(s), readily visible to the driver at all times from the driver’s normal driving position, to indicate to the driver the pressure in the brake reservoir(s).

9. An air-braked heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 must be fitted with a device that provides a continuous signal that is clearly visible or audible from the driver’s normal driving position if the pressure in one or more of the service brake reservoirs is below the minimum safe operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer. An audible signal may be rendered inoperative only while the parking brake is fully applied or an automatic transmission is in the park position.

Vacuum brake systems

10. A heavy PSV with more than nine seating positions first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 that uses a vacuum to boost the force supplied by the driver to apply the brakes and is fitted with a vacuum reservoir, must be equipped with:

a) a device that provides a continuous signal that is clearly audible to the driver, and

b) a vacuum gauge.

Hydraulic brake systems

11. A heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1954 with brakes that are operated by pump-generated hydraulic pressure must be fitted with an audible warning device, and either:

a) a warning lamp, or

b) a suitable pressure gauge that is able to record both the maximum and minimum pressures being used.

Permitted equipment

12. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Prohibited equipment

13. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition

14. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Performance

15. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Service brake

16. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Parking brake

17. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Compressed air brake systems

18. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

19. Reservoir capacity of a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 – with the air pressure in the braking system at its maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer and the compressor stopped, the reserve of compressed air of the braking system must provide a minimum of:

a) in the case of a vehicle that complies with Australian Design Rule 35 or a European brake standard:

  • three full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low-pressure warning operates, and 2 further full applications after the low pressure warning device operates, or

b) in the case of a vehicle that does not comply with a European brake standard:

  • five full service brake applications with full release of the brakes after each application before the low pressure warning device operates, and two further full applications after the low pressure warning device operates,

Note A full service-brake application is made when all the brake actuators on the vehicle are operated to apply their associated brakes in an effective manner.

20. Compressor capacity of a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 – at the maximum governed speed, or where the engine is not governed at a speed determined by the vehicle inspector, the compressor shall be capable of raising the pressure in the braking system to the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle or brake manufacturer within the following time:

  • In not more than 90 seconds, starting from the pressure to which the brake system falls from the maximum operating pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer or brake manufacturer as a result of fully applying and releasing the service brakes five times.

21. For a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 that has more than one compressed air service or parking brake circuit, a failure in any service or parking brake circuit that lowers the pressure in any service or parking brake reservoir below the pressure at which the low pressure warning device starts to operate, must not reduce the pressure in any other service or parking brake reservoir below that pressure.

Vacuum brake system

22. A heavy PSV with more than nine seating positions first registered in New Zealand on or after 10 February 1978 that uses vacuum to boost the force supplied by the driver to apply the brakes and is fitted with a vacuum reservoir , must meet the following requirements:

a) the audible warning device must give continuous warning at any time the vacuum in the vehicle’s reservoir has less than 25 kilopascals or its equivalent (eg 200mm mercury), and

b) the vacuum gauge must indicate to the driver, in kilopascals or equivalent units, the vacuum available in the reservoir.

Hydraulic brake system

23. The audible warning system and the visible warning system / suitable pressure gauge fitted to a heavy PSV first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 September 1954 with brakes that are operated by pump-generated hydraulic pressure must ensure that the driver at all times becomes aware immediately that the minimum hydraulic pressure is less than the pressure necessary for the safe operation of the vehicle.

Modification and certification

24. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

9 Steering and suspension

9-1 Steering and suspension systems

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy PSV first registered on or after 1 September 1966 and before 1 September 1999 is not fitted with an axle stop, shackle stop or similar device to prevent the front axle from moving backwards to such an extent that the driver is likely to lose directional control should a suspension component fail in service.

Prohibited equipment

2. A passenger service vehicle has its steering column to the left of the longtitudinal centreline of the body of the vehicle (meaning left-hand drive).

Condition and performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The condition of the PSV is such that excessive body sway is likely to adversely affect the steering stability.

5. An axle stop, shackle or other suspension safeguard is:

a) missing (where originally fitted), or

b) insecure, or

c) bent, or

d) cracked, or

e) excessively corroded or otherwise weakened.

Modification and repair

6. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A heavy PSV first registered on or after 1 September 1966 and before 1 September 1999 must be fitted with axle stops, shackle stops or other devices to prevent the front axle from moving backwards to such an extent that the driver is likely to lose directional control should a suspension component fail in service.

Permitted equipment

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Prohibited equipment

3. A left-hand drive may not enter service as a passenger service vehicle.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. A PSV must be maintained so that no excessive body sway will occur which is likely to adversely affect the steering stability.

5. Axle stops, shackles, or similar devices must be maintained within safe tolerance of their original condition.

Modification and repair

6. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Page amended 1 May 2017 (see amendment details).

