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7 Definitions and abbreviations


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A-train

means an articulated vehicle towing a full trailer.

Affix

in relation to a vehicle identifier, means stamp, emboss, etch or engrave onto

a) the permanent structure of a motor vehicle, or

b) a plate affixed to the permanent structure of a vehicle.

Agricultural

in relation to purposes or operations, means connected directly with the operation or management of a farm.

Agricultural motor vehicle a) means a motor vehicle that is designed, constructed or adapted for agricultural purposes, and includes:

i) an agricultural trailer, and

ii) an agricultural tractor, but

b) does not include any vehicle that is:

i) of a class specified in section 3-2 of the Introduction, and

ii) designed or constructed for general road use.

Agricultural purpose includes:

a) land cultivation

b) growing and harvesting crops (including horticulture and viticulture)

c) rearing livestock

d) any land management operation undertaken in connection with the operation or management of a farm.

  • Agricultural purpose does not include forestry, or any land management operation not referred to in (a) to (d) above.
Agricultural tractor means a vehicle that is designed and constructed principally for the purposes of:

a) towing an agricultural trailer, or

b) drawing, or powering, an implement ordinarily used for an agricultural purpose.

Agricultural trailer

means:

a) a trailer that is used exclusively for agricultural purposes, and

b) includes a wheeled agricultural implement, the wheels of which are in contact with the road when the implement is being towed; but

c) does not include a trailer that is

i. designed for the carriage of goodsoperated at a speed exceeding 40km/h, or

ii. a logging trailer.

Air brake

means a brake, the operation of which requires the use of compressed air.

All-terrain vehicle (ATV)

means a vehicle, with or without motor cycle controls and equipment, that:

a) is principally designed for off-road use, and

b) has three or more wheels, and

c) has an engine capacity exceeding 50 ml, and

d) has a gross weight of less than 1000 kg.

Alley lamp

means a work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of a vehicle to which it is fitted.

Alternative fuel inspection certificate

means evidence of vehicle inspection relating to the periodic in-service inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel installation certificate or compliance plate

means an inspection and certification document relating to the installation of an LPG or CNG fuel system.

Alternative fuel system

means a fuel storage and conducting system that is used to provide liquid petroleum gas, compressed natural gas or any other pressurised liquid or gaseous fuel (other than petrol or diesel) for the purpose of propulsion of a vehicle.

Alternative fuel system inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of an LPG or CNG fuel system comprising either

a) specialist inspection and certification required for the issuing of an alternative fuel installation certificate or an alternative fuel installation compliance plate, or

b) in-service inspection and certification required for the issuing of an alternative fuel inspection certificate.

Ambulance

means a motor vehicle designed and used principally for the carriage of sick or injured persons.

Ambulance service

means a service that complies with the requirements in NZS 8156:2002 Ambulance Sector Standard, and is generally a vehicle marked and identified as an ambulance.

Anti-glare band overlay

means a tinted overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the top edge of the windscreen for the purpose of reducing glare from the sun.

Anti-lock braking system (ABS)

means a device that senses that one or more of the wheels is starting to lock up during braking and regulates the braking forces automatically and effectively to prevent it.

Applicable requirement

means any requirement specified or incorporated in an Act, regulation, code or rule that applies to the design, construction, condition, equipment, modification, repair or maintenance of a specific vehicle. All applicable requirements for in-service inspection and certification are contained in this manual.

Approved

in relation to an appliance, apparatus, device, system, component, equipment or fitting, means approved by NZTA.

Articulated bus

means a bus consisting of two or more rigid sections that:

a) articulate relative to each other, and

b) have interconnecting passenger compartments that allow passengers to move freely between them, and

c) are not easily detachable from each other without specialist equipment.

Articulated vehicle

means any motor vehicle with a semi-trailer attached, so that part of the semi-trailer is superimposed upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the semi-trailer and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle.

Asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp

means a dipped-beam headlamp that emits a beam of light with a distinct horizontal cut-off from at least the centre to the edge of the beam.

At a height not exceeding

in relation to lighting equipment fitted to a vehicle, means the height above which no part of the illuminated area of the equipment extends when the vehicle is at its gross vehicle mass and when each tyre with which the vehicle is fitted is inflated to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Auxiliary brake

means a device, other than a service brake or parking brake, fitted to a vehicle to enable the driver to control its speed, whether or not it is suitable to stop the vehicle.

Average deceleration

means the average deceleration during braking, which is either the mean value of deceleration during braking or the deceleration calculated from the distance travelled during the period when the deceleration occurred and the difference between the speed immediately before and after that.

Axle

means one or more shafts, spindles, or bearings in the same vertical transverse plane by means of which, in conjunction with wheels mounted on those shafts, spindles, or bearings, a portion of the weight of the vehicle is transmitted to the roadway, and:

a) if two or more wheels of a motor vehicle are substantially in the same line transversely and some or all of them have separate axles, the axles of all those wheels are to be treated as one axle;

b) if the longitudinal centre-line of an axle of a motor vehicle is less than 1m distant from the longitudinal centre-line of another axle, the two axles are to be treated as one axle (“a dual axle”);

c) for the purposes of measuring the distance of a dual axle from any other axle, the measurement is taken from the longitudinal centreline of the axle that is nearer to the axle from which the distance is to be measured.

Axle set

means a single axle set, a tandem axle set, a twin-steer axle set, a tri-axle set or a quad-axle set.

Axle stop device

means a device to control the movement of the axle in the event of suspension failure.

B-train

means a motor vehicle comprising a towing vehicle and two semi-trailers connected at two points of articulation where the forward distance of the longer trailer divided by the forward distance of the shorter trailer does not exceed 1.4.

Ballrace turntable

means a device incorporating a low friction ball bearing fitted between two substantial structural components of a vehicle to enable rotational motion between those components about a vertical axis.

Beacon

means a warning lamp comprising one or more light sources designed to emit a flashing light or a revolving beam of light.

Body

means the part of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants or to hold any goods, and (for PSVs) includes all of the portion of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants and their luggage, and to hold any goods that may be carried.

Body transfer vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is used primarily for the transportation of deceased persons.

Bolster Attachment Code

means the Bolster Attachment Code of the Log Transport Safety Council, approved by the NZTA.

Brake

means a system to reduce the speed of a vehicle, to stop the vehicle or to keep the vehicle stationary.

Brake circuit

means the combination of components that functionally links the brake control and the foundation brake. The circuit may be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical or a mix of these.

Brake coupling

means the device for connecting the control and supply lines of the towing vehicle to the control and supply lines of the trailer.

Brake friction material

means a brake component having a friction surface that is designed to be preferentially sacrificed.

Brake friction surface

means any surface of a brake component that is designed to convert kinetic energy to heat.

Brake lining

means a brake lining in the case of a drum brake, and a brake pad in the case of a disc brake.

Brake lining assembly

means a component of a friction brake, including a brake lining and its backing plate or a brake lining and its brake shoe, that is pressed against the brake disc or drum to produce friction force.