10 Tyres, wheels and hubs

10-1 Tyres and wheels

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. On a groundspreader or dedicated groundsprayer fitted with multiple tyre sets that are made up of tyres of different size or construction:

a) the tyre sets are not fitted so that those fitted at one end of the axle mirror those fitted at the other end of the axle.

3. The tyres on an axle do not meet at least one of the following:

a) the tyre ply ratings:

i. are the same on a class MD3 vehicle

ii. differ by no more than two on a vehicle of other than class MD3

b) the tyre load indices:

i. differ by no more than two on a class MD3 vehicle

ii. differ by no more than six on a vehicle of other than class MD3

c) where no load index is indicated, the tyre load ratings (kg) on an axle differ by no more than 21% of the lowest rating.

Condition

4. Refer to general vehicle pages.

5. A tyre shows damage that is likely to compromise its ability to operate in a safe manner or lead to premature tyre failure, such as:

a) a lump or bulge that is likely to be caused by separation of the tyre structure, or

b) a cut or crack in a side wall or tread more than 25mm long that reaches the cords (see (Note 2) for visible cords in the tread area of heavy vehicle radial-ply tyres), or

c) exposed or cut cords (see (Note 2) for visible cords in the tread area of heavy vehicle radial-ply tyres), or

d) the tread of a retreaded tyre shows signs of separation, or

e) nails or other sharp objects embedded in the tyre, or

f) significant perishing, eg due to age, moisture or exposure.

Modification and repair

6. A modification or repair affects the tyres and wheels and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 10-1-4), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Note 1 Definitions

Central tyre inflation system means a type of tyre pressure control system that adjusts tyre pressure for the purpose of inflating and deflating tyres to improve tyre adhesion and reduce road surface damage and is under the central control of the driver or an automated system, or a combination of both the driver and an automated system (commonly known as ‘CTI’).

Dedicated groundsprayer means a self-propelled or trailing machine whose sole function is the application of chemicals or liquid fertiliser to crops or to the ground.

Groundspreader means a vehicle designed specifically for the carriage of powder or particulate artificial fertilisers on the road, and for the distribution of those fertilisers directly from the vehicle onto the land by means of a mechanical or pneumatic distributor that forms part of the vehicle.

Protective belt, sometimes called a protective ply or breaker, means an optional layer of ply material (cords) located immediately under the tread to minimise damage to the structural belts beneath.

Note 2

Where a heavy vehicle radial-ply tyre has visible cords in the tread area, the vehicle inspector may pass such a tyre for CoF provided the tyre is in a safe condition, eg only the protective cord layer (protective belt, see Figure 10-1-5) is visible. When determining whether such a tyre is in a safe condition, the vehicle inspector may take into account written evidence from a person who has current specialist tyre knowledge and experience, particularly in heavy vehicle tyre inspection.

Table 10-1-4. Requirements for HVS certification

HVS certification is required

HVS certification is not required

1. Increase of track width beyond vehicle manufacturer’s specified limits.

2. Fitting of tyres additional to the limit specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

3. Modified wheels (including fitting of different rims).

1. Modified wheels with written evidence from the vehicle manufacturer that the complete assembly of tyre, hub and axle is within the vehicle manufacturer’s operating limits. Such approval is likely to contain the approved tyre and wheel sizes and the maximum track, separately for all axles, together with the maximum number of wheels fitted to one axle, and may also include a few restrictions such as reduced axle load and so on (see Technical bulletin (CoF) 2).

2. Retrofitting a tyre pressure control system in accordance with the equipment manufacturer’s instructions.

3. Fitting a regrooved tyre identified as specifically designed and constructed for the process of regrooving after manufacture.

4. Any modification or repair likely to have been carried out before 1 January 1997 (modifications and repairs before this date generally required certification but for inspection purposes no evidence of this is required).

5. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed, eg the manufacturer’s representative, or a reputable workshop).

Figure 10-1-5. Cross-sectional representation of a heavy vehicle radial-ply tyre 

Figure 10-1-5. Cross-sectional representation of a heavy vehicle radial-ply tyre

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment

1. Refer to general vehicle pages.

2. Individual tyres of multiple tyre sets on groundspreaders or dedicated groundsprayers may be of different sizes or construction in the same set, but each multiple tyre set must be the same as the other multiple tyre set on the same axle.

Condition

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4. A heavy vehicle radial-ply tyre may have visible cords in the tyre tread area provided the tyre is in a safe condition. To assess whether such a tyre is in a safe condition, the vehicle inspector may take into account written evidence from a person who has current specialist tyre knowledge and experience, particularly in heavy vehicle tyre inspection.

Modification and repair

5. A modification or repair that affects the tyres or wheels must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier of category HVEC, HVMC or HVIC, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for HVS certification (Table 10-1-4), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 14 October 2013 (see amendment details).