Brake pedal assembly

means an assembly containing the brake pedal and pedal pivot, pedal bracket, pedal return spring and associated components.

Brake reservoir

means a device designed and constructed to store fluid, compressed air, compressed gas or vacuum; does not include pipes, valves, hoses or booster cylinders operated by vacuum or compressed air.

Braking force

means the retarding force generated by a brake assembly.

Breakaway brake

means a service brake or parking brake fitted to a trailer that ensures, under all conditions of use, that, if the trailer is unintentionally disconnected from its towing vehicle, the brake will automatically and immediately apply and will remain applied for at least 15 minutes.

Cab-guard

means a structure attached to a vehicle that provides protection to the cab occupants from the effects of load impact, and may include a headboard.

Caravan trailer

means a trailer that is permanently equipped with features intended to make the vehicle suitable as a person’s dwelling place, and must include at least one sleeping berth and one table, both of which may be of a design that allows them to be retracted or folded away.

Central tyre inflation system

means a type of tyre pressure control system that adjusts tyre pressure for the purpose of inflating and deflating tyres to improve tyre adhesion and reduce road surface damage and which is under the central control of the driver or an automated system, or a combination of both the driver and an automated system (commonly known as ‘CTI’).

Certificate of fitness (CoF)

means evidence of vehicle inspection issued to vehicles listed under 3.3.1 of the Introduction.

Certificate of fitness inspection and certification

means periodic in-service inspection and certification of a vehicle listed under 3.3.1 of the Introduction.

Certificate of loading (CoL)

means a certificate issued to a vehicle that requires verification of its loading and weight limits.

Certificate of loading inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a vehicle, required for the issuing of a certificate of loading.

Certify

means

a) in relation to a vehicle, or specific aspect of a vehicle, to make a record of determination that confirms that the vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation has determined that the vehicle or specific aspect of the vehicle complies with the applicable requirements, or

b) in relation to a vehicle’s loading and weight limits, to make a record of determination of a vehicle’s loading and weight limits.

Chassis

means the structural lower part of a vehicle to which the running gear and, as applicable, engine, transmission, steering system and body may be attached.

Chassis assembly

means a chassis with running gear attached and, as applicable, engine, transmission and steering system attached.

Child restraint

includes child seats, booster seats and seatbelts designed specifically to fit children.

Child safety lock

means a safety device installed during the manufacture of the vehicle to prevent a door from being opened from inside of the vehicle.

Class

in relation to vehicles, means a category of vehicle of one of the Groups A, L, M, N and T, as specified under 3.2 of the Introduction.

CNG

means compressed natural gas.

Coaming rail

means a raised frame boarder around the load platform of a vehicle.

Code of conductmeans the code that provides the minimum ethical and behavioural standards that are expected of all vehicle inspectors appointed by the Transport Agency to deliver vehicle inspection and certification services.

Combination vehicle

means a towing vehicle in combination with one or more trailers or other motor vehicle that is being towed.

Compliance label

means an attachment to a vehicle in the form of a label that confirms compliance of the vehicle or a specific aspect of the vehicle with applicable requirements.

Compliance plate

means an attachment to a vehicle in the form of a plate that confirms compliance of the vehicle or a specific aspect of the vehicle with applicable requirements.

Conditional permit (or permit, including temporary permit or 28-day permit)

means inspection and certification document that confirms that a determination has been made that the vehicle is safe to be operated under specified conditions.

Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest means where there is, could be, or may be perceived to be, a conflict between the financial or professional interests or obligations of the inspecting organisation or vehicle inspector and their obligations under the terms of the IOs Notice of Appointment.

It means that the impartiality, independence or objectivity of the IO and/or VI may be called into question. The conflict may be (a) actual: where the conflict currently exists; (b) potential: where the conflict is about to happen or could happen; (c) perceived: where other people may reasonably think a person is compromised.

Construction (vehicle)

means the manufacture, assembly, reassembly or modification of a vehicle, and includes all acts and activities related or incidental to the construction of a vehicle.

Construction (tyre)

means:

a) for a pneumatic tyre, the type of tyre carcass (including ply orientation and ply rating or load index), or

b) for any other tyre, characteristics relating to size, shape and material.

Control

means the part of the brake actuated directly by the driver to regulate the operation of the brake.

Controlled document

means a document you must use and complete as part of your inspection and certification work, such as a WoF or CoF label, WoF or CoFchecksheet, or a certificate of loading

Control (service) line

means the part of the brake circuit that transmits the service brake signal within a vehicle and also between vehicles being operated as a combination vehicle.

Converter dolly

means an individual trailer unit with a fifth-wheel coupling used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer. A dolly must have either

a) a rigid drawbar associated with an oscillating fifth wheel and a single axle or a tandem axle set, or

b) a tandem axle set with a hinged drawbar with a fixed fifth wheel.

Cornering lamp

means a lamp designed to emit light at the front of the vehicle to supplement a vehicle’s headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.

Corrosion damage

is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.

Coupling

means that part of a vehicle that is specifically designed to enable it to be connected to another vehicle, and does not include a structural member of the towing or towed vehicle.

Cosmetic lamp

means a lamp that is not a headlamp, stop lamp, direction-indicator lamp, position lamp, rear registration plate illumination lamp, reflector, fog lamp, daytime running lamp, cornering lamp, reversing lamp, reflective material, interior lamp, work lamp, flashing or revolving beacon or illuminated vehicle-mounted sign.

Crew

in relaton to a PSV, means the person or group of persons in control or having responsibility for the operation of the vehicle or the well-being of the passengers.

Cross-ply

means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords in the tyre carcass extend to the beads and are laid at alternate angles, which are substantially less than 90 degrees, to the centreline of the tread. This tyre structure is also referred to as ‘bias ply’ or ‘diagonal ply’.

Cut-off

means that part of a dipped beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower luminance.

Daytime running lamp

means a lamp designed to emit a low-intensity light forward of a vehicle to make it more easily seen in the daytime.

Deceleration

means the rate of speed reduction over time.

Dedicated combination

means, in relation to heavy vehicle brakes, a combination of vehicles certified for use in combination where both vehicles are affixed with a plate clearly and indelibly marked with the VIN or chassis number of the vehicle.

Dedicated emergency exit

in relation to a PSV, means any doorway, window, hatch or other opening that is designed and constructed solely to provide a means of leaving the vehicle in the event of an emergency.

Dedicated groundsprayer

means a self-propelled or trailing machine whose sole function is the application of chemicals or liquid fertiliser to crops or to the ground.

De-registered

means that a vehicle’s New Zealand registration has been cancelled in accordance with section 27 or section 28 of the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Design

in relation to a motor vehicle, refers to the construction of the motor vehicle, and not its use or intended use, and ‘designed’ has a corresponding meaning.

Determination

means a record, in paper or electronic form, that a vehicle or specific aspect of vehicle complies or does not comply with the applicable requirements.

Dipped beam

means a beam of light, emitted from a lamp fitted to a vehicle, that is angled downwards in such a way that it prevents undue dazzle or discomfort to oncoming drivers and other road users.

Dipped-beam headlamp

means a headlamp designed to emit a dipped beam.

Direct trailer service brake

means a service brake fitted to a trailer that allows the driver of a towing vehicle, by operating the service brake of the towing vehicle, to directly and progressively regulate the trailer brake effort.

Direction indicator lamp

means a lamp designed to emit a flashing light to signal the intention of the driver to change the direction of the vehicle to the right or to the left.

Door retention system

means any system, contrivance or mechanism that connects the doors of a motor vehicle to those doorways that are used for the entry and exit of vehicle occupants.

Drawbar

means an assembly of components, that includes: the trailer coupling that connects the trailer to the coupling of the towing vehicle, hinges (where applicable) and the structural and other related components between the trailer coupling and trailer bogie or chassis.

Drawbeam

means the part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling is fitted to enable a heavy trailer to be connected, and includes the attached coupling.

Dual steeringin relation to a vehicle, means the vehicle is able to be steered from the left-hand and right-hand side of the vehicle.

Electronic stability control (ESC)

means a system that electronically regulates the stability of a motor vehicle and, as a minimum, has the following attributes:

a) improves vehicle directional stability by at least having the ability to automatically control individually the braking torques of the left and right wheels on each axle, or an axle of each axle group, to induce a correcting yaw moment based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver, and

b) is computer-controlled, with the computer using a closed-loop algorithm to limit vehicle oversteer and to limit vehicle understeer based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver, and

c) has a means to determine directly the value of the vehicle’s yaw rate and to estimate its side slip or side slip derivative with respect to time, and

d) has a means to monitor driver steering inputs.

Emergency brake

in relation to any vehicle, or combination of vehicles, means the system that makes it possible to undertake a controlled stop of the vehicle or combination in the event of the failure of the service brake.

Emergency exit

means:

a) a door used for the entry and exit of the occupants and, for this purpose, a door of double width is a single emergency exit

b) the access between the front and rear sections of an articulated bus

c) the stairway from the upper deck to the lower deck

d) a dedicated emergency exit.

Emergency vehicle

means a vehicle used for attendance at emergencies and operated

a) by an enforcement officer, or

b) by an ambulance service, or

c) as a fire service vehicle, or

d) as a civil defence emergency vehicle, or

e) as a defence force emergency vehicle.

End-outline marker lamp

means a position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of a vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps, and includes a cab roof lamp.

Engine brake

means a device or feature of an engine to increase, when applied, the retardation force provided by the engine that can be utilised to control the speed of the vehicle.

Enter service

in relation to a vehicle, means to begin to be operated in service on the road in New Zealand for the first time in compliance with registration requirements of the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Entered service as a passenger service vehicle

means the most recent occasion of the vehicle entering service as a passenger service vehicle.

Entry inspecting organisation

means an inspecting organisation appointed to carry out entry and re-entry inspection and certification activities, including the issuing of VIN numbers. For a list of appointed entry IOs, click here.

Entry inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a vehicle that is entering or re-entering service, and that is carried out by an entry certifier.

Evidence of vehicle inspection

in relation to a vehicle, means any certificate, label or document issued as evidence of the completion of the periodic vehicle inspection requirements in respect of that vehicle (ie a WoF or CoF label or an Alternative Fuel Inspection Certificate, but not a temporary permit).

Exhaust system

means a pipe assembly through which the engine exhaust gases pass to the atmosphere and includes some means of sound attenuation.

Fifth wheel

means a device fitted to a vehicle to enable a semi-trailer to be connected to it by means of a kingpin so that the semi-trailer may be towed.

First registered

in relation to a motor vehicle, means, unless specified otherwise, first registered in any country.

Fog lamp

means a high-intensity lamp designed to aid the driver or other road users in conditions of severely reduced visibility, including fog or snow, but not including clear atmospheric conditions under the hours of darkness, and that is

a) a front fog lamp, or

b) a rear fog lamp.

Foot room

means an area on the floor in front of the seat or partially under the seat to accommodate the feet of the person sitting on the seat.

Forestry

in relation to purpose or operations, means connected directly with the operation or management of a forest. A ‘forestry chipper’ is a vehicle that is designed and used exclusively in this capacity.

Forklift

means a motor vehicle (not fitted with self-laying tracks) designed principally for lifting, carrying and stacking goods by means of one or more tines, platens or clamps.

Forward distance

means:

a) in relation to a rigid vehicle, or the front section of an articulated bus, the distance from the rear axis to the front of the vehicle or its load, whichever is foremost

b) in relation to a full trailer, the distance from the rear axis to the front of the trailer (excluding the drawbar and front axle set with its associated carriage) or its load, whichever is foremost

c) in relation to a simple trailer, or the rear section of an articulated bus, the distance from the rear axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle

d) in relation to a semi-trailer, the distance from the rear axis to centre of the kingpin

e) in relation to a pole trailer with only one axle set, the distance, excluding load, from the trailer’s rear axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle with the drawbar fully extended

f) for a pole trailer having two axle sets, the distance, excluding load, from the trailer’s front axis to the centre of the point of attachment to the towing vehicle with the drawbar fully extended.

Foundation brake

means the basic brake assembly fitted to each axle or road wheel which produces the braking force necessary to bring a vehicle to a stop; and includes the complete drum or disc brake.

Front axis

means:

a) the centre point of the front axle set of a trailer that has two axle sets and is steered by the front axle set, or

b) the centre of the foremost axle of a rigid vehicle with motive power.

Front fog lamp

means a fog lamp designed to provide a dipped beam of light to the front of a motor vehicle for the purpose of illuminating the road ahead of that vehicle.

Front overhang

means the distance measured to the foremost point of the vehicle, including its load but in the case of a full trailer excluding the drawbar, from the following positions:

a) for a rigid vehicle, from the front edge of the driver’s seat, when in the rearmost position, or

b) for a semi-trailer, the centre of the kingpin, or

c) for a full trailer, the centre of the turntable, or

d) for a simple trailer, the centre of the tow coupling, or

e) for the load of a pole trailer combination, the centre of the turntable on the towing vehicle.

Frontal impact protection system

means a set of associated parts, components and systems incorporated in a motor vehicle to protect occupants in a frontal impact collision.

Full trailer

means a trailer with two axle sets, the foremost of which is steered by a drawbar, and includes a semi-trailer with non-steering axles coupled to a converter dolly.

Goods

means all kinds of movable personal property, and includes articles sent by post and animals.

Goods service

means the carriage of goods on any road, whether or not for hire or reward, by means of a motor vehicle whose gross laden weight is 6000 kg or more, and includes the letting on hire of a motor vehicle whose gross laden weight is 6000kg or more by a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle, where the motor vehicle is used for the carriage of goods.

Goods service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a goods service.

Goods service vehicle

means a motor vehicle used or capable of being used in a goods service for the carriage of goods, but does not include a vehicle specified as an exempt goods service vehicle in the regulations or the rules.

Goods vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is constructed primarily for the carriage of goods.