10-2 Hubs and axles

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory and permitted equipment (Note 1)

1. A rigid heavy vehicle is not supported by:

a) a single or twin-steer axle set at the front, or

b) a single, tandem or tri-axle set at the rear.

2. An axle set, other than a twin-steer axle set, is not load sharing.

3. The manufacturer’s plate for a tandem axle set (except for a tandem axle set in a heavy passenger service vehicle) with a twin-tyred axle and a large single-tyred axle (where these were fitted from 1 July 2002):

a) is missing, or

b) is not legible, or

c) does not show:

i. the load-share ratio of the axle set, or

ii. a ratio that is either 60:40 or 55:45, or

iii. the tyre size on each axle, or

iv. the maximum individual axle ratings, or

d) has details that do not match the vehicle.

4. A heavy vehicle is fitted with one or more rear steering axles, and the vehicle is not one of the following types:

a) a mobile crane

b) the rear unit of an articulated bus

c) a rigid vehicle without a heavy tow coupling, provided that no more than half of the axles within the rear axle set steer at any one time

d) a specialist vehicle designed to transport overdimension or overweight load, or to primarily carry out a specialist function that requires overdimension equipment.

5. A mobile crane does not have at least either a non-steering axle or a steering axle capable of being locked so that it is non-steering.

6. A heavy vehicle is presented towing an A-train or B-train and is fitted with a retractable axle in its rear axle set.

7. A device for altering the distribution of mass between axles has been fitted to the vehicle when:

a) the device does not lift an unpowered axle clear of the ground, or

b) the device reduces the mass carried by an unpowered axle without lifting it clear of the ground, but the device:

i. does not have a spring-loaded control, ie when the control is released, the mass on the unpowered axle does not revert to what it was before the operation of the control, or

ii. does not have a control with an automatic timing device with an activation time of not more than two minutes after which the mass on the unpowered axle reverts automatically to what it was before the operation of the control, and with a non-activation time of at least 30 seconds during which the control cannot be activated again.

8. A sliding axle set is not fitted with both:

a) an effective locking device to prevent inadvertent extension or separation, and

b) endstops at the end of the slideway to prevent separation of the sliding parts if the primary locking device fails.

Condition

9. Refer to general vehicle pages.

10. A sliding axle assembly has deteriorated, eg:

a) a chassis rail/guide, locking pin or other component is missing, deformed, cracked or otherwise worn or damaged, or

b) a locking pin is too small or too short, or

c) there is an air leak from the lock pin air ram.

11. A locking of a sliding axle locking device is either:

a) not readily verifiable by visual inspection, or

b) the vehicle is not equipped with a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if the axle is not locked in one of the locking positions (Note 2).

12. A sliding axle locking device is bent, worn or otherwise damaged, or has deteriorated so that it is not effective.

13. A sliding axle locking device does not operate correctly.

14. A sliding axle endstop is:

a) missing, or

b) insecure, or

c) damaged.

Performance

15. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

16. A modification or repair affects the hubs or axles and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for HVS certification (Table 10-2-2), or

b) the modification is not for the purpose of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services, or

c) is missing proof of HVS certification, ie:

i. the vehicle was modified or repaired before the last CoF inspection and no LANDATA record has been entered, or

ii. the vehicle was modified or repaired since the last CoF inspection and no valid LT400 form from an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD has been presented.

Note 1

For specialist overdimension vehicles, none of the equipment Reasons for rejection or Summaries of legislation apply except numbers 2 and 7, that is axle sets must be load sharing, and axle mass redistribution devices must meet specified requirements.

Note 2

An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position, and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position.

Note 3 Definitions

Load-sharing axle set means an axle set suspension system that has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the set and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if:

a) the load were divided in the axle set so that each tyre carries an equal load, or

b) the axle set is a tandem-axle set comprising a twin-tyred axle and a large single-tyred axle and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that:

i. 60% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 40% of the load is borne by the large single-tyred axle, or

ii. 55% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 45% of the load is borne by the large single-tyred axle.

Retractable axle means an axle that has a convenient adjustment to allow the axle load distribution of the axle set to be varied substantially. An axle that is retracted is not considered to be part of the axle set.

Specialist overdimension vehicle means:

a) a vehicle designed primarily to transport overdimension or overweight loads, or

b) a vehicle whose primary purpose is to carry out a specialist function that requires overdimension equipment, and

i. dismantling of the vehicle’s equipment would make the equipment unusable for its intended purpose, or

ii. it would take more than four hours to dismantle the vehicle’s equipment.

Table 10-2-2. Requirements for HVS certification

HVS certification is required

HVS certification is not required

1. An axle that is modified, including a replacement axle that is not identical to the one fitted by the vehicle manufacturer.

2. Fitting of an additional axle.

3. A retractable axle.

1. Any modification or repair likely to have been carried out before 1 January 1997, (modifications and repairs before this date generally required certification but for inspection purposes no evidence of this is required).

2. Any repair or modification not listed in the left-hand column unless the vehicle inspector considers that certification is required because the modification or repair has affected the vehicle’s safety performance (a second opinion from an expert may be needed, eg the manufacturer’s representative, reputable workshop).

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory and permitted equipment (Note 1)

1. A rigid heavy vehicle must be supported by a front single or twin-steer axle set, and by a rear single, tandem or tri-axle set.

2. The axle sets, except a twin-steer axle set, of a heavy vehicle must be load sharing.

3. A tandem-axle set (except for a tandem axle set in a heavy passenger service vehicle) with a large single-tyred axle must have a manufacturer’s indelible plate clearly visible to the person weighing the vehicle that specifies the:

a) load-share ratio of the axle set of 60:40 or 55:45, and

b) tyre size on each axle, and

c) maximum individual axle ratings.

4. A heavy vehicle must not have any rear steering axles, except if the vehicle is:

a) a mobile crane, or

b) the rear unit of an articulated bus, or

c) a rigid vehicle without a heavy tow coupling provided no more than half the axles within the rear axle set steer at any one time, or

d) a specialist vehicle designed to transport overdimension or overweight loads, or to primarily carry out a specialist function that requires overdimension equipment.

5. A mobile crane must have at least one rear axle capable of being locked so that it is non-steering.

6. A heavy vehicle not towing an A-train or B-train may have a retractable axle in its rear axle set.

7. A device for altering the distribution of mass between axles may only be fitted to a vehicle if the device:

a) lifts an unpowered axle clear of the ground, or

i. reduces the mass carried by an unpowered axle without lifting it clear of the ground, and

ii. is a control that is spring loaded, so that when the control is released the mass on the unpowered axle reverts to what it was before the operation of the controls, or

b) has a control with an automatic timing device with an activation time of not more than two minutes after which the mass on the unpowered axle reverts automatically to what is was before the operation of the control, and with a non-activation time of at least 30 seconds during which the control cannot be activated again.

8. A sliding axle set must be fitted with both:

a) an effective locking device to prevent inadvertent separation or extension, and

b) endstops at the end of the slideway to prevent the separation of the sliding parts if the primary locking device fails.

Permitted equipment

9. A vehicle may be fitted with a ballrace turntable.

Condition

10. Refer to general vehicle pages.

11. An axle fitted to a vehicle must have adequate strength and performance characteristics for all conditions of loading and operation for which the vehicle was constructed.

12. The locking of a sliding axle locking device must be readily verifiable by visual inspection, or the vehicle must be equipped with a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if the equipment is not locked in one of the locking positions.

Performance

13. An alarm must be visible or audible from the driver’s seating position , and the alarm must operate when the vehicle’s engine is running, except when the parking brake is fully applied or when the gear selector of a vehicle with an automatic transmission is in the ‘park’ position.

14. If the sliding axle set locking device incorporates a system that provides energy for its operation, the device must remain fully engaged in the locking position, or the locking action must be initiated immediately, if the energising system fails.

15. Refer to general vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

16. A modification or repair that affects the hubs or axles must be inspected and certified by an HVS certifier of category HVEC or HMCD unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for HVS certification (Table 10-2-2), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 June 2019 (see amendment details).

10-3 Mudguards

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A mudguard over a road wheel is missing where it is reasonable and practicable to fit a mudguard, unless the vehicle is:

a) in an unfinished condition legally used under the authority of trade plates, or

b) not capable of exceeding a speed of 30km/h, or

c) has a valid mudguard exemption issued by the New Zealand Hot Rod Association (Figure 10-3-4).

2. A mudguard does not cover the full tread width (Note 2) of a tyre or tyres fitted to a road wheel (Figure 10-3-1 and Figure 10-3-2), except when the mudguard is fitted to a vehicle designed for industrial purposes and it is not practicable to fit a full mudguard due to the vehicle’s construction.

3. On a vehicle with twin or close-spaced multiple tyres a mudguard fitted over a wheel on the rear axle is more than one-third higher than the horizontal distance between the vertical lines of the lowest point of the mudguard and the centre of the wheel (Figure 10-3-3), except when:

a) the mudguard is fitted to a vehicle designed for industrial purposes and it is not practicable to fit a full mudguard due to the vehicle’s construction.

Mudguard condition

4. A mudguard is not securely fixed to the vehicle.

5. A mudguard is so constructed or damaged that it is likely to present a hazard to road users (Note 2).

Modification (see also Introduction 3.1.2: Note 3)

6. A modification affects a mudguard, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for LVV specialist certification (Table 10-3-1), and

b) is missing proof of LVV specialist or accepted overseas certification, ie:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid LVV certification plate, or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card , or

iii. the vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13 .