Gross combination mass

means, for a vehicle that is permitted to tow another vehicle, the maximum permitted combined mass of the towing vehicle and any combination of attached trailers or vehicles, determined by the vehicle manufacturer and approved by the NZTA, or determined by the NZTA.

Gross laden weight

in relation to a motor vehicle, means:

a) the greatest of the following weights:

i. a weight specified (subsequent to the latest modification specified, if any) as the gross laden weight of the vehicle by the manufacturer of the vehicle

ii. a weight specified as the gross laden weight of the vehicle, or of a vehicle of that kind, by or under the regulations or the rules

iii. the weight of the vehicle, together with the load that the vehicle is for the time being carrying, including equipment and accessories

b) if evidence is adduced in respect of any but not all of the 3 weights referred to in paragraph (a), the greater of the weights, or (as the case may be) the only weight, in respect of which evidence is adduced

c) if evidence is not adduced in respect of any of the weights referred to in paragraph (a), the total of the unladen weight of the vehicle and the weight of the maximum load that the vehicle may safely carry.

Gross mass (GM)
(or gross weight)

in relation to any vehicle or combination vehicle, means the mass of that vehicle and its load, equipment, and accessories, which may be determined by adding the mass on the vehicle’s axles or axle sets.

Gross vehicle mass (GVM)

means either:

a) the maximum permitted mass of a vehicle, which includes the mass of the accessories, the crew, the passengers and load, and is, unless (b) applies, the gross vehicle mass specified (subsequent to the latest modification, if any) by the manufacturer of the vehicle, or

b) if a person approved for the purpose by the NZTA determines that the gross vehicle mass of a vehicle should differ from that specified by the manufacturer, taking into account evidence on the capability of the systems and components of the vehicle, or the effects of any modification, that mass determined by that person.

Groundspreader

means a vehicle designed specifically for the carriage of powder or particulate artificial fertilisers on the road, and for the distribution of those fertilisers directly from the vehicle onto the land by means of a mechanical or pneumatic distributor that forms part of the vehicle.

Group

in relation to vehicles, means a collective category of the vehicle classes listed under 3.2 of the Introduction as follows:

(a) Group A means vehicles of class AA and AB

(b) Group L means vehicles of class LA, LB, LC, LD and LE

(c) group M means vehicles of class MA, MB, MC, MD and ME

(d) Group N means vehicles of class NA, NB and NC

(e) Group T means vehicles of class TA, TB, TC and TD.

Head restraint

means a fitting forming part of a vehicle seat intended to restrain occupants’ heads from excessive movement in the event of a crash.

Headboard

means the substantially vertical part of the forward end of a flat deck or curtain-sided body of a vehicle.

Headlamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is:

(a) a dipped-beam headlamp, or

(b) a main-beam headlamp, or

(c) a combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp.

Heavy haulage trailer

means a trailer that is fitted with an hydraulic suspension system that allows the adjustment of the ride height, and for which the pressure in the hydraulic system varies significantly at any given load condition of the trailer depending solely on the ride height.

Heavy (motor) vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is:

(a) of class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC or TD, or

(b) a vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction with a gross vehicle mass that exceeds 3500 kg.

Heavy passenger service vehicle (heavy PSV)

means a passenger service vehicle whose gross vehicle mass exceeds 3500kg.

Heavy vehicle specialist inspection and certification

means specialist inspection and certification of specific aspects of a heavy vehicle.

High-mounted stop lamp

means a stop lamp that is designed to be fitted in a central, high-mounted position at the rear of a vehicle.

Hook truck

means a vehicle recovery service vehicle with a crane hoist that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Hours of darkness

means:

(a) a period of time between half an hour after sunset on one day and half an hour before sunrise on the next day, or

(b) any other time when there is not sufficient daylight to render clearly visible a person or vehicle at a distance of 100 m.

Hub

means the part of a vehicle that is attached to the axle and rotates on, or with, the axle, and to which the wheel is attached, and includes any bearings.

HVS

means heavy vehicle specialist, as in HVS certification.

Hydraulic brake

means a brake that utilises hydraulic pressure to activate the foundation brake, whether its operation is assisted by compressed air, vacuum or any other means.

Independent brake

means a brake of which the entire operating mechanism or system is either:

(a) distinct and separate from all parts or connections of any other brake or brake system, so that the independent brake cannot be adversely affected by the operation or failure of any other brake, or

(b) common to any other brake or brake system only in parts or connections which are of such design and strength that under normal operating conditions and with a proper standard of maintenance there is no reasonable probability of failure by reason of the failure of any other brake or brake system.

Indirect trailer service brake

means a service brake fitted to a trailer where the action of the driver of a towing vehicle applying the brakes of that vehicle results in a reaction by the trailer that is used to progressively regulate the trailer brake effort.

Inspecting organisation

means a person or organisation appointed by the NZTA who is responsible for inspection and certification outcomes.

Inspection and certification

means the performance of two or more of the following, for the purposes of determining compliance with applicable requirements:

(a) examining vehicles

(b) determining whether or not a vehicle or specific aspect of a vehicle complies with applicable requirements

(c) issuing evidence of vehicle inspection, a conditional permit or a certificate of loading

(d) recording and making available information about vehicles (including their systems, components, devices, fittings and equipment).

Inspection and certification document

means a document required, produced or issued in the inspection and certification process, including a plate, a label, an electronic record and a check sheet.

Inspection and certification outcome

in relation to a vehicle, means:

(a) production of a record of determination as appropriate to the inspection and certification activity, or

(b) provision of other records and information about the vehicle to the NZTA or other persons, or

(c) production of evidence of vehicle inspection, conditional permits or certificates of loading.

Installer

in relation to glazing, means a person who repairs or modifies a vehicle by installing glazing in the vehicle.

Inter-vehicle spacing

means the distance between a towing vehicle (excluding the tow coupling shroud) and trailer (excluding the drawbar or tow rope or front dolly but including the load).

Interior lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the interior of the vehicle for the convenience of passengers.

J-hook assembly

means a load-rated metal lashing that:

(a) consists of a bush, fastener, associated washer or washers, and J-shaped bar including its threaded portion, and

(b) is used for the retention of a stockcrate or detachable bin to the vehicle load platform, and

(c) is vertically fixed either inside or outside the deck coaming rail and tensioned through a permanently fitted bush on the crate or bin structure by way of a threaded fastener.

Jinker pole

means a telescoping or sliding pole that forms the drawbar to steer a pole trailer.

Kingpin

means a pin attached to the skid plate of a semi-trailer and used for connecting the semi-trailer to the fifth wheel of a towing vehicle.

KSDPmeans key service delivery partner. They are defined as organisations that are contracted or appointed by the Transport Agency to delivery regulatory products or services and who have sufficient market share and/or are of sufficient size and standing within an industry segment to be able to represent and influence the customer expectation of that industry segment.

Laden weight

means the weight of the vehicle and its load for the time being carried.

Laminated glass

means glazing consisting of two or more pieces of sheet glass, plate glass or float glass bonded together by one or more intervening layers of plastic material.

Lamp

means a device designed to emit light, and includes an array of separate light sources that appear as a continuous illuminated surface.

Lap-and-diagonal seatbelt

means a seatbelt comprising a lap strap that passes across the front of the wearer’s pelvic region, and a diagonal strap that passes across the front of the wearer’s torso from one side of the pelvic region to the shoulder on the opposite side.

Lap seatbelt

means a seatbelt that passes solely across the front of the wearer’s pelvic region.

Lifting gear

in relation to a vehicle recovery service vehicle, means any equipment used to lift another vehicle, and includes towing attachments.

Light (motor) vehicle

means a motor vehicle that is:

(a) of group A or L, or of class MA, MB, MC, MD1, MD2, NA, TA or TB, or

(b) a vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction with a gross vehicle mass of 3500kg or less.

Light output

means the intensity or brightness of light emitted from lighting equipment per unit area in a given direction.

Light passenger service vehicle (light PSV)

means a passenger service vehicle whose gross vehicle mass is 3500kg or less.

Light source

means a device that emits light, including an incandescent or fluorescent light bulb, with each filament in an incandescent bulb having multiple filaments deemed to be a separate light source.

Light trailer

means a trailer that has a gross vehicle mass of 3500 kg or less.

Lighting equipment

means equipment designed both to emit or reflect light and to be fitted to a vehicle, and includes a reflector and reflective material.

Lighting equipment endorsement

means an endorsement, relating to lighting equipment on historic vehicles, on a valid Vehicle Identity Card issued by the Vintage Car Club of New Zealand (Inc.).

Load

includes part of a load, and:

(a) includes covers, ropes, ties, blocks, tackles, barrows or other equipment or objects used in the securing or containing of a load on a vehicle or the loading or unloading of a vehicle, whether or not any other load is on the vehicle, and

(b) does not include animal wastes discharged from animals being carried on a vehicle at the time.

Load anchorage point

means a device permanently attached to a vehicle to enable a load to be secured or attached to the vehicle.

Load rating

means the maximum force that can be withstood without incurring any loss of structural capacity.

Load securing equipment

means equipment or a device permanently fitted to a vehicle to secure, either by itself or in conjunction with other equipment or devices such as lashings, a load to a vehicle.

Load-sharing axle set

means an axle set suspension system that has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the set and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if

(a) the load were divided in the axle set so that each tyre carries an equal load, or

(b)

the axle set is a tandem axle set comprising a twin-tyred axle and a single large-tyred axle and is built to divide the load between the tyres on the set so that

i. 60% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 40% of the load is borne by the single large-tyred axle, or

ii. 55% of the load is borne by the twin-tyred axle and 45% of the load is borne by the single large-tyred axle.

Logging bolster

means a vertically orientated member attached to a vehicle that is used to secure loads of timber logs.

Logging truck

means a heavy motor vehicle designed and used principally for transporting logs.

Logging vehicle

means a vehicle that is constructed exclusively for transporting timber logs using permanently fitted log bolsters.

Low volume vehicle

means a make and model of a vehicle of a class other than MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC and TD, that is:

(a) manufactured, assembled, or scratch-built in quantities of 500 or less in any one year, and where the construction of the vehicle may directly or indirectly affect compliance of the vehicle with any of the vehicle standards prescribed by New Zealand law, or

(b) modified uniquely, or in quantities of 500 or less in any one year, in such a way that compliance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment with a legal requirement relating to safety performance applicable at the time of the modification may be affected.

Low Volume Vehicle Code

means the code of the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association Incorporated (LVVTA).

Low volume vehicle plate, label or authority card

means a plate, label or authority card issued in accordance with the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

Low volume vehicle specialist inspection and certification

means specialist inspection and certification of a light vehicle as specified in the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

LPG

means liquefied petroleum gas.

LVV

means low volume vehicle.

LVVTA

means the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association. The LVVTA administers the Low Volume Vehicle Code.

Main-beam headlamp

means a headlamp designed to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of a vehicle.

Manufacturer’s operating limits

means:

(a) in relation to a motor vehicle, the allowance provided by the vehicle manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to deterioration, malfunction or damage beyond which the safe performance of the vehicle, as defined by the vehicle manufacturer, is compromised, and

(b) in relation to a system, component or item of equipment, incorporated in or attached to a vehicle, the allowance provided by the system, component or equipment manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to the deterioration, malfunction or damage, beyond which the safe performance of the system, component or item of equipment (and consequently the vehicle) is compromised.

Maximum towed mass

means the maximum permitted mass of all vehicles that may be towed behind a vehicle as determined by the manufacturer of the towing vehicle and approved by the NZTA.

Middle seating position

means a seating position in a vehicle that is not an outer seating position.

Military trailer

means a trailer that is used exclusively as equipment of the New Zealand Defence Force.

Mobile crane

means a non-load carrying self-propelled vehicle designed solely or principally for lifting objects using a boom with lifting gear.

Modify

in relation to a vehicle, means to change the vehicle structure from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment, but does not include repair.

Monocoque

in relation to a motor vehicle, means that the chassis of the vehicle is integral to the body.

Motor vehicle

means a vehicle drawn or propelled by mechanical power, and includes a trailer, but does not include:

(a) a vehicle running on rails

(b) a trailer (other than a trailer designed solely for the carriage of goods) that is designed and used exclusively as part of the armament of the New Zealand Defence Force

(c) a trailer running on one wheel and designed exclusively as a speed measuring device or for testing the wear of vehicle tyres

(d) a vehicle designed for amusement purposes and used exclusively within a place of recreation, amusement or entertainment to which the public does not have access with motor vehicles

(e) a pedestrian-controlled machine

(f) a vehicle that the NZTA has declared is not a motor vehicle under section 168A of the Land Transport Act 1998

(g) a mobility device.

Motorcycle

means a motor vehicle running on 2 wheels, or not more than 3 wheels when fitted with a sidecar, and includes a vehicle with motorcycle controls that is approved as a motorcycle by the NZTA, but does not include a moped.

Motorhome

in relation to seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages only, means a motor vehicle, other than a trailer, that is permanently equipped with features intended to make the vehicle suitable as a dwelling place, and must include at least one sleeping berth and one table, both of which may be of a design that allows them to be retracted or folded away.

Mudguard

means a fitting, inclusive of any portion of the vehicle and of any mudflaps attached, that serves to intercept material thrown up by a wheel more or less in the plane of the wheel.

Multiple-sensitive emergency-locking retractor

means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the strap to the wearer, and that is activated by two or more of the following:

(a) deceleration of the vehicle (ie vehicle sensitive), or

(b) acceleration of the strap from the retractor (ie web-sensitive), or

(c) other means of activation.

Non-steering axle

means any axle of a vehicle the wheels of which remain substantailly parallel with the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle while the vehicle is turning.

Normal braking

means the level of braking applied to a vehicle that does not lock any of the vehicle’s wheels and permits the vehicle to decelerate without adversely affecting directional control.