Note 1 Definitions

Mudguard means a fitting, inclusive of any portion of the vehicle and of any mudflaps attached, that serves to intercept material thrown up by a wheel more or less in the plane of the wheel.

Tyre tread means the portion of a tyre that contacts the road.

Modify means to change a vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing a structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Repair means to restore a damaged or worn vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment to within safe tolerance of its condition when manufactured, including replacement with undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Note 2

Damage on full mudguards fitted to logging trucks is permissable if it is above a horizontal line on top of the tyre (Figure 10-3-5), and that damage is unlikely to result in the mudguard presenting a hazard to road users.

Table 10-3-1. Modifications that do not require LVV certification

Fitting of or modification to

LVV certification is never required:

Modified mudguards, including flared wheel arches or the addition of mudguard extensions1

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.
    (see also Table 10–1–1)

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

1 Some vehicles fitted with flared wheel arches or mudguard extensions will require LVV certification as a result of aftermarket wheel fitments and tyre size changes. See Table 10–1–1.

Figure 10-3-1. Position of individual mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Position of individual mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Figure 10-3-2. Position of body panel mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Position of body panel mudguard in relation to tyre tread

Figure 10-3-3. Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle fitted with dual wheels or close-spaced multiple wheels

Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle Size and position of mudguards for the rear wheels of a vehicle

Figure 10-3-4. LVV Authority Card: New Zealand Hot Rod Association

LVV Authority Card: New Zealand Hot Rod Association

Figure 10-3-5. Permissable damage area on logging truck mudguards (Note 2)

Permissable damage area on logging truck mudguards

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle must be fitted with a mudguard over each road wheel if it is reasonable and practicable to do so (Note 1).

2. A mudguard must cover no less than the width of the tyre tread on each road wheel (Figure 10-3-1 and Figure 10-3-2).

3. A vehicle fitted with twin tyres or close-spaced multiple tyres must be fitted with a mudguard over each wheel on the rear axle that provides continuous protection from a horizontal line tangent to the top of the tyre tread (Note 2) to a line with a slope of 1 in 3 rising rearward from the tyre’s contact point on the road (Figure 10-3-3).

4. A vehicle designed for industrial purposes may be fitted with partial mudguards if the vehicle’s construction makes it impracticable to fit full mudguards.

5. The following vehicles are not required to be fitted with mudguards:

a) a vehicle in an unfinished condition used under the authority of trade plates and operated in accordance with the Compliance Rule

b) a vehicle not capable of exceeding a speed of 30 km/h

c) a vehicle with a valid LVV authority card (Figure 10-3-4).

Mudguard condition

6. A mudguard must be securely fixed to the vehicle and must be constructed so that it does not present a hazard to road users.

Modification

7. A modification that affects a mudguard must be inspected and certified by a Low Volume Vehicle specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for LVV certification (Table 10-3-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).

11 Exhaust

11-1 Exhaust system

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

3. Part of the exhaust system or turbocharger is located where:

a) ignitable or heat-sensitive materials could fall on it, or

b) adjacent material has been degraded by heat.

4. Exhaust system heat shielding has been removed or modified so as not to perform as intended.

5. Ventilation designed to cool part of the exhaust system does not function.

6. Exhaust heat or fumes can harm occupants.

7. The outlet pipe is not located or shielded to avoid injury to passengers entering or exiting, or to other road users.

8. The outlet pipe discharges on the left-hand side of the vehicle.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

3. The exhaust system, including any turbochargers, must be installed, located, shielded and ventilated so that:

a) no ignitable or heat-sensitive materials could fall on the exhaust system, and

b) material adjacent to any hot surface forming part of, or connected to, the exhaust system must not, under any operating condition, be heated sufficiently to cause degradation.

4. The design, construction and maintenance of the exhaust system must ensure that:

a) emitted heat or fumes cannot harm the occupants of the PSV, and

b) the outlet pipe is shielded or located in a position where other road users, or passengers entering or exiting the vehicle, cannot be burned by the exhaust, and

c) the outlet pipe does not discharge on the left-hand side of the vehicle.

11-2 Exhaust emissions

Reasons for rejection

Performance

1. A vehicle with the engine at normal operating temperature (Note 1) emits clearly visible smoke (Technical bulletin 8) from the exhaust tailpipe (Note 2):

a) for a continuous period of five seconds when the engine is idling and does not meet the additional requirements in Table 11-2-1, or

b) as the engine is being rapidly accelerated to approximately 2500rpm or approximately half the maximum engine speed (whichever is lower) and does not meet the additional requirements in Table 11-2-1.

2. A vehicle (other than group L vehicle or a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle with a valid motorsport authority card) that was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 May 2010 and manufactured from 1 January 1990 has a catalytic converter removed where there is evidence that one was originally fitted, and there is no written evidence issued by an entry certifier that the vehicle passed a prescribed metered emissions test in this condition (Note 5) (Note 6) (Figure 11-2-1).

Note 1 Test procedure:

a) Carry out the idling and acceleration tests in Reason for rejection 1. A vehicle that passes both tests with the engine below normal operating temperature is deemed to have passed with the engine at normal operating temperature.

b) If the vehicle has failed either test, ensure the engine is at normal operating temperature. Then purge the system by increasing the engine speed to 2500 rpm (or half the maximum engine speed if this is lower) and holding it there for about 5 seconds. Repeat the idling and acceleration tests in Reasons for rejection 1.

Note 2

Visible emissions caused by the condensation of water vapour do not count as smoke.

Note 3

Acceptable evidence is:

a) a letter on the letterhead of the manufacturer or manufacturer’s representative, or

b) a letter on the letterhead of an appropriate automobile club, or

c) evidence of equal authority to (a) or (b) above, eg from an appropriate expert.

Note 4

The vehicle inspector may need to take into account further information about unusual or older vehicles, eg from an appropriate expert such as an office holder in a vintage car club.

Note 5

This reason for rejection does not apply if the vehicle operator can provide evidence that the vehicle was first certified for entry before 1 May 2008.

Note 6

The metered emissions test can only be carried out at entry certifier sites (VTNZ, VINZ, NZAA) where entry inspections are carried out. The entry certifiers will issue a document (Figure 11-2-1) that identifies the vehicle, whether or not the vehicle has passed the test, and whether or not the vehicle was tested with any OE catalytic converters removed. A metered emissions test is not required if a catalytic converter is refitted, or if there is evidence that the vehicle was not originally fitted with a catalytic converter.

Table 11-2-1. Additional requirements

Type of vehicle

Additional requirements

First registered on or after 1 January 1960 with four-stroke engine, or

First registered before 1 January 1960with four-stroke engine manufactured on or after 1 January 1960.

1. Document produced by the vehicle operator that proves that (Note 3):

a) the engine is original equipment for the vehicle, and

b) its design means that the vehicle cannot reasonably comply with the visible smoke emission requirements.

Note No evidence is required if, during the acceleration test, a diesel-powered vehicle emits moderate smoke caused by turbo lag.

2. The smoke produced is not noticeably and significantly more visible than it would have been when the vehicle was manufactured and supplied with the fuel recommended by the manufacturer.

First registered before 1 January 1960 with four-stroke engine manufactured before 1 January 1960, or

Vehicle with two-stroke engine or rotary engine.

The smoke produced is not noticeably and significantly more visible than it would have been when the vehicle was manufactured and supplied with the fuel recommended by the manufacturer (Note 4).

Figure 11-2-1. Exhaust emissions test certificate

 Exhaust emissions test certificate

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Performance

1. A motor vehicle must not emit clearly visible smoke (Note 2) when the vehicle’s engine is running at its normal operating temperature, under either of the following conditions:

a) for a continuous period of five seconds when the engine is idling

b) as the engine is being accelerated rapidly to approximately 2500 revolutions per minute or approximately half the maximum engine speed (whichever is lower).

2. Requirement 1 above does not apply if the driver of the vehicle produces documentation that proves that the engine is original equipment for the vehicle and the engine’s design means the vehicle cannot reasonably comply (Note 3).

3. The exhaust emissions system or exhaust control equipment of a vehicle (other than a group L vehicle or a class MA or MC motorsport vehicle) first certified for entry into service on or after 1 May 2008 and manufactured on or after 1 January 1990 must not be modified so as to prevent the vehicle from being able to pass a prescribed metered emissions test.

12 Towing connections

12-2 Towbar

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement and equipment

1. The towbar has a maximum towed mass (MTM) exceeding 3500kg.

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

4. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A passenger service vehicle must not tow heavy trailers.

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Modification and repair

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

13 Miscellaneous items

13-1 Engine and transmission

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. The engine compartment is not lined with, or made of, fire-resistant materials.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

3. Fuel, oil or other combustible materials have accumulated or dripped on to a high temperature surface within the engine compartment.

4. A fire-resistant lining is:

a) missing, or

b) damaged or deteriorated so that the risk of fire is increased.

Modification

5. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. The engine compartment must be lined with, or made of, fire-resistant materials, in a manner that complies with the engine manufacturer's specifications for minimum clearances.

Permitted equipment

2. The vehicle may be fitted with a device to restrict the field of swing of a driveshaft in the event of driveshaft failure.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

4. The design of the engine installation and engine compartment must ensure that no fuel, oil or other combustible materials could accumulate in the engine compartment or drip onto any high temperature surface.