Notice of appointmentmeans the notice by which the Transport Agency appoints an inspecting organisation under the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 to carry out specified inspection and certification activities at specified sites. The appointment is subject to certain specified requirements and conditions, including compliance with the requirements contained in this manual [the VIRM].

NZTA

means the New Zealand Transport Agency

Occupant

in relation to a PSV, means a passenger or a member of the crew, whether seated or standing.

Open-bodied vehicle

means a PSV which is not fully enclosed by a permanent body structure.

Operate

in relation to a vehicle, means to drive or use the vehicle on a road, or to cause or permit the vehicle to be on a road or to be driven on a road, whether or not the person is present with the vehicle.

Operation in service

in relation to a vehicle, means to be operated on the road in New Zealand after having been registered in compliance with requirements in the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Original equipment (OE)

(unless stated otherwise elsewhere in this manual) means equipment that is fitted by the vehicle manufacturer when the vehicle is manufactured, or equipment that is approved by the vehicle manufacturer for use in a specific vehicle type for a specific purpose or as a replacement for the original equipment.

Oscillating Axle

means any axle that complies with the following provisions:

(a) the axle has four wheels and four or eight tyres attached to it, consisting of two pairs of wheels, and

(b) each of the pair of wheels is mounted on a separate axle affixed to the vehicle so as to share the load equally between the two wheels and to permit oscillation of the separate axles in a vertical transverse plane which is at right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the vehicle, and

(c) the centre of each such wheel is at least 500mm distant from the centre of every other wheel fitted to the motor vehicle.

Outdoor-access vehicle

means a PSV that is used to provide access to remote areas solely in connection with outdoor activities.

Outer seating position

means a seating position next to a side wall of the vehicle where there is no more than 500mm between the longitudinal centre of the seat and the side wall.

Outrigger

in relation to a vehicle that is fitted with a crane or hoist, means a device fitted to the vehicle that extends and stabilises the vehicle while the crane or hoist is in use.

Overall length

means the length of a vehicle or vehicle combination measured in a straight line, and includes:

(a) the length of any load, and

(b) the length of the drawbar in a fully extended horizontal straight ahead position measured to the towing eye centre of a full trailer when measured on its own.

Overall visible light transmittance

is the visible light transmittance (VLT) of glazing including any overlays that are applied to the glazing.

Overlay

means a transparent, translucent or opaque self-adhesive or clinging film that is applied to large areas, or the entirety, of a piece of glazing for purposes such as, but not limited to, reduction of ultraviolet, infrared or visible light transmission, advertising, identification, information, protection or for aesthetic reasons, and includes:

(a) an anti-glare band overlay, and

(b) a stoneguard overlay, and

(c) a sticker of a size that cannot be wholly contained within the limits relating to the location and size of stickers on a particular piece of glazing, depending on the location of that piece of glazing on the vehicle.

Parking brake

means a brake that is designed for keeping the vehicle stationary, and that is readily applicable and capable of remaining applied for an indefinite period without further attention.

Passenger

means a person travelling in a vehicle but does not include the crew.

Passenger service

means the carriage of passengers on any road for hire or reward by means of a motor vehicle, and includes the letting on hire of a vehicle by a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle if, during the hiring, the vehicle is used for the carriage of passengers.

Passenger service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a passenger service.

Passenger service vehicle (PSV)

means:

(a) a motor vehicle used or available for use in a passenger service for the carriage of passengers, or

(b) a motor vehicle with more than 12 seating positions, or

(c) a heavy motor vehicle with more than nine seating positions.

Note The following vehicles are not required to comply with the Passenger Service Vehicles Rule requirements contained in the light PSV and heavy PSV VIRM pages:

(a) vehicles exempted from the transport service licensing requirements

(b) ambulances designed to carry recumbent patients

(c) vehicles designed or modified for lawfully-detained persons

(d) NZ Defence Force dual purpose trucks with removable seating (eg some NZ Army Pinzgauers)

(e) NZ Defence Force armoured vehicles

(f) Vehicles registered under the Amusement Devices Regulations 1978 that are either used in venture tourism or that are trailers designed, constructed and permitted to be drawn at a maximum speed of 50 km/h or less

(g) Motorcycles and motorcycles with side cars.

Passenger vehicle

means a motor vehicle constructed primarily for the carriage of passengers.

Permanent structure

means a non-removable structure capable of sustaining loads associated with seatbelts and seatbelt anchorages.

Pivot steer vehicle

means a vehicle with a chassis that is split into two dependent parts that are connected by a permanent steering pivot.

Pneumatic tyre

means a tyre that, when in use, is inflated by air or gas introduced from time to time under pressure so as to enclose under normal inflation a cushion of air or gas forming altogether at least half of the total area of an average cross-section of a tyre so inflated.

Pole trailer

means a trailer that is attached to a towing vehicle by a telescoping or sliding pole, and is designed to support a common long load spanning between the trailer and the towing vehicle.

Position lamp

means a low-intensity lamp that is designed to indicate to road users the presence and dimensions of a vehicle, being:

(a) a forward-facing position lamp, or

(b) a rearward-facing position lamp, or

(c) a side-marker lamp, or

(d) an end-outline marker lamp.

PRS manual

means the Performance review system manual.

QMSmeans quality management system which replaces the old performance review system (PRS)

Quad-axle set

means a set of four axles, where:

(a) the centres of the first and fourth axles are spaced not less than 3.75m and not more than 4m apart, and

(b) all axles contain an equal number of tyres, and

(c) none of the axles is a single standard-tyred axle.

Radial-ply

means a pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords, which extend from bead to bead, are laid at approximately 90 degrees to the centreline of the tread, the carcass being stabilised by an essentially inextensible circumferential belt.

Re-enter service

in relation to a vehicle previously certified for entry into service on the road in New Zealand that has been de-registered, means to begin to be operated in service again.

Rear axis

(a) in relation to a vehicle with only one non-steering axle, means that axle

(b) in relation to a vehicle with a non-steering axle set of two axles, means

i. midway between those axles, if each axle has an equal number of tyres on it

ii. two-thirds of the distance from the lesser-tyred axle towards the greater-tyred axle, if one axle has twice as many tyres on it as the other axle

(c) in relation to a vehicle with a non-steering tri-axle set or a non-steering quad-axle set, or an overdimension vehicle with more than three axles, means midway between the extreme axles of the set

(d) except as specified in (e) below, in relation to a vehicle whose rear axle set includes one or more steerable axles in conjunction with one or more non-steering axles, means midway between the extreme non-steering axles of the set

(e) in relation to a semi-trailer with two non-steering axles at the front and two steering axles at the rear, means the centre line of the second non-steering axle

(f) in relation to a vehicle whose rear axle set includes one or more retracted axles in conjunction with one or more non-retracted axles, means midway between the extreme non-retracted axles of the set

(g) in relation to a vehicle that does not have an axle arrangement that is in paragraphs (a) to (f), means a position determined by the NZTA.

Rear fog lamp

means a fog lamp designed to indicate to road users the presence of the rear of the vehicle.

Rear overhang

(a) for pole trailers transporting a long load, means the distance from the rear axis or centre of the bolster to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is greater

(b) for all other vehicles, means the distance from the rear axis to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is the greater.

Rear-registration-plate illumination lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the rear registration plate of a motor vehicle.

Rear seating position

means a seating position in a vehicle behind the driver.

Rear trailing unit distance

means the maximum distance from the centre of the fifth wheel or tow coupling on the towing vehicle to the rear of the combination.

Record of determination

means a record, in paper or electronic form, that a vehicle or specific aspect of a vehicle complies or does not comply with applicable requirements.

Reflective material

means any material that reflects incident light back towards the light source or in a specific direction, but does not include a reflector.

Reflector

means a distinct item of lighting equipment that is designed to reflect incident light back towards the light source, but does not include retroreflective material.

Registered

in relation to a vehicle, means registered under the Transport (Vehicle and Driver Registration and Licensing) Act 1986.

Rental service

means the letting of a motor vehicle on hire for the carriage of passengers (including the driver) or of goods, or both, to a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle.

Rental service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a rental service.

Rental service vehicle

means a vehicle used or available for use in a rental service for letting on hire for the carriage of passengers or goods, or both, to a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle.

Repair

means to restore a damaged or worn motor vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment, and includes the replacement of damaged or worn structures, systems, components or equipment with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.

Retarder

means a device permanently fitted to a vehicle to provide, when applied, a continuous braking effort not generated by a brake.

Retractable axle

means an axle that has a convenient adjustment to allow the axle load distribution of the axle set to be varied substantially. An axle that is retracted is not considered to be part of the axle set.

Retractor

means a device to accommodate parts, or all, of the webbing of a seatbelt.

Retrofit

in relation to a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a motor vehicle, means to fit a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage in a location where a seatbelt or seatbelt anchorage has not been fitted before.

Reversing lamp

means a lamp designed to illuminate the area behind a vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

Rigid vehicle

means a vehicle that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the chassis of the vehicle to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the chassis of the vehicle, and includes an articulated bus and a pivot steer vehicle.

Rim

means that part of the wheel on which the tyre is mounted and supported.

Rule

means Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.

Safe tolerance

means the tolerance within which the safe performance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment is not compromised, having regard to any manufacturer’s operating limits.

Scene lamp

means a work lamp designed to provide a fixed or moveable beam of light to illuminate the area around a vehicle, or the vehicle itself.

Seat

means an assembly, or part of an assembly, intended to seat at least one person, which may or may not be integral to the structure of the vehicle.

Seat anchorage

means the parts of the vehicle structure to which a seat is attached.

Seatbelt

means an assembly of straps made of webbing or metal with a securing buckle, adjusting devices and attachments, including any device for absorbing energy or for retracting the webbing, that:

(a) is able to be anchored to the interior of a vehicle, and

(b) is designed to diminish the risk of injury to its wearer in the event of a collision or abrupt deceleration of the vehicle by limiting the mobility of the wearer’s body.

Seatbelt anchorage

means the parts of the vehicle structure, seat structure or any other part of the vehicle to which a seatbelt assembly is attached.

Seating position

means a seat or part of a seat that is of a suitable size and shape for one person.

Semi-trailer

means a trailer with only one axle set where the point of attachment to the towing vehicle or leading trailer:

(a) is no further rearward than the rearmost axle of the towing vehicle or rearmost axle of the leading trailer, or

(b) if the towing vehicle is a rigid vehicle and has more than one axle in its rear axle set, is no more than 300mm rearward of the rear axis of the towing vehicle.

Service brake

means a brake for intermittent use that is normally used to slow down and stop a vehicle.

Shuttle service

means a passenger service carried on by means of a shuttle or shuttles.

Side-marker lamp

means a position lamp designed to be fitted to the side of a vehicle or its load.

Sideboard

means the substantially vertical part of the side of a flat deck body of a vehicle.

Simple trailer

means a trailer (other than a semi-trailer) that has only one axle set.

Single-axle set

means either one axle or two axles having their centres spaced less than 1m apart.

Single large-tyred axle

means a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is 355mm or more but less than 444mm.

Single mega-tyres axlemeans a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is 444mm or more.

Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor

means a seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, does not restrict the freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length adjusting components that automatically adjust the seatbelt to the wearer, and that comprises a locking mechanism activated in an emergency by deceleration of the vehicle.

Single standard-tyred axle

means a single-tyred axle where the manufacturer’s designated tyre section width is less than 355mm.

Single-tyred axle

means any axle fitted with two or more wheels, but which is neither an oscillating axle nor a twin-tyred axle.

Skid plate

means the plate stucture forming part of the semi-trailer that houses the kingpin and that mounts on the coupler plate to form the connection between the towing vehicle and the semi-trailer.

Small PSVmeans a passenger service vehicle, used or available for use in a passenger service for the carriage of passengers, that is designed or adapted to carry 12 or fewer persons (including the driver).

Specialist inspection and certification

means inspection and certification of a specific aspect of a vehicle.

Specialist seatbelt

means a seatbelt that is designed for specialist purposes, and includes a full harness seatbelt used for motor sport activities.

Specific purpose

in relation to the modification of a motor vehicle, includes, but is not limited to, a modification for motor sport activities and for a person with a disability.

Speedometer

means an instrument in a motor vehicle that continuously indicates to the driver the forward speed of the vehicle in either kilometres per hour or miles per hour.

Static Roll Threshold (SRT)

means the maximum level of steady turning lateral acceleration a vehicle can tolerate without rolling over, which is expressed as a proportion of ‘g’ where ‘g’ is the acceleration constant due to gravity (9.81 m/s/s).

Steering axle

means the axle of a vehicle where the wheels can turn at an angle to the centreline of the vehicle.

Steering system

means those components, parts and systems that connect the driver’s controls to the vehicle’s wheels or tracks by means of which the direction of motion of a vehicle is controlled.

Sticker

in relation to glazing, means a self-adhesive or clinging film, with or without print on it, that is applied for purposes such as, but not limited to, advertising, identification, information, or for aesthetic or legal reasons.

Stinger lift truck

means a vehicle recovery service vehicle with an arm that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.

Stockcrate

means a container designed for transporting livestock, which can be secured to a vehicle.

Stockcrate retention device

means one or more restraining devices or lashings designed to facilitate the attachment of the stockcrate to the deck or chassis of a vehicle.

Stoneguard overlay

means a clear overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the bottom edge of the windscreen for the purpose of preventing damage to the windscreen from stones and other debris thrown up by other vehicles.

Straddle truck

means a powered vehicle that transports a load beneath its chassis and between its wheels.

Stretch limousine

means a saloon-type motor vehicle that has been modified to increase the standard wheelbase by the insertion of a structure of a significant length whose cross-section conforms to that of the passenger compartment.

Sun visor

means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.

Supply line

means the part of a brake circuit that supplies energy in the form of compressed air or in any other suitable form from the towing vehicle to the towed vehicle.