5. The engine compartment of a heavy PSV, with an engine positioned rearward of the front axle set must be maintained:

a) free of any build-up of residual fuel, oil or other combustible material, and

b) to ensure that the clearance space between the lining or compartment walls and the engine or its ancillary components is maintained within safe tolerance of the clearance that existed when the engine was installed.

6. Devices to protect against driveshaft failure must be maintained within safe tolerance of their original condition.

Modification

7. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

13-2 Fuel system

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. Fuel for a PSV is carried in a temporary fuel tank.

Condition and performance

2. Refer to general vehicle pages.

3. A fuel tank or fuel line shows signs of corrosion.

4. The fuel-tank filling inlet cannot be accessed from outside the body.

5. A fuel cap:

a) does not tighten properly, or

b) seal is in poor condition.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. Fuels for a PSV and the vehicle’s equipment must be carried in permanent fuel tanks.

2. Each filling inlet must be provided with a leak-proof cap.

Condition and performance

3. Refer to general vehicle pages.

4. Fuel tanks and fuel lines must be:

a) corrosion resistant, and

b) designed and constructed of durable, fuel-resistant material, and

c) securely mounted, and

d) reasonably protected from collision damage.

5. Access to the fuel-tank filling inlet must be from outside the body of the PSV.

13-3 LPG/CNG fuel system

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory equipment

1. A vehicle that is equipped with an LPG or CNG fuel system that is in working order does not have a current alternative fuel inspection certificate (Note 1) (Note 2) (Figure 13-3-1).

Condition

2. An LPG or CNG fuel system component is:

a) loose, or

b) significantly corroded, distorted or cracked.

3. A gas line:

a) shows signs of corrosion damage (Note 3), such as pitting, or

b) is bulging, or

c) is insecure, or

d) is damaged, eg cut or crimping.

4. There is a noticeable gas leak.

5. There is corrosion damage, distortion or fracture within 300mm of a tank mounting

Note 1 Definitions

Alternative fuel inspection certificate means evidence of vehicle inspection relating to the periodic in-service inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel installation certificate means an inspection and certification document relating to the installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system. It is not required for the issue of a WoF or CoF.

LPG/CNG fuel system means a fuel storage and conducting system that is used to provide liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) for the purpose of propulsion of a vehicle.

Note 2

An LPG or CNG fuel system with all the necessary components is deemed to be in working order, whether or not it is charged. A system that has had the filler connection removed is deemed to be not in working order.

Note 3

Corrosion damage is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory equipment

1. A motor vehicle equipped with an LPG or CNG fuel system that is in working order must display a current alternative fuel inspection certificate.

Condition

2. An LPG or CNG fuel system must be in safe working condition.

Modification

3. The installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system is not a modification that requires certification by a LVV specialist certifier.

4. A modification to an existing LPG or CNG fuel system must be inspected and certified by an approved LPG or CNG fuel inspector or inspecting organisation.

13-4 Electrical wiring

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. An electrical cable is not:

a) insulated and protected from damage that could be caused by water, fuel, oil, other fluids, dirt or heat, or

b) if practicable, clipped or otherwise gathered into looms with an insulated material, or

c) appropriately and securely fastened to the vehicle, or

d) protected from damage where it passes through holes in the vehicle structure.

2. An electrical cable that enters the passenger compartment is not protected by a secure cover.

3. A detachable service cover inside the vehicle giving access to electrical cables or equipment does not have a sign warning of the operating voltage.

4. A heavy PSV with an engine positioned rearward of the front axle set that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 October 2012 does not have:

a) all batteries secured and easily accessible; or

b) battery terminals and leads protected against the risk of a short circuit.

5. An electrical cable or insulation shows signs of overheating, chafing or other damage.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition
Electrical voltages up to and including 32 volts AC or 115 volts DC:

1. The electrical current ratings appropriate to that make and model of cable as installed in the PSV must not be exceeded.

2. Electrical cables must be:

a) insulated and protected from heat, water, fuel, oil and other fluids used in the PSV, and

b) held securely in position and protected from damage due to cutting, abrasion or chafing.

3. Any cable that enters or passes through the passenger compartment must be protected from damage by secure covers.

4. A heavy PSV with an engine positioned rearward of the front axle set that entered service as a PSV on or after 1 October 2012 must comply with the following requirements:

a) all batteries secured and easily accessible; or

b) battery terminals and leads protected against the risk of a short circuit.

5. Where electrical cables or equipment are installed in a PSV there must be a sign warning of the operating voltage adjacent to any detachable service cover giving access to the electrical cables or equipment.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

13-5 Electric and hybrid vehicle electrical system

Reasons for rejection

Condition (Note 1)

1. High voltage wiring is:

a) insecure or not adequately secured

b) damaged or deteriorated (including insulation)

c) likely to touch:

i. hot components of the vehicle

ii. sharp edges

iii. rotating parts

iv. the ground.