Suspension system

means a system that allows controlled and limited movement of an axle relative to the chassis or body of a vehicle, and includes a spring and damping system and any associated controls.

Swept path

means the maximum road width required by a vehicle when it negotiates a turn.

Symmetric dipped-beam headlamp

means a dipped-beam headlamp that is not an asymmetric dipped-beam headlamp.

Tailboard

means the substantially vertical part of the rear end of a flat deck or curtain-sided body of a vehicle.

Tandem axle set

means an axle set of two axles having their centres spaced not less than 1m and not more than 2m apart.

Temporary permit (or 28-day permit)

means inspection and certification document that confirms that a determination has been made that the vehicle is safe to be operated under specified conditions. This permit may be used only for CoF vehicles.

Temporary-use spare tyre

means a combination tyre and wheel designed and constructed solely for temporary use under restricted driving conditions, and not intended for use under normal driving conditions. (Commonly known as a ‘space-saver tyre’.)

Three-point linkage

means, for a tractor or agricultural trailer, a towing connection that has three points of attachment.

Threshold pressure

for an axle of an air-braked vehicle, means the pressure measured at the control line of the brake coupling when a braking effect on the axle begins.

Towbar

means the part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling for a light trailer is connected.

Towing connection

means the combination of components that enables one vehicle to tow or be towed by another vehicle, and includes a towbar, drawbar, drawbeam and coupling.

Towing vehicle

means a rigid vehicle that tows a trailer or other motor vehicle.

Tractor

means a motor vehicle (not being a traction engine) designed exclusively for traction at speeds not exceeding 50km/h (Note: See also definition for agricultural tractor).

Trailer

means a vehicle without motive power that is capable of being drawn or propelled by a motor vehicle from which it is readily detachable, but does not include

(a) a sidecar attached to a motorcycle, or

(b) a vehicle normally propelled by mechanical power while it is being temporarily towed without the use of its own power.

Trailer brake hand control

means a hand-operated control capable of applying the service brake of the trailer or trailers.

Transmission

in relation to a motor vehicle, means the gearing system and related components, including a driveshaft, by which power is transmitted from the flywheel or the engine output shaft to the input shafts of the powered axles.

Transport Agencymeans the NZ Transport Agency

Transport service licence

means any of the following licences granted by the NZTA:

(a) a goods service licence

(b) a passenger service licence

(c) a rental service licence

(d) a vehicle recovery service licence.

TRC

means the Transport Registry Centre of the NZTA.

Tri-axle set

means a set of three axles, where

(a) the centres of the first and third axles are spaced not less than 2m and not more than 3m apart, and

(b) all axles contain an equal number of tyres, and

(c) none of the axles is a single standard-tyred axle.

Tube

means an inflatable elastic liner, in the form of a hollow ring fitted with an inflation valve assembly, designed for insertion into certain tyre assemblies to provide a cushion of air or gas, that, when inflated, supports the wheel. (Also known as an ‘inner tube’.)

Twin-steer axle set

means an axle set of two axles with single tyres, where both axles are connected to the same mechanism in order to steer similarly.

Twin-tyred axle

means any axle, not being an oscillating axle, that has a wheel track of 1.3m or more and is equipped with four or more tyres.

Two-point linkage

means, for an agricultural trailer, a towing connection that has two points of attachment.

Tyre carcass

means that structural part of a pneumatic tyre other than the tread and outermost rubber of the sidewalls that, when inflated, contains the gas that supports the load.

Tyre load rating

means the maximum load a tyre can carry at the corresponding cold inflation pressure prescribed by the tyre manufacturer and the speed indicated by its speed category symbol.

Tyre pressure control system

means a system designed to maintain, monitor or vary tyre pressure while the vehicle is in operation.

Tyre rolling radius

means the distance from the centre of the wheel to the road.

Tyre tread

means the portion of a tyre that contacts the road.

Unclassified (motor) vehicle

In relation to lighting, means a motor vehicle not listed under 3.2 of the Introduction.

Unladen mass (or tare weight)

in relation to a vehicle, means the mass of the vehicle together with the fuel in its fuel system (if any) and the equipment and accessories on it that are necessary for its operation for the purpose for which it was designed.

Valid

in relation to a VIN, means capable of being decoded to provide information about the vehicle, from a unique number that has been assigned to the vehicle in the vehicle’s country of origin or by a person appointed by the NZTA.

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)

means a group of letters and numbers, consisting of 17 characters, that is affixed to the vehicle and that complies with the requirements of one of the following

(a) ISO 3779, or

(b) Australian Design Rule 61/01, or

(c) Chapter 565 of the Code of Federal Regulations 49.

The VIN can be decoded to provide identifying information about the vehicle.

Vehicle inspector

means an individual appointed by the NZTA to carry out inspection and certification activities in accordance with requirements and conditions imposed by the NZTA.

Vehicle recovery service

means the towing or carrying on any road of a motor vehicle, irrespective of the size or design of the towing or carrying vehicle, and whether or not the towing or carrying of the vehicle is carried out by a person intending to carry out repairs on the vehicle.

Vehicle recovery service licence

means a transport service licence granted by the NZTA that authorises its holder to carry on a vehicle recovery service.

Vehicle recovery service vehicle

means a vehicle used or available for use in a vehicle recovery service for towing or carrying on a road any motor vehicle.

VIN issuing agentmeans an inspecting organisation approved to issue VIN numbers (VTNZ, VINZ, AA and some other independent inspecting organisations also approved to carry out entry inspections).
VIRMmeans vehicle inspection requirements manual

Visible light transmittance (VLT)

is the proportion of visible light that passes through glazing, measured perpendicular to the glazing.

Warrant of fitness (WoF)

means evidence of vehicle inspection issued to a vehicle listed under 3.3.2 of the Introduction.

Warrant of fitness inspection and certification

means periodic in-service inspection and certification of a vehicle listed under 3.3.2 of the Introduction.

Wheel

means a rotating load-carrying member between the tyre and the hub, which usually consists of two major parts, the rim and the wheel disc, and which may be manufactured as one part, or permanently attached to each other or detachable from each other and, where relevant, includes the tyre fitted to the rim.

Wheel centre-disc

means that part of the wheel that is the supporting member between the hub and the rim.

Wheel spacer

means an additional component used for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to the hub, or in multiple wheel sets, for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to another wheel.

Wheel track

means the distance between the centres of the left-side and right-side wheels of a pair of wheels.

Wheelbase

means the distance from a vehicle’s rear axis to its front axis.

Windscreen

means all glazing extending across the front of a vehicle that is not parallel to the vehicle’s longitudinal centreline, but does not include a wind deflector.

Wire glass

means glass that incorporates reinforcing wire mesh. This glass is sometimes fitted to dangerous goods vehicles and is not usually marked.

Work lamp

means a high-intensity lamp, which is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate a work area or scene, and includes:

(a) a scene lamp, and

(b) a spot lamp, and

(c) an alley lamp.

Page amended 1 March 2016 (see amendment details).