2. High voltage batteries are:

a) insecure or not adequately secured

b) damaged or deteriorated (including components and electrical insulation)

c) leaking, or showing signs of leaking.

3. High voltage battery shields are damaged or not in place.

Modification

4. A modification affects the electrical system, and:

a) is not excluded from the requirements for specialist certification (Table 13-5-1), or

b) is missing proof of specialist certification, that is:

i. the vehicle is not fitted with a valid  certification plate (eg low volume vehicle plate or heavy vehicle certification plate/label), or

ii. the operator is not able to produce a valid modification declaration or authority card

iii. The vehicle has not been certified to an accepted overseas system as described in Technical bulletin 13.

Table 13-5-1. Modifications that do not require specialist certification

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is not required provided that:

Fuel system changes and modifications

  • no structural modifications have occurred to the vehicle during the installation or modification.

Note: Specialist certification is always required for changes to the high voltage electrical system.

Fitting of or modification to:

Specialist certification is never required:

Any modification for the purposes of law enforcement or the provision of emergency services

  • in-service requirements for condition and performance must be met.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. The vehicle must be safe to be operated.

2. The components and materials must be fit for their purpose and within safe tolerance of their state when manufactured or modified.

Modifications

3. A modification that affects the electrical system must be inspected and certified by an specialist certifier, unless the vehicle:

a) is excluded from the requirement for specialist certification (Table 13-5-1), and

b) has been inspected in accordance with the requirements in this manual, including those for equipment, condition and performance.

Page amended 1 November 2018 (see amendment details)

14 Load restraints

14-6 PSV baggage and freight restraints

Reasons for rejection

Condition and performance

1. Baggage and freight cannot be safely secured or contained to protect occupants, pedestrians and other road users from its possible movement, for example, a compartment, barrier or securing device is unlikely to be strong enough to hold likely cargo during vigorous maneuvering of the vehicle.

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Condition and performance

1. A PSV and its fittings must be designed, constructed and maintained so that baggage and freight can be safely secured or contained to protect occupants, pedestrians and other road users from its possible movement.

Page amended 1 October 2012 (see amendment details).

15 Certificate of loading

15-1 Certificate of loading

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. A heavy PSV that requires a certificate of fitness (Note 1) does not have a certificate of loading (Note 2) displayed on the vehicle.

2. The vehicle is one of the following and the CoL is no longer valid:

a) the vehicle has been modified so as to require heavy vehicle specialist certification, or

b) the vehicle has been de-registered, or

c) an application for a change of use has been made (ie an MR14 has been completed) and the requirements for CoL differ in the new use, eg change from goods vehicle to PSV.

3. An invalid certificate of loading has not been surrendered to the vehicle inspector.

Condition

4. A certificate of loading:

a) is illegible, or

b) is attached so that it is not easily visible, or

c) has details that do not match the vehicle, or

d) has obvious signs of tampering.

Note 1

Vehicles that require a certificate of fitness are listed in section 3.3.1 in the Introduction of this manual.

Note 2

Certificate of loading means a certificate issued under this section to a vehicle that requires verification of its loading and weight limits. Light rental vehicles do not require a CoL.

Note 3

A vehicle with an invalid certificate of loading requires a new certificate of loading.

Figure 15-1-1. Certificate of loading

5 

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. Refer to heavy vehicle pages.

16 Transport service licence

16-1 TSL

Reasons for rejection

Mandatory requirement

1. The operator of a heavy PSV has not notified (Note 3) the vehicle inspector of the passenger service licence number under which the vehicle is operated.

Note 1

If correctly licensed, a PSV can be identified by the ‘L’ on the vehicle licence label.

Note 2

PSV (passenger service vehicle), for the purpose of this section, means:

  • a vehicle used to carry passengers for hire or reward
    Does not include the following:
    • a rental vehicle that is not a passenger service vehicle, or
    • a vehicle used as a place of abode that is not used in a rental service (eg a motorhome and dual-purpose motorhome carrying horses where at least 50% of the floor space is constructed for human accommodation), or
    • a hearse
    • a mobile bloodbank vehicle.
Note 3

Every heavy PSV must display a TSL label that identifies the TSL number the vehicle is presently operated under (see Figure 16-1-1). For CoF purposes, the vehicle inspector must record the number on the TSL label. Where there is no TSL label, the KSDP is expected to make a reasonable effort to request the TSL number from the driver. The TSL number must be entered into the system when the inspection is recorded, but where a TSL number cannot be obtained, fault code VLP must be entered.

Figure 16-1-1. Sample TSL label

Transport service licence

Summary of legislation

Applicable legislation
Mandatory requirement

1. No certificate of fitness shall be issued in respect of any transport service vehicle unless the vehicle inspector has been notified of the transport service licence under which the vehicle is being operated.

Page amended 1 December 2016 (see amendment details).